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and top, but close at the feet *, and so French manner, short cloaks like the doubled.-When passengers go to bed, Germans, French hoods, and large their custom was to present them with falling bands about their necks. The a sleeping cup of wine at parting. The unmarried of all forts did
bare-headcountry people and merchants used to ed, and wear shora cloaks with most drink largely; the gentlemen somewhat close linen leeves on their arms, like more sparingly; yet, the very courtiers, the virgins of Germany. The inferior by night meetings, and entertaining sort of citizens wives, and the women any ftranger, used to drink healths not of the country, did wear cloaks made without excefs, and, to speak truth of a coarse stuff, of two or three cowithout offence, the excess of drinking lours, in checker work, vulgarly called was then far greater in general among Plodan ț. To conclude, in general, the Scots than the English. Myself they would not at this time be attired being at the court, invited by some gen- after the English fation, in any demen to fupper ; and being forewarn- but the men, especially at court, follow ed to fear this excess, would not pro. the French fashion ; and the women, mise to lup with them, but upop con- both in .court and city, as well in dition that my inviter would be my cloaks, as naked heads, and close sleeves protection from large drinking, which on the arms, and all other garments, I was many times forced to invoke, be. follow the fashion of the women in ing courteously entertained, and much Germany." provoked to carousing; and so for that About 20 or 30 years ago, the genetime avoided any great intemperance. rality of the people of Edinburgh were Remembering this, and having fince in use to dine at two o'clock. Shopobserved, in my conversation at the keepers were wont to lock their shops English court, with the Scots of the at one for dinner, and open them again better fort, that they spend great part at two o'clock ; business was attended of the night in drinking, not only wine, to by all ranks after dinner: a simple but even beer; as myself cannot accuse dinoer, consisting of one or two plain them of any great intemperance, so I dishes, was the usual fare ;, wine was cannot altogether free them from the seldom or never feen at the tables of imputation of excess, where with the the middle ranks. The intercourse of popular voice chargeth them.
the fexes was kept up chiefly at tea vi“ The husbanamen in Scotland, the sits at five o'clock. The people of fervants, and almost all the country, Edinburgh were exemplary for their did wear coarse cloth made at home, regular attendance at church. Pubof grey or sky-colour, and flat blew lic places were little frequested ; excaps, very broad. The merchants in cepting at the theatre, the middling
were attired † in English cr ranks seldom appeared at any pubFrench cloth, of pale colour, cr min- lic amusements. Families had, in gegled black and blue. The gentlemen péral, only one or two maid servants ; did wear English cloth or filk, or light a livery servant was, we believe, unfuffs, Jittle or nothing adorned with known in the midling flation. The filk lace, much less with lace of silver wages of a maid servani, in general, or gold. And all followed at this time was from L. 3 to L. 4 iuyear, and thei! the French fashion, especially in court, dressed in red cloaks or tirtan plaids ; Gentlewomen, married, did wear close they feldom wore shoes but on Snoupper bodies, after the German manner, days. The taverns and lo'ging-houses with large whale-bone il zeves, after the were poor and dirty; there was no such
• The same prevails universally in Scot- place as a hotcl.
i. e. Plaiding, or plaids.
At this period the inhabitants of E- were very few instances (if any) of a dinburgh were greatly hampered for citizen of Edinburgh keeping his carlodging ; people of quality and fashion riage 20 years since; now there are were obliged to submit to small, dull, many. and unhealthy habitations; as a proof The lodgings, particularly of the of this, it is only neceifary to mention, New Town, and other newly erected that, even so far back as the 1783, tlie buildings, are elegant and healthy. In house which, in 1763, the then Lord general, furniture is to be seen correrJuitice Cierk inhabited, was pofffed ponding to the houses. Though the by a French teacher ; the Lord Pieli- wages of servants have been much the dent Craigie's house by a rouping-wife, fame these twenty years, yet their apor faleswoman of old furniture; and pearance and dress is greatly improved ; Lord Dunmore's house wis left by a now, perliaps, these are on the other chairman for want of acconnodation ; estreme. Til within these few years, and a houle lately occupied by one of umbrellas were unknown. the present Lords of Seslion, is now possessed by a taylor.
