« ZurückWeiter »
which was his dictionary) to his ne est quantum nos omnes affecerit gra-
" In the third book of Paradise Lost many letters by her from learned men of there are about fix verses of Satan's his acquaintance, both of England and exclamation to the Sun, which E. Ph. beyond fca.
remembers about 15 or 16 years
before - M. Theodore Haake, R. S. S. his poem was thought of, which were hath translated half his l'aradise Loft intended for the beginning of a Tragæinto High Dutch, in such blank verse die which he had designed, but was dias is very well liked by Germanus l'ac' verted fron, it by other businesie.” bricius, profesor at Heidelburgh, who Frum Aubrey's MS. in the Abomolean fent Mr Haake'a letter upon his tran Museum at Oxford. 1lation, in which he says, - Incredibile
AN ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF ABBE SIEYES. AS this gentleman has always been In answer he was recalled home: he was considered as a leading character in destined to the ecclefiaitic state. The France, whatever party have held the bishop of Frejus had seduced his father reins, an account of him will, we trust, with the promise of speedy advancement. be an acceptable article.
This induced him to consider the weak
state of health of the boy, which seemed EMANUEL JOSEPH SIEYES to justify the project. Young Seyes was born at Frejus, in the department was sent to Paris, to the seminary of of Var, the 3d of May 1748. He was Si Sulpice, to go through the courses the 5th child of his parents, who had of philofophy and theology. two more after him. His first studies
He was then in his fourteenth year ; commenced in the house of his father, but in a situation so contrary to his naunder a preceptor ; who, at the fame tural disposition, it is not extraordinary time, took his pupil 10 the College of that he ihould have contracted a sort of the Jefuits, to receive public lessons favage melancholy, accompanied with with the other children of the town. the most stoic indifference as to his perThe Jesuits took notice of this scholar. fon and liis fueure situation. He was They proposed to his father to send destined to bid farewell to happiness ; him to their great feminary at Lyons, he was ont of nature; the love of study one of the best estzilishments for educa only could charm him. His attention tion they had in France. It was at the became strongly directed to books and time of the commencement of that quar- the ftiences. In this manner passed, rel, which, in its conf quences, pro- without interruption, teu years of liis duged iire abolition of that fociety. The life, ili the espiration of what, in the father of Sieyes résisted the advice of Subonne, is called the course of science. the reverend fathers, and the bishop of
During this long interval, he had not the place, who joined them. He font attended to the theological and pretendhis fon to finish his claffes at the College ed philoso; hical ffudies of the univerfity des Doctrinaires, at Draguignan, a town of Paris, more than was necessary, to of fome note in, the fame department, pass the ordinary examinations and
Sieyes saw the greater number of his ihefes. Urged by his difpofition, or companions leave the college, to enter perhaps in compliance with the mere into the schools of artillery or military want of entertainment to fill his time, engineering. He longed to follow the he ran through, without distinction or fame course, and wrote to his parents regularity, every department of literawith all the ardour of youthful pasion. ture, studied the mathematics and na
tural philosophy, and endeavoured to thedral. A short time after taking porinitiate himself into the arts, particularly fesfion of his canonicate, he was at limusic. An involuntary inclination, ne- berty to return to Paris. He was inverbeless, led him to meditation. He debted for this to one of the titles or was much attached to works of meta- brevets given at Versailles, by virtue of parties and morality; and has often which, the revenues of his benefice land, that no books had ever afforded could be received at Paris. An ophim more lively satisfaction than those portunity presented of changing his liof Locke, Condillac, and Bonnet. In tuation. He became succeslively vicar then he saw men having the same in- general, canon, and chancellor of the tereft, the fame instinct, and busied up- church of Chartres. In the midst of on one common object.
