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and top, bat close at the feet *, and so French manner, short cloaks like the doubled. When passengers go to bed, Germans, French hoods, and large their custom was to present them with falling bands about their necks. The 2 dleeping cup of wine at parting. The unmarried of all forts did go bare-headcountry people and merchants used to ed, and wear short cloaks with most drak largely; the gentlemen somewhat close linen fleeves on their arms, like more sparingly; yet, the very courtiers, the virgins of Germany. The inferior by night meetings, and entertaining sort of citizens wives, and the women ang liraoger, used to drink healths not of the country, did wear cloaks made without excefs ; and, to speak truth of a coarse stuff, of two or three cowithout offence, the excess of drinking lours, in checker work, vulgarly called was then far greater in general among Plodan ļ. To conclude, in general, the Scots than the English. Myself they would not at this time be attired being at the court, invited by some gen- after the English fashion, in any
; temen to fupper ; and being forewarn- but the men, especially at court, follow ed to fear this excess, would not pro- the French fashion; and the women, mife to fup with them, but upop con- both in .court and city, as well in dition that my inviter would be my cloaks, as naked heads, and close sleeves protection from large drinking, which on the arms, and all other garments, I was many times forced to invoke, be follow the fashion of the women in ing courteously entertained, and much Germany." provoked to carousing; and so for that
About 20 or 30 years ago,
genetime avoided any great intemperance. rality of the people of Edinburgh were Remembering this, and having fince in ose to dine at two o'clock. Shopobserved, in my conversation at the keepers were wont to lock their shops English court, with the Scots of the at one for dinner, and open them again better fort, that they spend great part at two o'clock ; business was attended of the night in drinking, not only wine, to by all ranks after dinner: a simple but even beer; as myself cannot accufe dinner, consisting of one or two plain them of any great intemperance, so I dishes, was the usual fare; wine was caonot altogether free them from the seldom or never feen at the tables of imputation of excess, where with the the middle ranks. The intercourse of popular voice chargeth them.
the sexes was kept up chiefly at tea vi« The husband men in Scotland, the fits at five o'clock. The people of servanis, and almost all the country, Edinburgh were exemplary for their did wear coarse cloth made at home, regular attendance at church. Pubof grey or sky.colour, and flat blew lic places were little frequented ; excaps, very broad. The merchants in cepting at the theatre, the middling cities were attired † in English cr ranks seldom appeared at any pubFrench cloth, of pale colour, or min- lic amusements. Families had, in gegled black and blue. The gentlemen neral, only one or two maid servants ; did wear English cloth or silk, or light a livery servant was, we believe, unfuffs, little or nothing adorned wiih known in the midling Itation. The silk face, much less with lace of silver wages of a maid fervani, in general, or gold. And all followed at this time was from L. 3 to L. 1 ä-year, and there the French fashion, especially in court. dreiled in red cloaks or tirtan plaids ; Gentlewomen, married, did wear close they feldom wore moes but on Snoupper bodies, after the German manner, days. The taveros and loging-houses with large whale-bone fleeves, after the were poor and dirty; there was no such
The same prevails universally in Scot- place as a hotci.
ic. Pluding, or plaids,
At this period the inhabitants of E- were very few instances (if any) of 2 dinburgh were greatly hampered for citizen of Edinburgh keeping his carlodging ; people of quality and fashion riage 20 years fince; now there are were obliged to submit to small, dull, many. and unhealthy habitations ; as a proof The lodgings, particularly of the of this, it is only necessary to mention, New Town, and other newly erected that, even so far back as the 1783, the buildings, are elegant and healthy. In house which, in 1763, the then Lord general, furniture is to be seen correrJaitice Clerk inhabited, was poffeffed ponding to the house. Though the by a French teacher ; the Lord Prefi- wages of servants have been much the dent Craigie's house by a rouping-wife, fame these twenty years, yet their apa or faleswoman of old furniture; and pearance and dress is greatly improved ; Lord Dunmore's house was left by a now, perlians, these are on the other chairman for want of acconinodation ; esireme. Til within these few
years, and a house lately occupied by one of umbrellas were unknown. the present Lords of Session, is now pofleffe:d by a taylor.