LEITH, being the fea-port of Edin. Of late the change is also, in e- burgh, falis next to be noticed. It is very other respect, remarkable. The a populous, and thriving town, fuppofed tables of the middling raoks not only to contain about 14,000 inhabitants ; exhibit vacieties of dishes, but wines but the houses are in general indifferent, are almost universally drank; and when and the streets narrow and dirty. The a party goes abroad to dine, there harbour is formed by a stone pier, which they also ipend the afternoon. It is has been lately much improved. When much to be regretted that the ladies are finished, according to the plan lately to much neglected in these parties; the made out, the harbour will be useful gentlemen, in general, prcferring the and commodious. Ships can only enter bottle to the drawing.room. That soft- the harbour at full tide ; but the roads ness and elegance of manners, which of Leith, afford most excellent anchorcan only be acquired in the company of ing ground at all times, for thips of any ladies, is ciuch on the decline. The fize. hour of dinner now is 4, and often
5 Besides a very frequent intercourse o'clock, and business is but feldom at- with London, the trade of Leith is to tended in the evening. Sunday is now the Baltic, to the different ports
of Gerthe principal day for seeing company; many in the east seas; and to Holland; of course the churches are but badly at- to Spain, France, Portugal, and the Merended. The dress of people of falhion diterranean, for wines, fruits, &c. and was costly and elegant; it was accourit- for some years past, the Welt India ed absolutely necessary to be in dress at trade has been successfully attempted* . a public place. This part of ceremony The making of glass, foay, and carpetis much given up, and people go to al
* From the Statistical Account, the trade semblies, plays, aad conceris, much in of Leith, fron the 14th November 1986 to the same way as they go to dinner. the 13th November 1787, appears to be as The ladies, stil, however, attend more follows: to dress ; many good consequences Foreign. Eng!ij. Scotch. Total might be figured to ensue, were the Ships
Brigs gentlemen equallv attentive to this part sloops
1703 vi ceremony. Hospitality is a leading Tons 3:44 26,170 75,809 105,223 feature of the inhabitants. The lower During the same period, there came into ranks may, with justice, be charged with leith harbour, franı ports within the Firth intemperance, and this is much owing 14,95640», and the fame number of vezīcis to the choup price of whisisy. There with other goods, niezturing 16,552 tons.
17 22 282
ing, are the chief species of manufac. with iron and fulphur, is light upon the
The fortifications erected in the time lourgh, in a hollow plain, stands tile of Oliver Cromwell, in North Leith, ruinous church of Reltallig. It was called the citadel, for the purpose of de- founded by James III, but, at tbe Refeading the harbour, were demolished formation, the General Aflembly orat the restoration of Charles II. Of late, de it to be demolished; notwiihowever, a very elegant battery has been standing this, the remains of a beautitul built for the defence of the Chipping, a Gothic window, and part of the walls, litele to the west of the citadel, on a ri- remain. In the middle of the churchling groard, which fully commands the vard, there is a spacious vaulted mailentrance of the harbour.
foleum, with yew trees growing upon The Water of Leith the only river its top, which belongs to the Land of in the vicinity of Edinburgh. It is but Moray. a small stream, which empties itself in- The Frith of Forth contricutes much to the Frith of Forth, and forms at to the riches and comfurt, as well as Leith a preity good harbour for the ship- the beauty of this part of the island. A ping. On its banks are erected the mills communication being now forned with which manufacture ilour, &c. for the the western parts, by means of the gredo city; allo a very extensive distillery for cana!, Leith, the post of Edinburgh, making whisky. There is no tract of has now become a great fex.port. Ilie country, of equal dimenfiors, in Scot. Frith afford's fit in considerable abunland, where there is so little running dance. Of late, the berrings have water. In the bed of the river, a little paid a visit to it, and afford a cheap below the mills, we have a striking ex- supply of food to the poor, as well as ample of the rents or fiffures in the strata of lone being cemented and filled up
“ Hou! fuge fatales hauftus, fuge virus aquarum, with extra necus matter. It is a vein
Quisquis es, & dumno disce cuvre anco;
Namque ego morborum domitrix Hygeia, liquorem of whinstone near 3 feet wide, trarerf.