these mutations there is nothing worthy His superiors had, according to their of remark, except his extreme care to cufton, inspected his reading and his avoid interfering in any ministerial duty, writings. They had found among his He never preached; he never took papers fome scientific projects of con- confeffion; he avoided all the functions, liderable novelty. They consigned in and all the occasions which might hold their register the following note : him forward manifestly as a clergy" Sieyes shews a disposition of some man. ftrength for the sciences; but it is to At that time the clergy of France was be feared, that his private reading may divided into two kinds or classes of ingis: him a taste for the new philosophi- dividuals : the ecclesiastics preachers, cal principles.” They comforted them and the ecclefiaftics administrators. Sifekes, however, by observing his de- eyes was, at most, of the second class. cided love of retirement and study, the. He was deputy to the States of Brefimplicity of his manners and his charac- tagne, for the diocese where he had his ter, which even then appeared to be first benefice ; and on this occasion we practically philosophical." You may may remark, that nothing could equal make him, they once wrote to his bi- the indignation he brought from this frop, “ a caron, as he is a gentleman, assembly, against the shameful oppreffion and a man of information. But we must in which the noblesse held the unhappy acvise you, that he is by no means fit third state of the people. for the ecclefiaftical ministry.”
At that time he had a permanent Sieves, having finished his licence in administrative employment at Paris. the Sorbonne, neglected the formality He was counsellor commiffary, nominatc: the coétor's boonet, and entered the ed by the diocese of Chartres to the xorid at the age of twenty-four. fuperior chamber of the clergy of France.
Part of the year 1773 and 1774 was When the Provincial Assembly of employed in cultivating music, then at Orleans was formed, Sieyes had some the period of a revolution in Paris, and reputation for his administrative knowpartly in refuting the fyftem of the Eco- ledge. He was nominated a member, Esmilts. He made, or supposed he not by the advice of the minister, but Fou made, in those years, important re- of those already elected. fearches concerning the irregular pro- proofs of some capacity for business, and ceedings of the human mind, in philo. a patriotic difpofition: fo that he was booty, metaphysics, language, and in- strongly invited by the assembly to take telectual methods.
the presidency of the intermediary come He departed in 1775 for Brittany, miffion. He performed the functions with a bishop who was going to be in- for a short time. Italled ; and who, in order to carry On the day when the chambers were Sieyes with him, had procured him the exiled to Troyes, Sieyes gave the adBrevet de joyeux avenement on his 'ca- vice to go instantly to the palace, to arVol. LVIII.
rest and hang the minister who figned following each other, at the end of orders evidently arbitrary, illegal, and 1788, and the beginning of 1789. proscribed by the people. But his ad. The Tiers-Etet of Paris, which the yice did not prevail.
ministers had thought fit to convene It was during his leisure in the coun- very late, had to nominate twenty detry, where he was in the habit of pas, puties to the Stares General. It was fing two-thirds of the year, that he agreed by the clectoral assembly, that composed, in the summer of 1788, to- neither a noble nor a prieft Thould be wards the end of the ministry of Car. elegible. After the nineteenth fcrudinal Lomenie, his Vues sur les Moyenes tiny, the vote of exclusion was rescindd' Exécution, dont les Représentans de la ed, and the majority of votes, at the France pourront disposer, in 1789,(Views last ballot, were in favour of the author of the Executive Means which are at of Qu'est-ce que le Tiers? the Disposal of the Representatives of The States General wcre assembled, France, in 1789.) with this inscrip- and several weeks were consumed in tion, calculated to thew his intention : vain disputes respecting the verification “ We may elevate our desires to the of the powers. The public, all France, extent of our rights ; but our projects expected, with impatience, the first efmust be measured by our means.” This foris of the representatives of the people. pamphlet was delivered to the printer, Sieyes dared to cut the cable which still and was advancing towards publication, confined the vessel near the shore. when, on his return to Paris, he thought He thought it becanje him to endea. fit to suspend its appearance. The po. vour to put in practice the principes litical questions which interested and which had