LEITH, being the fea-port of Edin. Of late the change is also, in e, burgh, falls next to be noticed. It is very other respect, remarkable. The a populous, and thriving town, fupposed tables of the middling raoks not only to contain about 14,000 inhabitants ; exhibit vacieties of dishes, but wines but the houses are in general indifferent, are almost universally drank; and when and the streets narrow and dirty. The a party goes abroad to dine, there harbour is formed by a stone pier, which they also ipend the afternoon. It is has been lately much improved. When much to be regretted that the ladies are finished, according to the plan lately fo much neglected in these parties; the made out, the harbour will be useful gentlemen, in general, preferring the and commodious. Ships can only enter bottle to the drawing.room. That soft- the harbour at full tide ; but the roads ness and elegance of manners, which of Leith, afford most excellent anchorcan only be acquired in the company of ing ground at all times, for ships of any ladies, is niuch on the decline. The size. hour of dinner now is 4, and often 5 Besides a very frequent intercourfe o'clock, and business is but feldom at- with London, the trade of Leith is to tended in the evening. Sunday is now the Baltic, to the different ports of Gerthe principal day for seeing company; many in the east seas; and to Holland ; of course the churches are but badly at- to Spain, France, Portugal, and the Merended. The dress of people of falhion diterranean, for wines, fruits, &c. und was costly and elegant'; it was account. for some years past, the West India ed absolutely necessary to be in dress at trade has been successfully attempted*, a public place. This part of ceremony The making of glass, foay, and carpetis much given up, and people go to al
* From the Statistical Account, the trade semblies, plays, and concerts, much in of Leich, from the 14th November 1786 to the same way as they go to dinner. the 13th November 1787, appears to be as The ladies, still, however, attend more follows : to dress ; many good consequences
Foreign. Eng!ib. Scotch. Total.
17 might be figured to ensue, were the Ships
92 gentlemen equallv attentive to this part sloops
1708 of ceremony. Hospitality is a leading Tons
26,170 75,809 105,225 feature of the inhabitants. The lower During the same period, there came into ranks may, with justice, be charged with leith harbour, fram ports within the Firth intemperance, and this is much owing 14,956 tons, and the fame number of vezels
of Forth, 393 vessels with coals, measuring to the cheap price of whisky. There with other goods, niezsuring 10,-59 tons.
ing, are the chief species of manufac- with iron and fulphur, is light upon the ture. In Leith there are two banks ; ftomach, and higlily diurctic. the Leith Banking Company, and a branch of the British Linen Co.npany. About a mue to the east of Edin. The fortifications erected in the time !!rgh, in a hollow pain, stands the
Oliver Cromwell, in North Leith, ruinous church of Restalrig. It was cz"ed the citadel, for the purpose of de founded by James III, but, at the Redag the harbour, were demolished formation, the General Assembly orthe restoration of Charles II. Of late, dered it to be demolihed; notwiita muerer, a very elegant battery has been standing this, the remains of a beautiful bride for the defence of the thipping: a Gothic window, and part of the walls, ble to the west of the citadel, on a ri- remain. In the middle of the churchinggroard, which fully commands the vard, there is a spacious vaulted mauçatrance of the harbour.
fo!eum, with yew trees growing upon The Water of Leith is the orly river its top, which belongs to the Karl of in the vicinity of Edinburgh. It is but Moray. a small stream, which en puies itself in The Frith of Forth contributes much 10 the Frith of Forth, and forms at to the riches and comfurt, as well as Leith a pretty good harbour for the hip- the beauty of this part of the island. A ping. On its banks are erected the mills communication being now formed with which manufacture flour, &c. for the the western parts, by means of the great chy; alio a very extensive distillery for canal, Leich, the port of Edinbergi, making whisky. There is no tract of las now b:come a great feport. The Country, of equal dimensions, in Scot. Frith afford's fish in considerable abunlaid, where there is so little running dance. Of late, the benings have water. In the bed of the river, a little paiù a visit to it, and afford a cheap below the mills, we have a striking ex- supply of food to the poor, as well as ample of the rents or iffures in the strata of lone being cemented and filled up
“ Hou! fuge fatales hauftus,
fuge virus aquarum, with extranecus matter. It is a vein
Quisquis es, & dumno disce cuvre mes ;
Namque ego morborum doinitrix Hygeia, liquorem cf whirfione near 3 feet wide, trarerf.
