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did not, a

mitting the difference between you to both men of honour, and common my as bitration. Give me leave then, friends, I shall bring them with me. in pursuance of the trust you have re- All I have to beg of you is, that you posed in me of arbitrating between you, will not, by any youthful heat, frustrate to appoint one o'clock Saturday noon, the good end of this amicable mecting : at the Bedford-head, Covent-garden, for either you did intend by the words for the place of meeting, over a fmall which Mr Orme took anils, to affront collation : and I hope, Sir, you will him, or you

did not: if

you come with a hearty difpoftion to be re- ready and candid acknowledgement that conciled, as I fall to do impartial jus- you did not, will not fail, as I hope, of tise between you. I give the same in- being accepted as it ought: if you did, mitation by a line or two to Mr Crisp. and had no just cause, it wiil become a I fall only bring with me Mr Wood man of honour to own his fault, rather 2nd Mr Erskine, who were present than by persisting in it to bring matters when the offence was given and taken ; 19 cxtremities. The method I intend and I hope we five shall have reason to to take shall be ibis : ' be pleased and rejoice in one another's I have ordered two rooms to be tacompany; and particularly in the happy ken, in one of which I will attend Mr change of the time, place, and occasion Orme, to know what he takes aniss, ci meeting.

and what he insists upon : and in the To avoid all matter for fresh provo- other I will attend you, to know your cz'ion, on the first meeting of two such sentiments in like manner. This I shall high-spirited gentlemen, I have ordered do, because as you may both mect others two rooms till I know each of your sen. wire in high spirits, and with a fente oments, that I may, by a juft and im- of having been injured in your honours, percial arbitration, gather each of your all fresh provocations may be avoided ; demands, and be the better able to re- and when I know both


sentiments, move all difficulties when I bring you I shall be better able to arbitrate with together, to the happy reconciliation that justice and impartiality which it I hope to see effected between you. I will become me to observe ; and I hope am, Sir,

the event will be answerable to my Your sincere friend and servant, wishes, and a sincere reconciliation be THOMAS Gilles. effected between you; and that you may

equally rejoice for all your futuri.ngthi.

ened lives, in the return of a day which From Thomas Gilles, Esq; to Andrew might have been fatal to one or both, Crisp, Eja.

I have given Mr Orme notice in writDEAR SIR,

ing of the time and place, and befought Me Orme has obliged me by con- lini, as I do you, to come with a hearty senting to leave the matter in dispute, disposition to a reconciliation ; which between you, to my arbitration, as you if it can be effected, as I make no doubt, have also done. Í have therefore ap- from the good sense of the gentlemen I pointed to-niorrow, one o'clock, at the have to deal withi, will be a molt delirBedfo:d-head, Covent Garden, over a able event to Eite collation that I fall order to be Your truly affectionate on the table by two. As Mr Wood

and faithful friend, and Mr Erskine were present when the

Thomas Gilles. offence was given and taken, and are

LITERARY HISTORY OF THE PRESENT PERIOD. IN comparing the present century with be found, that fo much has been done Rhode immediately preceding, it will not toward the improvement of science, as



may be imagined by superficial observers, these alterations will produce a more and might have been expected from pro- genuine religion, time, the greatest ingrettive experience. The philologists, Itructor, will shew how far Our mistrust crators, poets, historiars, and novellists, is grounded. of the sixteenth and seventeenth cen One thing, however, may be advancturies, were by no means inferior, and ed as true : religion in general wears a were, in some respects, fuperior to those more amiable face; intolerantism is no of the eighteenth. In axt mathematics, more her inseparable companion ; and particularly in astronomy, fome valuable, mankind seein willing to go to heaven, at least curious discoveries have been without justling one another on the road. made, from the great improvenient of The principles of religion too have telescopes, and other instruments of ob- been more minutely examined ; many fervation. Mechanics have been carried inveterate prejudices explored ; revelato a much greater degree of perfection ; tion grounded upon more rational motives and natural and experimental philofo- of credibility ; a number of various corphy have acquired a certitude and ac- ruptions eliminated from the sacred curacy, beyond what they had in any volumes with which the hand of time prior period: pharmacy has also been had tarnished them ; and biblical critipurified from the dregs of former times ; cism established on such principles, and anatomy and chirurgery have been eager guided by such rules, as mult necesarily ly and successfully cultivated; and the tend to its perfection. This, therefore, principles of the healing art have been is all well : yet if all this conduce not fimplilied and better arranged.

