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The fr! and the lightest species of This fpecies of thirlage exists in most

tage is called thirlage of grindable of the boroughs in Scotland; and the pan; and it means, that the tenants mill generally belongs to the incorporaprifuors of the aftricted lands, (in tion, where the borough holds directly

av, ihe servient tenement) shall be of the Crown, or what we call royal :: to resort to the mill (the domi- boroughs. But where a borough holds

to which these lands of a subject fuperior, (the lord of the siren attricted, with all the oats manor,) the mill generally belongs to ri birley they shall use for food, the superior, and the accustomed duties ca there pay certain dues for the griodare paid to hili, or to his tenant in the

mill. Tie 2d, and the oppreflive thitlage, It is to be observed, that in all thefe sitled the thirlage of growing corn. thirlages, it is the land of the servient

Ez this covenant of thirlage, every tenement that is bound ; and although wikis of corn produced upon the servi. it should pass through 20 different hands,

ads, let the quantity be ever so every purchaser, and all his people up7522', must be brought to the dominant on these lands, are equally bound to fre20', and there manufactured into meal ; quent the dominant mill

. and the covenanted or accustomed du There are three different species of 13:43.

duties paid at the dominant mill, viz. The oniy linitation that this fevere 1/1, The multure, (multura, grinding :) Page admits of, is in favour of feed 2dly, The bannock (the loat) and, 3dly, ziot horse corn.

The knuveship Sonctimes a special covenant is made, The if of these duties belongs to the bestich the possessors of the fervient heritor and proprietor of the niili ; and Landing pay what is called dry multure ; seems evidently to have been the fine or at is, they pay a quantity of corn, to premium originally settled, as the inducepcbife the freedom of going to mar ment for his being at the expence ker wih ihe remainder in the same state; recting the mill; and for supporting the and where constant immemorial usage machinery of it in future.

I have fanctioned this custom, the The bannock is the duty paid to the
Carts of law generally so far mitigated miller, and the knaveswip is the duty paid

e feverity of this species of thirlage, to the under fervants at the mill.
25 to find, that the proprietor of the do The quantity of meal paid under the
Tsagt mill can demand no more than name of multure; varies confiderably in
itat quantity of dry multure, which the different couniics, aud even at different
Esta imorial usage has established. mills. I have had an opportunity of

These decisions are grounded upon knowing it as high as the eleventh boll, te's inciples of a presumed contract, of and sometimes as low as the 22d boll;

be the record or memory has been and, in one pa:ticular case, so low as libet wist these parties, whereby the the 32d. But it be taken, upon an se agreed to pay, and the other to re- average, nearly at the 17th boll. 4456, the commutation fixed by the u The other duties are various ; but

they may be taken joinily as equal to the Tie 3d and last species of thirlage, is half, or from that to 3-4ths of the mula tid inveda et illata, and belongs pro- ture. 7:0 urban tenements ; the meaning Independent altogether of these fereCris, chat corn, wherever produced, ral duties, the possessors of the servient breacht for consumption within the tenement are bound to perform certain

192ries of the dominant mill, must services to the mill and its appencages. be carried into this mill and manufactu- For example, when the dam dyke, or med tucre, acd pay the accustomed du- the rampart that directs the Stre'm of

water from the river to the mill, i units Q2


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repair, or when the aqueducts to and known in this county; or at least, if it from the mill require to be secured, the was, it has been long since forgot ; there people of the servient tenement must is another circumstance peculiarly fortu

and perform these works. nate, which has put it in the power of When the roof of the house in which most of the landed proprietors of the the mill stands decays, they must find county, without difficulty, to emancithatch for making that repair ; and they pate their tenants from the thirlage even must


it on. When grind-lones are of grindable grain, viz. That the landwanted, or an axle, or any other part of lord, almost universally, is proprietor the machinery that requires a heavy car- both of the dominant and of the servient riage, they must go with their horses and tenement; and as he has astricted his : carriages to the nearest place (whatever tenants to his own mill, by a covenant may be the distance) to bring these ar- in the lease, progressively as the leases ticles to the mill.