Guftavi imprudens facti videbar anus. . ing the hirizontal (trata in the bed of Jani demilja íumeros, & crure informis ufrosie the river, which appears to liave been Rifubus à populo pretereunte petor. introduced in a buid state, the rests of At tu poslabitis Nymplis, fuennia Baciho
Fer saira, telluris fic quoque fecit Hierus." tie irata admitting the l' quid mass of wotone to flow in and unite them. “ A finish'd beauty. I from London came, ST BERNARD'S WELL.
Grace and proportion had adorn'u my frani!";
But rafh I taited this impoiion'd well, 2. Izay years aço, a mineral water
And it raight ('tistrue,tho’ wonderfulzo tell), was discoverid to ifftie frem the rock To fize gigantic all my members (well. elcn the fide of the Warcr of Leitt, a Whether thro’coal the fourtain urge its courte,
il ve Sicckbridge. It was in. Or noxious nictais taint its hidden source, Cosed with a iłone building, lut bad Or (envious neighbour) Cloarina ftain leen demolithed by the fonts of the The fiream with liquid from the Quecn-street
The late Lord Gardeofone, Thered is certain, : !10' thao caufe obfcure. Linking Lighly of the quality of the My figure ought to frighten, not allure ; water, and fioding relief liom drinking And, blameleta tho' the ikilful fculptor's hand, j', caused a very elegant temple to be Not as a statue but a beacon fiand. eri Eted over it, which contains a ftatue to view the pillars, or to taste the Iprir:gs,
Thou! when amusement or distemper brings - Hygeia, but which is too large for its Warn’d by my fate, the nauseous draught) fir ortion*This water is impregnated
The Lord erector's regimen be chine, This circumítance called forth the fol. Abtain from water, and indulge in wine.” wing piprm.
ber 1497 :
a lucrative branch of traffic to the mer. here: it is of a greenish colour, with a chart. The islands in this part of the dusky line, and takes a fine polith. Agates, Forth are Inchkeith, three miles from in detached nodules, are found on the Leith liarbour ; Inclıcolm and Mickry, shores of this island; but none have about four miles to the welt; and C:- been discovered in the rock. Asphalmond Illaod, nearly the same distance. tum, or Jew's pitch, is found inclosed On the ihores of the Firth are found in shiftus, in the fiffures of the rock. specimens of iron stone, particulariy The rocks on both sides of the island feptaria *, jaspers, agates, flint, Mori, abound with shorl. The most remarkand zeolite.
able production is a ftratum of flint, on INCHKEITH
the south west side of the island. It lies Is a desolate island. In ancient under a bed of limestone, and appears times it was used as a place of ba- to have been once in a liquid state ; for nishmená, as appears from the follow- in many places, we find madrepores and ing order of the Privy Council to the marine shells inclosed in the flint, themMagifirates of Edinburgh, in Septen felves converted to a flint, and retain
" That ali manner of per- ing their shapes entire. We believe fons being within the freedom of this many naturaliits deny the existence of a burgh, who are infected of the said stratum of flint, but this affords an excontagious plaque, called the Grandgore, ample to the contrary. The fact is of devoid, rid, and pats furth of this confequence, too, in the great dispute town, and compeer upon the sands of as to the formation of filicious and calLeith, at ten hours before noon, and careous matter, by equeous or igneous there hall have and find boats ready in folution. For here are found shells of the harbour, ordered to them by the the most delicate texture, converted to officers of this burgh, readily furnished, flint, and their fhapes unimpaired. It
with victuals, to have them to the Inch, is well known, too, that in many fpe* (1lifand of Inchkeith), and there to re- cimens found in the chalk hills in Eng
main till God provide for their health.” land, the shells, though calcareous in A fortification was erected upon it a. the outside, are filled with fint with
A considerable part of the in; even those of the most delicate fortalice, or caille, remains on the sum- structure, as the fea-egs. It is difniit of the island, upon the north end of ficult to conceive, how such changes which the arnis of Scotland are to be could be effected by heat, and yet these seen. Near this is a good spring of fresh delicate substances enabled to rent it.