to meliorate the heart of man, to inspire Sach are the parts of science, with him with a greater degree of the love sespect to which our age can boast some of God and of his neighbour ; what will fort of superiority: for, with regard to religion profit by it? the fine arưs, as they are termed, we ap On the other hand, it is but too true, prehend they are rather languishing than that irreligion has made great strides acquiring vigour. .A partial or local during the same period. The metaphyimprovement, in some of them, may have fics of Hume, the eloquence of Bolingtaken place, and has, no doubt, taken broke, the learning of Freret, the wit place in this nation; but we greatly of Voltaire, and the fascinating logic of mistake, if, on the whole, they have not Rousseau (not to mention a numerous loft more than they have gained. but less formidable tribe of inferior

Whether in polítical, moral, or religi. writers) have inflicted severe wounds on ous knowledge, we are a whit wiser than Christianity, and spread the contagion our forefathers, appears to us a problem, of infidelity far and wide : even Athethat may be disputed with equal plau- ism, who before Jurked in corners, and sibility on both sides of the queition. covered his face with a deceitful veil,

New systems of ethics have been creat- has recently shown himself without dised, and bases of various forms have been guise; and Hammonds and Dantons have contrived for the statue of Virtue ; yet appeared, have boldly dared the Deity we think it must be confessed, that the to punish them for disbelieving his exgoddess is not more sincerely worship- istence. And this is called The Age of ped, nor her votaries more numerous Reason! Than in the days of our predecessors; we Having thus given a short view of the fear the reverse is true.

prefent state of literature in general, we As to thcology, or the science of re. will next, in as few words as possible, i on, it has certainly undergone some and we faiter ourselves with strick dila considerable changes within these fifty tributive justice, aflign to the different years, and is apparen:ly on the eve of nations of Europe their respective thares. Nill greater alterations ; but whether

(To be Continued.)


PORTUGAL, AND OF HIS UNFORTUNATE CONSORT DONA IGNEZ DE CASTRO. CONTIGUOUS to the transept of thought it prudent then to conceal the the church belonging to the royal mo- fact. natery of Alcobaca, fifteen leagues The nobility also had intimation of north of Lisbon, there is a Gothic the marriage, and the preference given mzufoleum of hewn stone, in the midst to Ignez had awakened their jealousy. of which are two magnificent fepulchres, Hence they took every opportunity of of white marble, containing the remains representing her as a woman of the of Don Pedro the first, King of Portu- greatest ambition, and pretended that

al, and of Dona Ignez de Castro, his very fatal consequences were to be apcoafort.

prehended from such an alliance : they There are but few personages record- also condemned the prince as a raih and ed in history, who have been oftener disobedient son. celebrated by dramatic writers than this The King, who was a man of weak Princess. There have been no less than understanding, gave ear to their calumfire tragedies formed from her pitiful ny, and they worked upon his passions Darralise ; viz. two in English, one in to that degree, that he resolved to murFrench, one in Spanish, and one in der the unfortunate Princess. AccordPortuguese. The latter, perhaps, ap- ingly, he set out to perpetrate the norproaches the nearest to the truth of bis- rid deed, accompanied by three of his tory, and is not inferior in point of po- courtiers, and a number of armed men. etical merit. The author, Senhor Ni Dona Ignez at this time resided in cola Luis, had no occasion to resort 10 Coimbra, in the palace of Santa Clara, fiction to heighten the passions of an au- where she passed her time in the most dience, as the simple facts are fufficient private manner, educating her children, to fill up all the scenes of pity and ter- and attending to the duties of her dofor, and to shew to what lengths love mestic affairs. and revenge are capable of transporting The Prince, unfortunately, was athe human mind.

