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dydde neareste approache untoe itte was Letter to Richard Cowley.
Your trewe Freyode,
The following advertisement is fixed to the
MS of Lear.
TRAGEDY OF KYNGE LEARB
will notte I truste be blammedde bye Stille doth the leave her wealth behynde mye gentle readerres. She neere the hearte cann forme anew
WM SHAKESPEARE, Nor make thye Willy's love untrue Though age with wither'd hand does
Note of Hand. ftryke
One moneth from the date hereof I The forme most fayre the face mofte
doe Still doth she leave untouchede ande trewe
promyse to paye to my good and Thy Willy's love and freyndihyppe too
worthye freyende John Hemynge the Though 'deathe with neverre faylinge sum of five pounds and five shillings blow
(lowe English monye as a recompense for his Dothe manne and babe alike brynge greate trouble in settling and doinge Yette dothe he take naughtebutte hys due much for me at the globe theatre as alAndtrikes notte Willy's hearte ftill trewe so for hys trouble in goinn for me to Since thenne porre foretune death norre
Stratford. Witness my hand age
WM SHAKESPERE. Canne faithfulle Willy's love afswage Thenne doe I live and dye forre you September [Here the name is Thy Willye fincere and most trewe. the Nynth 1589.
spelled without the second a.]
ACCOUNT OF THE CINNAMON TREE, THE superfine cinnamon is known these characteristics, the coarser and less by the following properties, viz. in the serviceable it is esteemed; as for jostance, first place, it is thin, and rather pliable; in the first place, if it be hard and as it ought commonly to be about the sub- thick as a half-crown piece ; secondly, Aance of royal paper, or somewhat if it be very dark or brown : thirdly, if it thicker. Secondly, it is of a light be very pungeot and hot upon tongue, colour, and rather inclinable to yellow, with a talte bordering upon that of bordering but little upon the brown, cloves, so that one cannot suffer it with
Thirdly, it possesses a sweetish taste, out pain, and so that the mucus upon - anda the same time is not stronger the tongue is consumed by it, when one
than can be born without pain, and is makes several trials of it: fourthly, if it e nos fucceeded by any after-taste. has any after-taste, such as to be harsh,
The more the cinnamon departs from bitter, or mucilaginous.
Such are the forts of cinnamon, when ing. This is likewise a variety of the they are selected from the store-houses, Laurus Cinnamomum. and forted for exportation ; but the 6. Dawul Curundu, that is flat, or barkers, who examine the cinnamon board Cinnamon ; which name it bears, trees in the woods, and strip off the because the bark, in drying, does not bark, speak of more, and different forts roll itself up together, but remains flat. of cinnamon, the leaves of which, in This fort is from the Laurus Caffa. their external appearence, bear some re 7. Nica Curundu, i. e. Cinnamon semblance to each other, and are not with leaves which refemble the Nicacol, all used indiscriminately for barking, or Vitex negundo, viz. in being lancebut are picked and pointed out by those clate, or longand narrow. This seems that are judges of the matter. These to be a variety of the Laurus Camphora cinnamon-barkers are called in the Bifides these seven forts, they yet Cingalese language Schjalias.
reckon three more, which obviously The sorts of cinnamon which the differ from the genuine Cinnamon. Schjalias reckon, are the following ten: And indeed one may immediately see,
1. Ralic Curundu, or Penni Curundu, that they can in no wise with justice be i. e. Honey-Cinnamon, which is the reckoned among the cinnamon trees. best and most agreeable, and has large, Of these I have seen one fort only, viz. broad, and thick leaves.
the Thorn Cinnamon : the other forts 2. Nai Curundu, or Snake-Cinnamon are very rare, and are found only in the (Slange-Cauel), which approaches near. Emperor's domains. est to the former, in deliciousness of 8. Catura Curundu, i. e. Thorn- ; flavour, (altough it does not absolutely Cinnamon (Doru Canel) : this is of a arrive at the same degree) and has also quite different genus from the Laurus, Jarge leaves.
and the bark has not the least taste of 3: Capuru Curundu, or Camphor- Cinnamon. The leaves bear no Cinnamon; this fort is only to be found semblance to the Laurus, and the bran. in the King's lands, and from its root ches have thorns (Jpina) upon them. camphor is dililled.