made him known, and proemployed the minds of all Traoce, cured him the trust he poffcffed ; opifeemed already to have changed its na- nions which became every day more ture; it was forced to yield to the mo- decidedly those of the people at large. difications which the pretensions of the No man bas more openly and decidedly different classes had urged. It was no shewn his manner of thinking, and the longer the whole nation, desirous of principles of his conduct. He spoke afferting its rights against the absolute with success to the National Afembly, pawer of royalty ; it was the nobility, on the roth, 15th, 16th, 17th, 2011, ever ready to form combinations ; who, and 23d of June. But cur pretint in. taking advantage of the re-union and tention is not to give a detail of such obdispleasure of the notables, had no other je&s as come under the province of hifaim than that of urging their own in- tory. terests against those of the people, with We may distinguish the political cathe hope, likewise, of causing the mi- reer of Sieyes into three intervals; pister to confirm their account, as well from the opening of the States Gencral as their new pretensions, simply by put- to that of the Convertior. The fir!! ting him in fear. This was the cire dates from the day wherein he uttered cumstance which led Sieyes to write these words :-" They wish to be free; his Esai sur les Privileges, (Effay on but they know not how to be just." Privileges,) and immediately afterwards, These words escaped him--and ibey his work entitled, Qu'est-ce que le Tierse were received by the car of paflion. Etat, (What is this Third Estate ?) Hatred and the spirit of faction was It is easy, by comparing these two pu- earnestly disposed to preserve them: and blications with the former, to shew how. falsehood added its commentaries. Undifferent, though not opposite, their der their united efforts, that which was spirit is to that in which he traced his improperly called his influence, disapVues sur les Moyenes d' Exécution. These peared. In the suspicions exhibited three pamphlets appeared immediately, around him, he observed the work of
calumay. His determination was foon occupied the Affembly, though it is promde; to negle&t the remarks of foliy; per to say, if for no other purpose than to profit by this mistrutt, by diminishing that of accuracy, that none of his plans his labours ; to appear seldom in the were adopted without mucilation, and a Lane, for which, in other respects, mixture of other matter, more or less Le tound himself little suited; but he foreign to the object. A
of his coruinued to work usefully in the com- projects and memoirs has remained bemittees, and the more fo, as he did not hind, if it be not loft, among the
pathere meet with a kind of obstacle he pers of the committees, and by himfelf vuod it impoihble to combat ; namely, they are scarcely ever remembered. that of treachery, applauded and fup This composed the second period of ported by those very men who have the his political life, less active, less pubjetet interest in unmasking it. lic, but often as laborious- as the form
In this manner he bore a more or mer, and which ended in June 1791. els congderable share in the great la
(To be continued.) bours and important questions which
TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 116. IN addition to what was said in The following is the progreslive inour lait number, a correspondent has creafe of Edinburgh, at the annexed favoured us with the following particu- periods : lets respecting the population of Edin
45,320 burgh :
1755 57,220 " From a survey made from house to
1775 69,039 house in 1791, with the utmost exact
1791 84,886 ness, the number of families were found So that in 50 years this city has almost to be 18,654, and the number of in- doubled the number of its inhabitants.” fubitants 84,836, including the whole We do not consider it neceffary to or the parish of St Cuthbert, the castle state particularly the revenue and expenand bospitals, which is nearly 4; to a diture of the city of Edinburgh. The fa.div. So that both Mr Maitland proper revenue of the city confifts and Mr Arnot are greatly above the partly of the duties or taxations exisch: Dr Price calculates the number gible by the town council ; such as the of each fainily in Edinburgh only at impost on wines ; the More-dues at in which is not far wrong.
Of 12 Leith ; the duties collected at the poulavotry parishes, taken at random from try, fish, meal, and other markets, the *112 Scaristical Account of Scotland, annuity, or ministers stipend ; partly of fone of them in manufacturing coun. their landed property, such as Leith and * es, 475 was found to be the average Bruntsfield Links, Calton-hill, and Dunir of each family.