Guftavi imprudens fatti videlar anus. ing the horizontal Itrata in the bed of Jam demilja íumeros, & crure informis ufroque the river, which appears to have been Rifubus à populo gretereunte petor. introduced in a fuid state, the rents of At tu poprabitis Nymplis, fuennia Baccho
Fer facra, telluris fic quoque fecit Herus.” the firata admitting the liquid mass of whinstone to flow in and unite them. “ A finith'd beauty I from London came, ST BERNARD'S WELL.
Grace and proportion had adorn'ů my fran!;
But rash I taited this impoison'd well,
And itraight ('tistrue,tho'wonderfulio tell)
Thou!'when amusement or distemper brings erected over it, which contains a statue
To view the pillars, or to taste the sprigs, sf Hygeia, but which is teo large for its Warn’d by my fate, the nauseous draught) litaation *. This water is impregnated decline,
The Lord erector's regimen be ihine, This circumitance called forth the fol. \wing epigram.
Abstain from water, and indulge in wine.”)
ber 1407 :
a lucrative branch of traffic to the mer- here : it is of a greenish colour, with a chart. The islands in this part of the dusky line, and takes a fine polith. Agates, Forth are Inchkeith, three miles from in detached nodules, are found on the Leith liarbour ; Inchcolm and Mickry, shores of this island; but none have abour four miles to the welt; and Ci:- been discovered in the rock. Asphalmond Island, nearly the same distance. tum, or Jew's pitch, is found inclosed On the ihores of the Firth are found in shiftus, in the fiffures of the rock. Specimens of iron stone, particulariy The rocks on both sides of the island feptaria *, jaspers, agates, flint, fhori, abound with shorl. The most remarkand zcolite.
able production is a ftratum of flint, on INCHKEITH
the south west side of the island. It lies Is a desolate island. In ancient under a bed of limestone, and appears tinies it was used as a place of ba- to have been once in a liquid state ; for nishment, as appears from the follow- in many places, we find madrepores and ing order of the Privy Council to the marine shells inclosed in the fint, themMagifirates of Edinburgh, in Septem. felves converted to a flint, and retain
“ That ali manner of per- ing their shapes entire. We believe fons being within the freedom of this many naturalists deny the existence of a burgh, who are infected of the said stratum of nint, but this affords an excontagious plague, called the Grandgore, ample to the contrary. The fact is of devoid, rid, and pats turth of this confequence, too, in the great dispute town, and compeer upon the fards of as to the formation of filicious and calLeith, at ten bours before ncor, and careous matter, by equeous or igneous there hall have and find boats ready in solution. For here are found shells of the harbour, ordered to them by the the molt delicate texture, converted to officers of this burgh, readily furnished, flint, and their shapes vnimpaired. It with victuals, to have them to the Inch, is well known, too, that in many fpe(1 Aland of Ir.chkeith), and there to re- cimens found in the chalk hills in Engmain till God provide for their health.” land, the shells, though calcareous in A fortification was erected upon it a. the outside, are filled with fint withbout 1550. A considerable part of the in ; even those of the niost delicate fortalice, or caille, remains on the sum- structure, as the fea-egs. It is difmit of the island, upon the north end of ficult to conceive, how such changes which the arnis of Scotland are to be could be effected by heat, and yet these seen. Near this is a good spring of fresh delicate substances enabled to refiit it.