9. Mal Curundu, or Bloom-Cinna-c: 4. Cabatte Curundu, that is, aftringent mon, and or auftere Cinnamon ; it has rather 10. Tompat Curundu, i. e. TrefoilImaller leaves than the former forts. Cinnamon : because the leaves are said These four forts, which are altogether to divide towards the top into three from one and the same species of Laurus laciniæ. Cinnamomum, are nothing more than Cinnamon is barked in the woods at varieties, nearly resembling each other, two different seasons of the year. The which are distinguished by the Schjalias first is termed the Grand Harves, and merely by the taste, and are the only lasts from April to August ; the second ones, which ought to be barked, and is the Small Harvest, and lasts from indeed can be barked, for good cinna- November to the month of January. mon.
It is in the woods on the Company's The following forts, on the cther own domains, that the Sehjalias seek hand, are never barked at all : and peel the cinnamon bark ; although
5. Sevel Curundu, that is, mucilagi. it sometimes happers that they steal into nous Cinnamon, the bark of which, when the Emperor's woods, and at times go chewed, has a mucous slimy after-taste, as far as within half a league of Candi, like a mucilage. The bark of this is in order to fetch it ; but if they chance soft, and of a fibrous or stringy texture, in the latter case to be discovered and not fo compact nor firm as that of taken, they must expect to have their the others : it is likewise tough, and nose and ears cut off. bends easily, without immediately break Each district or hamlet in the Com
any's dominions, is bound to bark and divided among several. The Schjalias :raith yearly a certain ftated quantity afterwards deliver the cinnamon into
cinnamon; whereas the Cingalele store-houses, erected in several places by the have a certain portion of land the Company for that purpose, whither free, to cultivate and inhabit, with it is either carried by porters, or, where 7243 privileges. Over a certain num- there are any rivers, transported by
Schjalias are placed other fuperior boats, Each bundle is at this time árs, who have the inspection over bound round with three fender rattans, and the cinnamon, and are like- and weighs about thirty pounds. In
? authorized to punish small offences. the store-houses these bundles are laid "'s all together is placed a European, up in heaps, a separate heap for each ro is called their Captain (Hoofd der village, and covered with baften mars. Whabadide), or frequently in common When the ships are afterwards ready vurde, Captain Cinnamon, who re to take in their lading of cinnamon, it cores and is answerable to the Com- is packed up, after having previously Iv for all the cinnamon. He is like- undergone an examination. Each she reted with zu hority to try and bundle is then made nearly of the length part offcaces of a deeper die. of four feet, and is weighed off to eighty
The bal king of cinnamon is perform- five pounds neat: although it is aftered in the following manner : First, a wards marked and reckoned for only gad cinnamon tree is looked out for, eighty pounds ; so that five pounds are e chosen by the leaves and other allowed for loss by drying during the Caracteristics : those branches which voyage. Subsequently to its being well 20 three years old are lopped off with secured and tied hard round with cords, a common crooked pruning knife. the bundle is afterwards sewed up in Secondly, from the twigs that have been two facks, the one with the other, on spoed off, the outside pellicle (poio which latter are marked its weight and dermis) of the bark is scraped off with the place where it was packed up. another knife, which is convex on oneThese facks ought not to be made of ezze, and concare on the other, with a fail-cloth, or linen, but of wool, or such Arap point at the end, and sharp at as in India bear the name of Gunjesakken,
Thirdly, After the bark from which the cinnamon receives no 1s beca icraped, the twigs are ripped injury in the transportation. up long ways with the point of the knife, From the store-houses the facks of and the bark gradually loosened from cinnamon are carried to the ships, and tem with the convex edge of the knife after they have been stowed in there