of them ills have expired, the landlords, The thirlage of growing corns is un- in general, have emancipated their tenants questionably a heavy grievance, as it from every species of thirlage, at a conmust operate in one of two ways, either version of twenty shillings per plough, of which seem impolitic, and, with fub- which is paid by the tenant ; and he and mission, unjust.

his servants are left at perfect freedom If it shall operate as a bar to the im- to resort to any mill where they can get provement of agriculture,ếard the ex- their work best done, and at the lowest tent of the tax paid to the dominant rate. mill may produce this effect,-it is evi The cafe, however, is widely diffedently impolitic.

rent in many parts of the north of ScotIf, on the other hand, the lands of land ; and I know, from the cause althe servient tenement shall be improved ready mentioned, that there are many : and cultivated, it seems unjust, that the estates, or servient tenements, belonging proprietor of the dominant tenement to one proprietor, which are altricted to Thould have a power to impose fo heavy mills, or the dominant tenements, belonga tax upon the industry of the cultiva ing to another proprietor ; and not a few tors of the fervient tenement, especially of these thirlages are the severe one of as he gives no equivalent for this tax. growing corns.

This species of thirlage never was View of Agriculture of East Lothian. TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.


length : The sides are pretty steep, tho' IT will be unnecessary to take up all built upon : the Castle terminates the much room with a minute description upper extremity, which is a bold abrupt of the capital. We rather refer our rock; and the palace of Holyroodhouse readers, who wish more particular in- the lower extremity, being nearly a mile formation, to Maitland's History of E. distant. Of late the city has extended dinburgh, printed anno 1734, and to itself on both sides. To the north, the Arnot's Hiltory of Edinburgh, published New Town covers an elevated plain,

the ground having a gentle declivity on EDINBURGH *, the capital of Scot- both sides, and makes a very elegant land, occupied the ridge of a hill from and noble appearance. To the south, cast to well, which is about a mile in the buildings are more irregular, and, in

Etymologies of words are at best unfatis- general, much inferior in elegance. The factory. Of the many given of name, Castle, situated on a vast rock, rugged and others, who derive it from the two Gae- considered as impregnable. At present we are inclined to prefer that of Buchannan and precipitous, was in ancient times lic p:ords Dun Elin, which signify, “ t12 fece


in 1779.

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it is a convenient station for foot fol- is the best collection of books and MSS
diers; is of advantage for the reception in this part of the kingdom *.
of prisoners ; and, as its works are al In the middle of the Parliament-close
ways kept in good repair, may prove use there is a beautiful equestrian statue of
ful as a place of retreat and security in Charles the Il. made of cast metal.
cases of internal commotion.

On the north side of th High Street
The armory, and the apartment in is the Royal Exchange. It was found-
which the unfortunate Mary brought ed in 1753, by the patriotic George
forth James VI. in 1566, are the only Drummond, Esq; it is a very elegant
places which are pointed out to the no- building, in the form of a squares and
tice of visitors. The prospect from the cost, including the price of the area,
walls never fails to strike the eye of all 31,457 1. Sterling.
strangers. The half moon battery is In going down the High Street, the
510 feet above the level of the sea; and next public building which attracts no-
the piazza of Holyroodhouse is about tice, is the Tron Church. It was found-
feet above that level.

ed in 1637, but was lately considerably In descending from the Castle-hill, modernized. Still descending, the next the High Street, being near a mile long, building that attracts notice is the Canonand in general between 80 and go feet gate Church, standing about the middle broad, always attracts notice.

of the street which goes by that name; At the opening of the street, about a but there is nothing remarkable about it. quarter of a mile below the Castle, stands At the extremity of the street stands the the fine Gothic Atructure of St Giles. royal palace of Holyroodhouse. It is a It is thought to have been originally very neat and handsome building, in the founded in 854. Under its roof are form of a square. The north-welt towers four churches. Above there is a lofty were built for a royal residence by James square tower, from which arise several V. The other parts of the building lender and elegant arches, terminating were erected during the reign of Charles in a point

, and supporting a very hand- II. The inner court is surrounded Come spire. The whole is adorned with with piazzas. Over the principal ensmall turrets, exhibiting the resemblane trance, which fronts the west, there is a of an Imperial crown, surrounded with handsome cupola, the roof ot which exits circlet. In this steeple there is a set hibits an imperial crown in stone. The of musical bells, which are played every north front comprehends a spacious ga!. lawful day from one to two o'clock. lery, where hung the pictures of the