Several sheep are annually fed in any experiments we can institute, on the island. The east side of this shells and such bodies are very foon coniland presents something like balaltic verted to lime by a moderate heat. columns; they are of the moorítone kind, minutely mixed with calcarious This, too, is a small island, chiefly spar. Many of the masses found here composed of rock, and lies within a have the appearance of petrified wood, mile of the Fyfe coaft. There is a fine and take a fine polish.. It has very pro. ruin of its once famous monastery fill bably undergone a strong heat. There :o be seen. There is at present a is also plenty of limestone on the island; battery erecting on this island. This externally it resembles albcftus. A monaitery was founded by Alexander I. ftriated white calcareous spar is also in 1123. It is reported, that this found here, chiefly on the west side of Prince, when crossing the Firth, was the island; also madrepore and coralmarı overtaken by a violent storm, and drible. Juíper is likewise to be met with ven upon Inchcolm. Its only inhabi
who * This is particularly déli ribed by Dr tant was a poor hermit, Futton, in the Edinburgh Phil. Tran. vol. 1. a very hospitable reception, and enter,
rain-d the King for three days, while of broken rocks and precipices, formiturm-bound, with the milk of his cow, ing a sort of amphitheatre of solid rock, ed a few shell-fish. His Majesty, in whose summit is 550 feet in height. This gatitude to the saint to whom he attri- rock is used for the pavement of the ated his fafety, here founded a mo- ftreets of London and Edinburgh. Bezatery of Augustines, and dedicated it tween these two hills, there is a recluse
Si Columba. The rock of this valley. Immediately upon descending and is chiefly a coarse whin-stone. into this valley, the view of Edinburgh The rock of which the greatest part of is totally lost; the imperial prospect of tois Dand is composed, as well as that the city and castle, which these rocks of Inchheith, is similar to that on which in a manner overhang, is intercepted the Cattle of Edinburgh stands. They by Salisbury Craigs. . Seldom are huare all exceedingly hard, and admit of man beings to be met in this lonely vale, a las polish ; particularly that on the or any creature to be seen, but the sheep kcah side of these rocks. On the east feeding on the mountain, and the hawks fade, there is seen black shorl, project- and ravens winging their flight among izz from a decayed ground of the whin the rocks. This valley has much the diwal. In many places, fissures of calc appearance of a crater, long agó filled carccus spar interfect the rock. up in part, the west side, which forms CRAMOND ISLAND.
Salisbury Craigs, having yielded, and Cramond Inand, nearly opposite to funk down on one side. There are a the former, lies within a mile of the considerable variety of rock plants to be fouth shore. It is a flat illand, and found on these hills, but we shall only conßderably larger than Inchcolm. It take notice of that remarkable appearis famous as a rabbit warren. Both it ance, described by Dr Hutton in the and lochcolm have been occupied, of Edinburgh Phil. Tran. vol. 1. Tola:e, as palture ground for particular wards the top of the hill, and surroundbreeds of theep imported to this coun- ing a confiderable part of it, there aptry by the British Wool Society. pears something resembling the withered
To return to the hills. "The en- grafs of a foot-path : The breadth of Tirons of Edinburgh are perhaps the this stripe is from 9 to 12 inches; the most picturesque in the world. The length is considerable, 100 or 200 yards, coole appearance of the Frith, with the extending from the south-east side of variegated face of the country, have a the southmost hill through a hollow, rezy Itriking eff.ct. All travellers seem and ascending obliquely the shoulder of to agree, that the view from the Cal- the Summit of Arthur's Seat, on the top-hill yields to none in Europe, if the south-east side. In the spring, about barks of the Lake of Geneva be ex- the month of April, the grass begins Ce pied. The largest hill in the imme. graduaily to wither and decay. Ič is diz:e vicinity of Edinburgh, is Arthur's perfectly dead in a little time, that is, Sta:*. This bill has a broad base, but a week or two, and then appears white rear the summit it rises to a conical top. or withered. Similar appearances ex1:s height from the base is 700 feet, and tend from the south side of the summit +56 above the level of the sea. Adjoin. to the north side of the hill, half way sto Arthur's Scatis Salisbury Craigst. down the plain; but none at the bottom. Tidle present to the city an awful front Parallel to each of those tracts of wi
thered grass, there is another perfect. ' So called, after Arthur, the Pritish Prince who, in the end of the 6th century, ly similar, but of a black colour, as if cfeated the Saxons in that neighbourhood.
made the year before, the grass having + This has its name from the Earl of Sa- taken root. This distance of the old bury, who accompanied Edward III. in an from the new track, in general, is but cspedition against the Scots...
a few inches. In some places, Dr VOL. LVIII.