is can be entirely taken off. Fourth- with other goods, loose black pepper is by the bark being peeled off, is gather. sprinkled over them, to Gll up every ed up together, several smaller tubs or hole and interstice. The pepper,
which 9.5 of it are inserted into the larger, is of a dry and hot quality, attracts to od thus spread out to dry, when itself, during the voyage, the moisture the bark of its own accord rolls it. of the cinnamon, aod has been found,
Nill closer together, and is then by these means, not only to preserve the sed up in bundles, and finally carried cinnamon in its original goodness, but . All these offices are not perform even to increase the strength. ed by one single man, but the labour is From Thunberg's Travels, AN ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF THE CAPE OF
GOOD HOPE. DURING the course of the fifteenth table globe, than in all the ages that had certcry, mankind made a greater pro. elapsed prior to that period. The spirit grada in exploring the state of the habi- of discovery, feeble at firit and cautious,
104 Account of the Discovery of the Cape of Good Hope. moved within a very narrow sphere, and ter him from prosecuting his enterprize. made its efforts with timidity and hesi. In recompence of his labours and pertation. Encouraged by success, it be- severance, he at last descried that lofty came adventurous, and boldly extended promontory which bounds Africa on the its operations. In the courfe of its pro- fouth ; but, to descry it, was all that gression, it continued to acquire vigour, he had in his power to accomplish. The and advanced, at length, with a rapi- violence of the winds, the shattered con- ; dity and force, that burst through all dition of his ships, and the turbulent the limits within which ignorance and spirit of his failors, compelled him to fear had hitherto circumscribed the ac- return, after a voyage of lixteen months, i tivity of the human race. Almost fifty in which he discovered a far greater exyears were employed by the Portuguese tent of territory than any former naviga- , in creeping along the coast of Africa, tor. Diaz called this promontory Cabo from Cape Non, which is in 90° 40 Tormentoso, or The Stormy Cape; but north latitude (and which they doubled his sovereign, John Il. as he now enin the year 1412) to Cape de Verd, tertained no doubt of having found the whieh lies only twelve degrees to the long-desired route to India, gave it a South of Cape Non. In less than thir. name more inviting, and of better omen, ty years, they ventured beyond the equi- The Cape of Good Hope. noátial line into another hemisphere, No advantage, however, was attemptand penetrated to the southern extremity ed to be made of this great discovery, of Africa, at the distance of forty-nine till the year 1497, when King Emmadegrees from Cape de Verd.
nuel, who inherited the enterprising geThe grand object which the Portu- nius of his predecessors, revived their guese had in view, in their repeated ef. grand scheme of opening a passage to the forts to extend their discoveries along East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, the African shore, was to find a direct and, foon after his accession to the route to India by fea. The discovery throne, equipped a squadron for that of the Cape of Good Hope (which is important voyage. He gave the comthe southern extremity of Africa, 34° mand of it to Vasco de Gama, a man 29 south of the equinoctial line) ac- of noble birth, possessed of virtue, prucomplished this important object, and dence, and courage, equal to the station. produced a signal revolution in the com- His squadron, like all those fitted out? mercial transactions of the Europeans. for discovery, in the infancy of navigaThis great event took place in 1486. tion, was extremely feeble, consisting The conduct of the voyage for this pur- of three vessels only, of neither burden pofe (the most arduous and important nor force adequate to the service. As which the Portuguese had ever project- the Europeans were, at that time, but ed) was committed to Bartholomew little acquainted with the course of the Daz; an officer, whose fagacity, ex- trade winds, and periodical monsoons, perience, and fortitude, rendered him which render navigation in the Atlantic equal to the undertaking. He stretched ocean, as well as in the sea that fepaboldly toward the south, and, proceed- rates Africa from India, at some seasons ing beyond the utmost limits to