The beight of the fpire is 155 feet, Scottish monarchs from Fergus I. tò and the street is 247 feet above the le- James VI. These are imaginary porvel of the fea.

traits, and are executed in a very infcThis noble pile forms one side of the rior style. The different apartments of Parliament clofe ; opposite to it stands the palace are occupied by different nathe house where the Scottish parliament blemen. The principal apartment has usually met. It was built anno 1640, been lately fitted up for the refidence of and cost 11,600). Sterling. It conlists the commander in chief for Scotland. of a very large and grand hall, 122 feet At preseni accommodations are making, long, and 49 broad, called the Outer in some of the apartinents, for che Count house , where the Lords Ordinary fit

, D'Artois, lvis fön, and fuite. I've Ahand the Inner-house, where the whole bey, adjoining to the palace, exhibits a Lords fit in judgement. The Abor a very grand ruin. it was founded by bove is occupied by the Court of Exche- Daviů 1. in 1128. quer. Below the level of the pavement,

We hall no :v take a very cursory view apartments are employed by the l'a- of the other publie buildings of this city, culty of Advocates as a library, which

* See an account of it in vol 56. 193.


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of 125.

The one which stands first, both in point Edinburgh. The streets of the New of importance and elegance, is Heriot's Town astonish and delight every beholdHospital. This beautiful Gothic pile er. The rapidity with which they have was founded in 1628, according to a risen, is also remarkable ; the first houses design by Inigo Jones, and was finished in the New Town were begun about the in 1650, at an expence of 30,000 1. in year 1760; and the North Bridge, consequence of a mortification made by which unites the Old and New Town, George Heriot, goldfmith and jewelter was only founded in 1763 by Provost to James the VI. The funds of this Drummond ; the plan was by Mr Milne, charity are very great ; the annual re. and it is a very elegant piece of architecvcoue being between 3 and 4000 l. and ture. The fun in Mo Milne's contract a number of boys are well boarded and was 10,140 1. Sterling, but, owing to educated in it, to the number at present some infufficiency, the south end gave

way, before it was finished, in 1769, Waton's Hospital, a peat modern To repair and strengthen it, has increasbuilding, was founded in 1733 by ed the expence to upwards of 18,000 l. George Watfon, merchant in Edin. Sterling. The South Bridge, which exburgh. It is also a very considerable terds over the Cowgate, was founded and well managed institution. Its re- by Provost Hunter Blair in 1785. It venue is nearly zocol. per annum. The is not remarkable as a bridge, having Royal Infirmary, incorporated by char- but one capital arch; but the eleter in 1756, is a rery neat edifice, gance of the shops and houses upon it, and has proved a most beneficial in strikt all strangers with surprize and destitution : Above 2000 patienis are light. The price of the areas on which annually admitted into it, of whom there are built, is always mentioned with only one in 24, upon an average, dies. astonishment; some fold at the rate of While the Infirmary is mentioned, the 109,0col. per acre, others at 96,000 l. name of the patriotic projector Mr per acre ;-prices higher than any to be George Drummond mult always be found either in ancient or modern times. heard. There are several other cha The Earthen Mound, which fornis ritable instituiens, as a Trades Hospi. ulso a communication between the Old tal and a Merchant Hospital for girls. and New Town, deserves notice. It Three Charity Workhouses, an alms- is 8c0 feet across, and is composed house called Tinity Hofpital, and the of the earth and rubbih dug from Orphan Hospital. This last is the on- the foundations of the new buildly one that attracts notice as a building. ings. It was completed of a moderate It cor lifts of a centre and two vings, width and height in the space of three and makes a handsome appearance, tho' years, without any expence to the town, its situation is rather low. It was found and proves a very useful passage. This ed by Mr Andrew Garden 1734, and extraordinary work is getting daily adhas, from the late management of those ditions ; but, from its baving funk at in the direction, proved a very useful in- different times, the quantity of earth ftitution. We conceive to be unne- put upon it is astonishing. From a comceffary to describe the churches and putation made in 1792, allowing three other cld buildings; a short enume- cart loads to each cubical yard of earın, ration of the most remarkable modern there must have then been 1,305,750 ones shall close this account of the baild- cart loads thrown upon it. ings of the metropolis.

