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Their aged parents; what barbarity Delectable in hulk or glosiy rind :
Dyer, b. 4. hope Of prosperous voyage, steer: rejoice to The recent capture of this important view,
place (See our Magazine for December, What trade, with Belgian industry,creates; p. 79+) must render this account of its Prospects of civil life, fair towns, and discovery and settlement particularly in.
lawns, And yellow tilth, and groves of various terelling to our readers.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF
CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 29. A. SHORT time before I left Lisbon 1 for ages, have fubfisted between the dined at a Spanish ordinary, near the two rival powers, it is probable that the convent of St Francis, in company with accounts we receive of the Portuguese a gentleman who was a native of Mal- through the medium of the Spaniards ta, and a knight of that order. The are not altogether to be depended upon. univerfality of his information, and the On the o her hand, if we take the chaliberality of his remarks, induced me racter of the Portuguese from the native to request his opinion respecting the writers, we shall imagine they poffe is Portuguese. These are his observations not only all the good qualities in exilton that head, as nearly as I can recol- ence, but are exempted from all the bat leet :
This is like a painter vainly at“ There are no people in Europe, tempting to pro.luce a fine pi&ture withSir, whose real character is less known out shadows. than those of Portugal; for, as their « From the best informacion I can language is but little studied or under- collect, the ancient Portuguese have food, our knowledge of them is de- been a brave, active, and generous peorived chicfy from the Spanisia writers, ple. At a time when the other nations and a Spaniard is rarely known to speak of Europe were sunk in floth and ignofavourably of the Portuguese. The lat. rance, they were employed in propater, on the contrary, whatever might gating Christianity, in extirpating intibe their real opinion of the former, are delity, and enlarging our knowledge of induced by the precepts of Christian this sphere. charity to speak respectfully of them. “ Neceflity, the parent of action, Of this we have a striking Itance in was the fource of all their great enterJoseph Texara, a Portuguese friar of prises ; attacked on one side by a powerthe Dominican order. This friar lived sul and restless neighbour, on the other in the sixteenth century, and was con- by the Moors, who had long infested fessor to Don Antonio, heir presump- the country, their incursions and contive to the crown of Portugal, whom fpiracies required the exertions of every he followed into France. He there finew of the state to preserve its inde. declared from the pulpit, in one of his pendence. At length the horde of infermons, that we are bound in duty to fidels were expelled, and the pride of love all men, of whatever religion, feet, the Castilians humbled. or nation, even the Castilians.
“In the reign of John the first, when “ From the political enmity, which, the Portuguese found themselves fecure
from foreign or domestic foes, their tion, and that glory he promised to himtroops then inured to fatigue, and their self in the plains of Africa : but, alas! captains, animated by military fame, he, and the greater part of those who pursued the barbarians into Africa. accompanied him thither, found there Their contests in this quarter, though not laurels, but an untimely grave. onprofitable, and almoft ruinous to the “ The death of this prince would itze, were ultimately attended with have been the lefs regretted, if he had curfequences very for nate for the not left a fucceffor to fill the throne who powers of Europe ; as they diffufed a was in the decline- of life and underspirit of enterprise, which after ward led ftanding, without energy, without abito all the modern discoveries in naviga- lities to heal the bleeding wounds of his tion.
expiring country. Providence, appa“ The Lusitanian soldiers were brave rently, seeing its dissolution approach, and hardy, inured to all the hardships sent a cardinal king to give it the dying of war, fatigue, hunger, and thirst, benediâion. Thus we find that states, which they bore with great patience in like individuals, have their infancy, mathe hotteit climates. In the fieid their turity, and decline ; and what is not a courage bordered on rashness; their na- little remarkable of this, it commenced tural impetuosity could nerer be restrain with a Henry, and with a Henry it exet, even by the most rigid military dif- pired. The first was a hero and a cirline; they were too ambitious of sig- Itatesman, the latter possessed neither of talizing their valour out of the ranks, these qualities, nor fupplied the want of by which they sometimes caufed their them by his wisdom. defeat, in deranging the order of battle ; Philip the Second now appended but when they fought in a phalanx, the the crown of Portugal to that of Spain. enemy found them invincible.