Several sheep are annually fed in any experiments we can institute, on the island. The east fide of this shells and such bodies are very island preienis something like basaltic verted to lime by a moderate heat. columns; they are of the moorítone kind, minutely mixed with calcarious This, too, is a small island, chiefly spar. Many of the masses found here composed of rock, and lies within a Have the appearance of petrified wood, mile of the Fyfe coast. There is a fine and take a fine polish. It has very pro. ruin of its once famous monastery still bably undergone a strong heat. There :o be seen. There is at present a is also plenty of limestone on the island; battery erecting on this island. This externally it resembles afbestus. A monaltery was founded by Alexander I. ftriated white calcareous spar is also in 1123. It is reported, that this found here, chiefly on the west side of Prince, when crossing the Firth, was the island; also madrepore and coralmar, overtaken by a violent storm, and drible. Juíper is likewise to be met with ven upon Inchcolm. Its only inhabi
* This is particularly defiribed by De tant was a poor hermit, who gave him Bhutton, in the Edinburgh Phil. Tran. vol. 1. a very hospitable reception, and enter,
zind the King for three days, while of broken rocks and precipices, formiturm-bound, with the milk of his cow, ing a sort of amphitheatre of solid rock, and a few thell-fth. His Majesty, in whose summit is 550 feet in height. This gratitude to the faini to whom he attric rock is used for the pavement of the ated his fafety, here founded a mo- ftreets of London and Edinburgh. Belery of Augustines, and dedicated it tween these two hills, there is a recluse
Si Columba. 1 he rock of this valley. Immediately upon descending and is chiefly a coarse whin lione, into this valley, the view of Edinburgh The rock of which the greatest part of is totally lost; the imperial prospect of this land is composed, as well as that the city and castle, which these rocks of Inchkeith, is similar to that on which in a manner overhang, is intercepted e Cattle of Edinburgh stands. They by Salisbury Craigs. Seldom are huwe all exceedingly hard, and admit of man beings to be met in this lonely vale, a fiae polith ; particularly that on the or any creature to be seen, but the sheep Ich lide of these rocks. On the east feeding on the mountain, and the hawks
tr, there is seen black shorl, project- and ravens winging their flight among 133 from a decayed ground of the whin- the rocks. This valley has much the use. In many places, fiffures of cal appearance of a crater, long ago filled careces (par intersee the rock. up in part, the west side, which forms CRAMOND ISLAND.
Salisbury Craigs, having yielded, and Cramond Inand, nearly opposite to funk down on one side. There are a the former, lies within a mile of the considerable variety of rock plants to be buth shore. It is a flat inand, and found on these hills, but we shall only cociderably larger than Inchcolm. It take notice of that remarkable appearis famous as a rabbit warren. Both it ance, described by Dr Hutton in the and Inchcolm have been occupied, of Edinburgh Phil. Tran. vol. 1. Toba:e, as parture ground for particular wards the top of the hill, and surroundbreeds of sheep imported to this coun- ing a confiderable part of it, there aptry by the British Wool Society. pears something resembling the withered
To return to the hills. "The ed- grafs of a foot-path: The breadth of virors of Edinburgh are perhaps the this stripe is from 9 to !2 inches ; the molt picturesque in the world. The length is considerable, 100 or 200 yards, boble appearance of the Frith, with the extending from the south-east side of tariegated face of the country, have a the southmost hill through a hollow, Tery Atriking eff. a. All travellers seem and ascending obliquely the shoulder of to agree, that the view from the Cal- the summit of Arthur's Seat, on the top-hill yields to none in Europe, if the south-east side. In the spring, about barks of the Lake of Geneva be ex- the month of April, the grass begins cupied. The largest hill in the imme. gradnaily to wither and decay. Të is dia:e vicinity of Edinburgh, is Arthur's perfe&tly dead in a little time, that is, Sie*. This bill has a broad base, but a week or two, and then appears white Dear the summit it rises to a conical
or withered. Similar appearances ex1:s height from the base is 700 feet, and tend from the south side of the summit 256 above the level of the sea. Adjoin. to the north side of the hill, half way
in Arthur's Scatis Salisbury Craigst. down the plain ; but none at the bottom. Defo present to the city an awful front Parallel to each of those tracts of wi.
thered grass, there is another perfectSo called, after Arthur, the British pris.ce who, in the end of the 6th century, ly similar, but of a black colour, as if cicated the Saxons in that neighbourhood.
made the year before, the grass having + This has its name from the Earl of Sa- taken rooi. This distance of the old 'bury, who accompanied Edward III. in an from the new track, in general, is hut capedition against the Scots...
a few inches. In some places, Dr VOL. LVIII.