At the extremity of the North Bridge We may with justice observe in ge. stands the Register Office, a most fuperb neral, that no city in the world can ex- and elegant structure, after a plan by the hibit more regularity, beauty, and mag- late Mr Robert Adam. It was built nificence, than the new buildings about to preserve the records of the law de.


partments, as well as thu titles of india in very high repate all over the world. viduals to their property, from the acci- As a medical school it has stood unrident of fire or other destructive cause, valled. In theology, the belles lettres, and it is well fitted for the purpose. and other branches of useful and polite 16e climate of the whole when finished literature, its fanie is widely extended. 1335,000 l. In the center of the dome, It comprehends the following branches ziligant ftatue of his Majetty King of ftudy: We have annexed the falaries, G

The ill. executed by the ingenious which are by far too smail. Mis Demer, was lately erected. Faculty of Theology.- Priacipal of the

St Andrew's Church, in George University, and primary profefior of diGurces, is a very handsome building, vinity, L. 111: 2:01. Profeffor of ture is elegant, but too fender for divinity, L. 161:2:0.-Profeffor of rs heighi.

divinity and church-history, L. 100.Tncuph Edinburgh cannot boast of Profeffor of Oriental languages, libramany public places of entertainment, rian and secretary to the University set fuch as we have are neat and con. L, 119:12:8. modiuus. "The Theatre, the Concert Faculty of Lacu.-Regius Profeffor of Room, the Equcftrian Circus, lately the law of nature and nations, upwards ere&ed, and the Afenibly Kooms, are of L. 2006- Professor of civil law, all worthy of the metropolis of Scot- L. 100.-- Professor of Scots law, ked, though none of them pofieis much L. 160.- Profeffor of civil history, and erlerior beauty.

Greek and Roman antiquities, L. 100. The Theatre, previous to the 1768, Faculty of Medicine --Profeffor of was private property; at that period it Analony and Chirurgery, L. 50.- Prowas pulled down during a riot. Upon this fefior of the Practice of medicine.-Rea to al licence was applied for, and the gius Prosellor of botany, L. 77:15:04 prefent house was built by subscription. --Proksor of Materia medica.--Profefle coit about 5ccol. including ward- for of chemiftry.- Professor of the Theosobe and cenery. The Mares are 100l. ry of medicine, and dean of the faculty tach. The theatre when filled, draws. cf medicine.-Prof:fior of niidwifery.140!. Sterling.

Profefior of natural history, 11. 70. The Concert ; this is a small but very Fuculty of Arts.-Profesior of moral ekzant ovel room, built by private fun. philofophy, L. 102 : 4:55. Regius fri, tion, after a plan of Sir Robert Profestui of rhetoric and belles lettres, Milne, in 1762. It will contain about L. 50.--Pror ffor of Grech, L.

52, 500 persons.

4:51.-Profcffor of Humanity L. 52, The new Asembly Rooms, built by jo ::--- Protefior of ra'ural philofopiny, Sliption, according to a defign of L. 52:4:5-Profeffor of mathemathe late Mr Henderson of this place, ucks and altronomy, L. 113: 6:3,are rery commodious and elegant. The Profillir of Logick, and dean of the falarge soom is 92 feet long, 42 feet wide, culty of arts, L. 52:4:51.-Profeffor and 30 feet in height.

of agriculture, L. 50. Tiey were founded in the year 1776,

The old College being very unfit to and have cost upwards of 10,00l. accomodate die students, and having also but are not, as yet, completely finihed. become ruinous, the foundation of a

The Equeft:ian Circus, was also built very magrificent pile was laid in NoIs fubfcription, divided in shares of 20!. vember 1789. As no rublic funds cach. It is a commodious and hand- belonged to ihe University', the build sme house.

* The salary of King's physician is divided Tie University of Edinburgh has, anong time gentiemen who liave no salaries for a congderable number of years, been as profeffers.

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