Meadows, houses and shops in EdinTrom the above furvey, in 1791, the burgh and Leith; partly of their feu-mber of a family, in the pine parilhes duties, as those on the mills of the Wa wis in the Old City, was found to ter of Leith, of the houses in the New be
Town, &c.; partly of what is paid for · Is the New Town
5* private water pipes. The proper revethe Canoogate, only
nue of the city consists of these, and South Leich
many other articles. Its gross produce North Leith, only
(not reckoning here the appropriated S. Cuthbert, or Welt Kirk, the revenue) is at present about L. 10,000 most populous parish in Scotland, Sterling yearly, and a gradual increase Ciclining 32,947 persons 515 of it may be expected.
What may be mentioned as the cu- change is produced in the whole comriosities to be attended to, are the Col. munity; wealth affording the means, lege library and museum : the Advo- luxury creeps in apace. cates' library, where, besides the exten We hope to be excused for contrastlive collection of books of upwards of ing our short account of the present 30,000 volumes, exclusive of manu- manners, with that given by an Englishfcripts, already noticed, is to be seen an man who visited Edinburgh in 1598, entire mummy in its original chest. This as quoted by Mr Arnot. was purchased by the late Earl of Mor Myself,” says he, “ was at a ton, Lord Register of Scotland, at L. 300 knight's house *, who had many ser. Sterling, and was by himn presented to to attend him, that. brought in the Faculty. They are also possessed of his meat, with their heads covered with a fine collection of coins and medals to blue caps, the table being more than the number of between 3 and 4000. half furnished with great platters of porThese are partly Greek, Roman, Sax. ridge, cach having a little piece of fodon, Scottish, and English. Mr Weir's den meat; and, when the table was museum is also worthy of attention. ferved, the servants sat down with us; His collection of birds and animals is but the upper mess, instead of porridge, extensive, and in excellent preservation. had a pullet, with fome prunes in the He considers himself as the first who broth. And I observed no art of cookhas brought the art of preserving fishes ery, or furniture of houshold-stuff, but to perfection. Here are also to be seen rather rude neglect of both, though several good specimens of petrifactions, myself and my companions, sent from shells, and minerals. The antiquarian the governor of Berwick, about bordersociety are also pofseffed of a fine col- ing affairs, were entertained aften their lection of coins, and many curious relicts best manner. The Scots, living then of antiquity.
in factions, used to keep many followThe buildings occupied by the An- ers, and so consumed their revenue of tiquarian Society, and Weir's museum, victuals, living in some want of mowere formerly private houses. Our ney. They vulgarly eat hearth cakes plan does not admit of a particular de- of oats, but, in cities, have also wheatscription of the buildings, occupied by en bread, which, for the most part, different societies, though several of was bought by courtiers, gentlemen, these are remarkable for elegance and and the best fort of citizens. beauty, such as the Physicians' hall, " They drink pure wines, not with after a design of the late Mr James sugar as the English; yet, at feaits, Craig, founded in November 1775; they put comfits in the wines, after the and the Excise-office, formerly the re- French manner ; but they had not our fidence of Sir Laurence Dundas: vintners fraud to mix their wines. I
In a capital, like Edinburgh, which is did never see nor hear, that they have making rapid improvement, and in a any public inns with signs hanging out; country where trade; agriculture, and but the better fort of citizens brew ale, commerce are so much on the increase, their usual drink, (which will distemper the manners of the people cannot be a stranger's body); and the same citizens stationary, nor their style of living long will entertain paffengers upon acquaintthe same. The higher ranks spend, ance or intreaty. Their bed-steads were now and then, a portion of their time then like cupboards in the wall, with in London, and fall into the fashion of doors to be opened and shut at pleasure, that metropolis. As the inferior ranks so as we climbed up to our beds. They always copy the manners of their fupe. used but one sheet, open at the sides riors, these are gradually communicated from one circle to another, till a
* Morison'. itinerary, part 3. b. 3. c. 4.