broad on a hunting party, when the The subject of this tragical piece is as King arrived. The beautiful victim follows : Don Pedro, son of Alonso came out to meet him, with her two inthe fourth, King of Portugal, and heir fant children, who clung about his apparent to the crown, having fallen in knees, screaming aloud for mercy. She love with a lady of the court, named prostrates herself at his feet, bathes Dona Ignez de Castro, thought he could them with tears, and fupplicates pity por share the crown which awaited him for her children, beseeching him to bawith a more amiable person. She uni- niih her to some remote desert, where ted to all the charms of beauty, the she would gladly wander an exile with molt graceful and accomplished man- her babes. Ders. The prince, waving all considera The feelings of nature arrested his tions of birth and fortune, was privately arm, just raised to plunge a dagger into married to her by the bishop of Guarda. her breast. But his counsellors urging

Notwithstanding the nuptials were the necessity of her death, and reproachperformed with all the secrecy imagin- ing him for his disregard to the welfare aste, yet they reached the King's car, of the nation, he relapsed into his fora who had premeditated a consort for mer resolution, and commanded them D) Pedro in the King of Castile’s to dispatch her ; at which they rushed daughter. He questioned him as to forward, regardless of the cries of inthe truth of the report ; but knowing nocence and beauty, and instantly struck bis father's arbitrary disposition, he off her head ! Vol. LVIII.



shine ;

This affe&ting scene fórms part of an But destiny forbade : with eager zeal, episode on the Lufiad of Camoens, thus Again pretended for the public weal,

Her fierce accusers urg'd her speedy doom ; translated by Mr Mickle:

Again dark rage diffus’d its horrid gloom Dragg’d from her bower by murderous O'er stern Alonzo's brow: swift at the sign, ruffian hands,

Their swords unsheath'daround her brandish'd Before the frowning King fair Inez ftands; Her tears of artleis innocence, her air O foul disgrace, of knighthood lasting stain, So mild, so lovely, and her face so fair, By men of arms an helpless lady slain ! Mov’d the stern monarch ; when with eager Inez, while her eyes to heaven appeal, zeal

Refigns her bosom to the murdering steel : Her fierce destroyers urg'd the public weal; Thať snowy neck, whose matchless form Dread rage again the tyrant's foul poffest,

sustain's And his dark brow his cruel thoughts confeit; The loveliest face, where all the gracesreign'd, O'cr her fair face a sudden paleness spread, That snowy neck was ftain'd with spouting Her throbbing heart with generous anguish

gore, bled,

Another sword her lovely bosom tore. Her beauteous eyes in trembling tear-drops The flowers that glistend with her tears bedrown'd,

dew'd, To heaven she lifted, but her hands were bound; Now shrunk and languish'd, with her blood Then on her infants turn'd the piteous glance, inbrew'd, The look of bleeding woe; the babes advance. As when a rofe erewhile of bloom fo gay, The lovely captive thus:-O monarch, hear, Thrown from the careless virgin's breast If e'er to thee the name of man was dear,

away, If prowling tygers, or the wolf's wild brood, Lies faded on the plain, the living red, Inspir'd by Nature with the lust of blood, The snowy white, and all its fragrance fled; Have yet been mov'd the weeping babe to So from her cheeks the roses dy'd away, spare,

And pale in death the beauteous Inez lay : Nor left, but tended with a nurse's care; With dreadful smiles, and crimson'd with her As Rome's great founders to the world were blood, given;

Round the wan victim the stern murderers Shalt thou, who wear'ft the facred stamp of stood. heaven,

O fun, couldst thou fo foul a crime behold, The human form divine, shalt thou deny Nor veil thine head in darkness, as of old, That aid, that pity, which e'en beast supply? A sudden night unwonted horror caft Oh, that thy heart were, as thy looks declare, O'er that dire banquet, where the fires repast, of human mould, superfluous were my prayer; The son's torn limbs supplied !---yet you, ye Thou could'st not then a helpless damfel lay, vales ! Whofé fole offence in fund affection iay. Ye distant forests, and ye flowery dales ! Ah, let my woes, unconscious of a crime, When pale and sinking to the deathful fall, Procure mine exile to some barbarous clime: You heard her quivering lips on Pedro call; Give me to wander o'er the burning plains Your faithful echoes caught the parting sound. Of Lybia's defarts, or the wild domains And Pedro! Pedro ! mournful, figh'd around. Of Scythia's now-clad rocks and frozen shore;