It had been the invariable policy of this “ 'The riches of Asia, the relaxation prince, and of his successors, to render of discipline, together with the igno- Portugal subservient by reducing its rerance and rapacity of the governors of sources, which they were carrying into India, at length corrupted the manners effect every day, till at length the Pors of the soldiers, and defaced every trace tuguese, no longer able to bear the of their ancient character.
chains of their foreign masters, revolted: “ Every department of the stare was and, by their resolution and unanimity, haftering to ruin, when King Sebastian supplied the want of forces in casting off ascended the throne; in him, as their their bondage ; and ever since, the kinglaft refuge, were centered the hopes of don is gradually advancing to prosperity the people; and the tokens of virtue under its native and lawful sovereigns. and courage he had given them in the “ It is evident, however, that the ad. early part of his life, seemed to pro- vancemect of the country is by no means mile the accomplishment of their expec. proportionate to its valt resources ; nor tations : he certainly inherited a great is the ancient military spirit of the pen. portion of the valour of his ancestors, ple yet revived. Some remains of the ccuthough time evinced that he poffefied rage of their ancestors may still linger but very little of their prudence. No among them; but the contempt in prince was ever more enamoured with which they hold the profession of arms a love of fame, nor sought a more in. is sufficient to extinguish every spark of dire&t road toward the attaining of it. military enterprise. For several years The happiness of his people is what past they have admitted officers into the constitutes the real fame of every O- regiments of infantry without talents or nach ; yet this was the least of Sebasa education, whose ignorance multiplied tian's pursuit. The vain glory of ex- abuses and relaxed discipline. The celling in arms occupied his fole atten. abuse at length advanced to that degree,
that officers were appointed from among gal when King Jofeph appointed Senher
“ As the natural result of agriculture
« The Marquis' efforts, thus far. mand, or refuse to give, satisfaction for crowned with success, urged him to furan offence.
ther exertions ; he endeavoured to pro“ Since the reign of Joseph the First, pagate a similar spirit of industry among there has been a great change for the the colonists, who had long felt the betier, not only in the army, but in al- inertia of the mother country. But, most every other department of the knowing how vain it was to expect eiftate. When that prince ascended the ther activity or industry from a people throne, agriculture and manufactures groaning with the chains of slavery, he were so much neglected, that the people published an edict, whereby the inhabidepended upon foreign nations for food tants of Brazil, and of the other colonies and raiment; the arts were despised, appertaining to the crown, were to be and the revenues unproductive. The restored to their freedom, and to enjoy English, pursuant to the Methuen treaty, the fame immunities as the natives of supplied the Protuguese with woollen Portugal. An act so replete with justice cloths, in exchange for which they were and humanity, is sufficient to expiate to receive the wines of the country. many of the political fins imputed to the The encouragement held out by this Marquis de Pombal, and is a lasting treaty for the growth of wine, and the honour to Portugal, which was the firft facility which long experience has given among the modern nations of Europe the Portuguese in that branch of hus- that enslaved mankind, and the first that bandry, induced the farmers to neglect set the humane example of their emanthe cultivation of corn, and convert their cipation. It was also the first that taught fields into vineyards ; thus the grape Europe navigation and commerce upon increased in proportion as the grain di- a comprehenfive scale: had not Prince minished.
Henry exifted, we should not, probably, “ This was partly the state of Portu. have ever heard of Columbus." It is
o the discoveries of the Portuguese in when most of the surrounding nations
ON INCLOSURES. ALTHOUGH the inclosure of But let us fee to what use the owner common fields will no doubt put the or occupier of these 500 acres of tillage land, in a way, by proper management, has applied them. To feed oxen and of producing double the quantity of food sheep. Well: Perhaps two hundred for fociety that they do in their present head of cattle, and five hundred sheep, ftate, yet all this, in the estimation of may compose his stock. Two hundred found policy, will avail very little, if carcaffes, to pass through the butchers upon investigation it shall be found, that hands, will find bread for some people inclosures, even in the smallest degree, through the whole year : 200 hides to gire countenance to the introduction of the tanner, to the currier, to the leatherlo dangerous a canker worm as that of merchant, and to the shoemaker; who leflening the number of our people. At again will find a sale for the buckle. mafirst view inclosures do undoubtedly kers goods, belide the tallow-chandauthorise such an idea. For, let us lers, &c. suppose a township that contained 500 The 500 sheep, at seven pound a a es of common arable fields, beside fleece (3500 pounds of wool) will conits portion of pasture to be inclosed, tribu:ė a little to the maintenance of the acd the whole let to one man, who wool merchant, the woollen manufacturns all the arable land into feeding turer, the comber, carder, spinner, pasture ground, and locks ic with bul- weaver, fucker, dyer, colourman, dresjocks and sheep. Allowing five per- fer, woollen-draper, taylor, and butsoas to every 100 acres of tillage, the ton-maker; all these, together with former inhabitants amounted to twenty- their journeymen, apprentices, families, five persons, but now that the land is and the respective tradesmen which they inclosed and stocked with live stock, are enabled to employ, again will parfire persons will be fufficient to look take of, and reap an advantage from af:et them. Here we see twenty per. these 500 acres, which, in a paroxism fons fent adrift into the wide world, of mistaken patriotism, we had given up without any employment or visible means in a great measure, as loit to the comof fubfiftence. The man who could munity at large. Were we to make a behold this without being much affected, minute inquiry into the number of our nait possess a very convenient portion people, that now make bread from thefa of taciturnity: These 500 acres are five hundred acres, we should probably row so far lost to the community at fiod it to be double to the twenty-five, 14?g?, that no person but the proprietor that it had maintained while in tillage, and the occupier can possibly reap any most of them bringing up young families ajrantage from them. So far the pic. in comfort, while by the taxes upon the tsre is ur questionably gloomy, and any various articles they consume, they confarther, upon this subject, the general tribute insensibly their mite toward the ign of philosophers do not extend their neceffary expences of fupporting that recalations.