which easy, and at others not only dangerous, his countrymen had hitherto advanced, but almost impracticable, the time apdiscovered near a thousand miles of new pointed for Gama's departure was the country. Neither the danger to which most improper of any during the whole he was exposed, by a succession of vio- year. He fet sail from Lisbon on the lent tempests in unknown feas, and by 9th of July 1497, and, standing toward the frequent mutinies of his crew, nor the south, had to struggle for four months the calamities of famine which he suffer- with contrary winds, before he could ed from losing his store-lhip, could do reach the Cape of Good Hope. Here
their violence began to abate ; and, du Notwithstanding the extensive advanring an interval of calm weather, Gama tages which might have been supposed doubled that formidable promontory, to result from the possession of the Cape, which had so long been the boundary of no great attention was paid to it by the urigation, and directed his course to- Portuguese, and although the Dusch, ward the north-east
, along the African in 1600, began to trade there for procutHe touched at several port3, visions, and erected a fort for their owa 236, after various adventures, which safety, and the protection of their pur* Portuguese historians relate with chases, it was not till the year 1650, bain, but just encomiums, on his cou- that a proper settlement was formed. tage and intrepidity, he came to anchor Van Riebeck, furgeon of a ship that had before the city of Melinda. Several touched at the Cape for the usual pure retsels from India were then in that port. poses, observing the richness of the loil, Guma now pursued his voyage with al- the great plenty of cattle, the disposition molt absolute certainty of success, and, of the natives, and the importance of under the conduct of a Mahometan pilot, the situation and harbour, judged a seturived at Calicut, on the coast of Ma- tlement advisable, in order to facilitate, lzbar, on the 22d of May 1498; but, improve, and secure the East India trade. as he possessed neither sufficient force to Van Riebeck, on his return, laid beatempt a settlement, nor proper com- fore the Directors of the East India modiues with which to carry on com- Company, what he had digeited for the merce of any consequence, he hastened purpose. They concurred immediately back to Portugal, and landed at Lisbon, with his views ; ordered four hips to on the 14th of September 1499. be equipped for the expedition ; and
Thomson, describing the dreadful appointed him Admiral and Governor ftorms between the tropics, thus alludes in chief, with full powers to establish a to the pame first given to the Cape by settlement, in the manner he should Diaz, and to the subsequent voyage of judge most expedient. Gana:
He arrived safely at the Cape, and With such mad feas the daring Gama
sooner proposed, than concluded a fought,
treaty. The natives, delighted with the For many a day, and many a dreadful brass toys, beads, tobacco, and brandy, night,
which he presented to them, agreed that Inceffant, labouring round the Stormy the Dutch should have full liberty to setCape;
tle in the valley of Table Hill, upon the By bold ambition led, and bolder thirft delivery of a quantity of those toys and Oi gold. For then, from ancient gloom commodities, to the value of 50,000
emerg'd The riling world of trade : the genius, guilders. The Dutch immediately touk then,
possession of the Cape, which was sure Of navigation, that, in hopeless Noth, rendered to them with great folemnity; kał lumber'd on the vast Atlantic deep, a towo, fort, warehouss, an hospital, Tridle ages, ftarting, heard at last
&c. were erected ; and the colony, in Te Lusitanian prince *, who, heav'ninspir'd,
years, rose to be one of the most To love of useful glory rous'd mankind, respectable settlements which the Dutch And in unbounded commerce mix'd the poffesfed in any part of the globe ; meworld.
riting, in every respect, the praise it bas Summer, l. 1001-1012, received from the poet of the Ficece : • Don Henry, third fon to John I. King
Mon'motapa's coast d Portugal. His strong genius to the dif? Is seldom visited; and the rough fhore Corners of new countries, was the chief fource Of Cafres, land of favage Hottentots, e all the modern improvements in navigation. Whose hands unnatural halten to the grave