Lufiad, book 3. There let me, hopeless of return, deplore

Soon after the above transaction the Where ghaitiy horror fills the dreary, vale, Where furieks and howings die on every gale, Prince arrived; but, alas ! found those The lions roariig, and the tygers yell,

eyes that were wont to watch his return There with mine infant race coulign’d to with impatience, closed in death. The dwell;

fight of his beloved Ignez weltering in There le me try that piety to find, In rain by me implor'd for human kind :

gore filled his mind with distraction, and There in some dreary cavern's rocky womb,

kindled every spark of revenge within fimid the horrors of fepulchral gloom,

his soul. In all the


of rage,

he For him whose love I mourn, my love fall called aloud on the avenging hand of glow,

heaven to punish those moniters who des The sigti thall nurmur and the tear shall flow. prived him of all he held dear upon earth. In tears she utter'das the frozen fnow

As soon as her remains were interred, Touch'd by the spring's mild ray,

egins to

he flow;

himself at the head of an army,

put So just began to melt his stubborn soul, who sympathized with his distress; 1 smuild-ray'd pity o'er the tyrant stole; they carried fire and sword through the


adjacent provinces, and laid waste the her body was taken out of the sepulchre, eltates of the murderers. The royal covered with regal robes, and placed troops could not oppose them; they on a magnificent throne, around which Aed at the appearance of the gallant a. his ministers assembled, and did homage vengers of innocence. But the king, to their lawful Queen. wretched man! could not fly from him After this ceremony, her corpse was felf; the cries of his grand children still translated from Coimbra to Alcobaca, echoed in his ears, and the bleeding i- with a pomp hitherto unknown in the mage of their unfortunate mother was kingdom ; though the

Itance between conitantly before his eyes. Death at these two places is fifty two miles, yet lait commiserated his situation, and he the road was lined on both sides all the expired full of repentance for his accu- way, with people holding liglited rapers. mulated crimes. He was an undutiful The funeral was attended by all the nofon, an unnatural brother, and a cruel blemen and gentlemen in Portugal, dresfather.

sed in long mourning cloaks; their laThe Prince now ascended the throne, dies also attended, dressed in white in the thirty-seventh year of his age. mourning veils. He no sooner obtained the


than The cloud which the above disaster be meditated to revenge the death of cast over the mind of Don Pedro was his beloved Ignez. The three mur- never totally dispersed ; and as he lived derers, namely, Pedro Coello, Diogo in a state of celibacy the remainder of Lopez Pacheo, and Alvaro Gonsalvez, his life, agreeably to his vow, there had iled into Castile, previous to the was nothing to divert his attention from death of the late King. The Prince ruminating on the fate of his beloved ordered them to be tried on a charge of spouse. The impression her death made high treason, and being found guilty, on him was strongly characterised, not their estates were confiscated. Next, only in the tortures he inflicted on her he contrived to seize their persons, by murderers, but also in all the acts of his agreeing with the King of Castile, that administration, which, from their sevebuth should reciprocally deliver up the rity, induced some to give him the apPortuguese and Caftilian fugitives, who pellation of Pedro the Cruel ; by others fought protection in their respective do- he was called Pedro the Juft: and, umicions. Gonsalvez and Coello were pon the whole, it appears that the last accordingly arrested, and fent in chains title most properly appertained to hin. to Portugal; Pacheo escaped into France. It must be allowed, however, that he

The King was at Santerem when the punished some offences rather severely, d.linquents were brought to him; he particularly in cases of adultery. In al iftantiy ordered them o be laid on a transgressions of this nature, his laws pire that was previously formed, conti. were more rigid than those of Solon, guuus to which he had a banquet pre- as will appear by the following infances: jercd. Before the corch was kindled, he ordered a man to be hanged for barn and while they agonized at every more ing had communication with a woman under the most lingering tortures, their previons to his marriage with her. Anhearts were cut out, one at his breast, oiher, detected in the act of adultery, ue other at his back. Lastly, the was, with his mistress, committed to pyre was set on a blaze, in presence of the flames. A friar, who was discuwhich he dincd, while they evaporated vered to be the father of a boy who in fines.

struck his nominal father, was put into Having thus far appeared his insati- a case formed of cork, and fawed through able thint of revenge, he ordered his the body. rrarriage with Dona Ignez to be pub Now; it is surprising that Don Pedro Lut throughout the kingdom; then himself fnould have been guilty of lins

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