government by which they are protected. VOL. LVIII.
While the wool, hides, and tallow of exact, that the machine is still kept in the produce of these 500 acres, furnish motion : for part of the wealth acquired the various tradesmen, employed in the by the manufacturers of these articles, manufacturing of them, with an oppor- finds its way back to the original growtunity of getting money ; nature has er of them, through the hands of the laid out the
whole system so wonderfully butcher,
HISTORY OF THIRLAGE.
BY G. BUCHAN HEPBURN, ESQ. Although the burden of thirlage, ly have been very great, as well as tenever was severely felt in this county, dious, it is by no means surprising that and is now mostly done away, yet, as the proprietor of a water mill, which it is one of the points in rural economy, performed the work with so much ease which the honourable Buard desired in. and expedition, and so much more efformation upon, I shall endeavour short. fe&tually, should receive a high premium ly to explain its nature and origin; and from the persons who frequented his the present state of it in Scotland at large; mill. and I undertake this task the more wil It seems also natural, that a perfon Jingly, as, profesionally, I have had fre- who poffeffed a stream of water upon his quent opportunity of considering it. eftate, should Le invited by his neighbours
In former tinies, corn was reduced to be at the expence of erecting a mill upinto nical, in Scotland, as in ancient on this stream; and that they, on the Rome, by a hand mill, which was call- other hand, should thirle, that is, aftrict
and bind their lands, in all time coming, I will not venture to say, that quern to use and frequent this niill with their is derived from querinus ; but if the Ro- corns, and to pay a certain proportion mans instructed our rude forefathers in of the meal, (according to the univerfal the railing of corn, which I have alrea- mode then practised, of paying in kind) dy endeavoured to prove, it seems high- for the grinding of it. ly probable, that they would teach us l'rogressively as the distress and faalso how to manufacture that corn ; and tigue of the hand-mill came to be forgot, I have been positively affured, that the and the machinery of the water mill, and quern, or hand mill for the grinding of the trifling expence attending the erecoats into meal, was used in the remote tion of it, came to be better known, the parts of the Highlands of Scotland, long beavy duty paid at the original mills, after the year 1745.
which the antecedent covenant of thirle It is certain, however, that the water or restriction, had rendered permanent, machine called the mill, for the grind- would be more severely felt; and now ing of oats into meal, is of high antic that the memory of the hand-mill is toquiry in Scotland; and as it was intro- tally effaced, these original thirle duties duced before the period of record, it are confidered a real grievance. may be fairly said, caput inter nubila con Anciently, there is reason to believe, dit. But from the ancient name of one the mills were at first erected upon ecof the duties, knaveship, which in the clesiastical lands, and belonged to the sequel fall be explained, the mill would clergy. seem to be of Saxon original.
There are three different species of Rude and primitive as the machinery this servitude known and acknowledged of the oat mill may now seen.), it must in the law of Scotlands of these only have appeared a wonderful piece of me. two belong to rural economy; in crder, chanism in those rude and barbarous however, that the subje& may be tho. times, when it was first brought into rouglily understood, all the three shall Scotland; and as the labour and fatigue be fhortly explained. of grinding by a hand mill must certain.