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the house before the family were up. the whole animal creation. Every room I was to no purpose I took this oppor. door is doubly barred and locked ; bells tunity to throw out some reflections communicate from one room to another, upon nerves, not much to their credit. which has this happy advantage, that, Ny wife was not pleased that her any sleepless individual may disturb the favourite apprehenlions were disappoint- whole house, by a single pull. I once ed; " such things had often happened,” proposed fire-arms, but that must be and they had all heard “ the death- upon no account allowed, for as my, watch” the night before. My cousin wife very properly observes, “ no one expressed his regret for being the in- can know what may happen, and they Locent cause of this confusion ; but, I may go off themselves.” As to danger know not how it was, the family looked from fire, beside being amply insured, as cool upon him for some time, as if every bed-room is provided with a firethey had doubted whether he was dead efcape, upon a new construction, and ar alive.

which, from the state of nerves in my Those who consult their nerves do house, I am certain would answer very not like to be disappointed. If they little purpose ; for they who are too nerhear a noice, and determine that it pro- vous to walk down stairs, in case of ceeds from thunder, a thief, or a fire. alarm, would not do the business much copine, they are generally chagrined to better by going out of the window. fod that it is only a cart, a cat, or a Such fir, are some of the inconveItage-coach. Now, as I am a lover of niencies I am subjected to from my peace and concord, I have long ceased family. þeing poffessed of nerves. I my opposition to the nervous starts and could increase the catalogue very conalarms of my family, however inconsiderably, were I not afraid of swelling venient. In summer, indeed, I am my letter to an unwarrantable fize. I much less exposed to them than in shall only add, therefore, that it would winter, because they commence regular- not be amiss, if after providing for our ly at Sun-set, and therefore we have for safety by every proper means which fome years been strangers to the com- human skill or wisdom can suggest, we forts of long nights, and fire. side mer were to go to sleep in quiet, trusting riment. What human wisdom could do, that all other protection shall be extendhas, indeed, been done. Our house is ed to us by the Giver of every

Good. 25 regular a fortification as the laws of Let me add, too, that vain fears, and the city will permit. We have no continual apprehensions, are by no means bitions, nor outworks, nothing that the best possible proofs of Christian phiCochorn or Vauban would derive credit losophy, nor of Christian refignation ; from ; but all that bolts and bars can that the day of evil will come, if ordo, has been constantly attended to. dained, whether we guard against it, or Our very cats, if they wish to carry on not; and that the loss of a few movea an intrigue without doors, must repair ables, which could be easily replaced, to the place of assignation before fun-fet, is nothing, and less than nothing, when howerer disagreeable it may be to wait; compared with the miseries of a life for after the doors and windows are spent in the anticipation of misfortune, fhut, all egress and ingress is denied to and in presages of evil.

C. EXPERIMENTS made to determine the positive and relative QUANTITIES of MOISTURE absorbed from the ATMOSPHERE, by various SUBSTANCES,

under similar CIRCUMSTANCES ;

BY SIR BENJAMINE THOMPSON, KNT. F. R. S. BEING engaged in a course of ex- of various bodies, with respect to heat, periments upon the conducting powers and particularly of such substances as Vol. LVIII.



are commonly made use of for clothing, the middle of a vault, where the air, in order to see if I could discover any which appeared by the hygrometer to relation between the conducting powers be completely saturated with moisture, of thofe substances, and their power of was at the temperature of 45° F.; and absorbing moisture from the atmosphere, in this situation they were suffered to I made the following experiments : remain three days and three nights, the

Having provided a quantity of each vault being hung round, during all this of the under-mentioned fubstances, * in a time, with wet linen cloths, to render state of the most perfect cleanness and the air as damp as possible, and the purity, I exposed them, spread out upon door of the vault being shut. clean china plates, twenty-four hours in At the end of the three days I enthe dry air of a very warm room, (which tered the vault with the balance, and had been heated every day, for several weighed the various substances upon the months, by a German stove), the last spot, when they were found to weigh fix hours the heat being kept up to 85o as is expressed in the third column of of Fharenheit's thermometer ; after the following table. which I entered the room with a very N. B. The weight made use of in accurate balance, and weighed equal these experiments was that of Cologne, quantities of these various substances, the parts or least division being ostio as expressed in the following table. part of a mark; confequently 1000 of

This being done, and each substance these parts make about 521 grains troy, being equally fpread out upon a very

I did not add the silver wire to the clean china platé, they were removed in bodies above mentioned from any

idea to a very large uninhabited rooin, upon that that substance could posibly imbibe the second floor, where they were ex. moisture from the atmosphere ; but I posed forty-eight hours, upon a table was willing to see whether a metal, placed in the middle of the room, the placed in air saturated with water, is air of the room being at the temperature not capable of receiving a small addition of 45° F. ; after which they were care- of weight from the moisture attracted fully weighed, (in the room), and were by it, and attached to its surface; from found to weigh as undermentioned. the result of the experiment, however,

They were then removed into a very it should seem that no such attraction damp cellar, and placed upon a table, in fubfists between the metal I made ułe

of Weight after Weight after weight aftur

being dried 24ing exposed being exposed * The various substances. hours in a hot 48 hours in a 72 hours in a

cold uninhabit- damp cellar.

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of and the watery vapour diffolved in the warmth of that covering is clear ; air.

for, the same degree of warmth, proI was totally mistaken in my con- duced by wearing more clothing of a je&tures relative to the results of the ex. different kind, does not produce the periments with the other substances. fame effect. As ineo is known to attract water with The perspiration of the human body, to much avidity, and as, on the contrary, being absorbed by a covering of lanwool, hair, feathers, and ocher like nel, is immediately distributed through anime substances, are made wet with the whole thickness of that substance, su ruch difficulty, I had little doubt and by that means exposed, by a very but that linen would be found to at large surface, to be carried off by the 9.c moisture from the atmosphere with atmosphere; and the loss of this watery muci greater force than any of those vapour, which the flannel sustains on the jubilances ; and that, under similar cir- one side, by evaporation, being immediCulliances, it would be found to con- ately restored from the other, in consetäin much more water; and I was quence of the strong attraction between much confirmed in this opinion upon the flannel and this vapour, the pores of T-collecting the great difference in the the fkin are difincumbered, and are conapparent dampness of linen and woollen tinually surrounded by a dry, warm, cions, when they were both exposed and salubrious, atmosphere. to the same atmosphere. But these ex I am astonished that the custom of periments have convinced me that all wearing flannel next the skin should not my speculations were founded upon er- have prevailed more universally. I am Toneous principles.

confident it would prevent a multitude It should seem that those bodies of diseases; and I know of no greater which are the most easily wet, or which luxury than the comfortable sensation receive water in its unelastic form with which arises from wearing it, especially :he greatest ease, are not those which, after one is a little accustomed to it. in all cases, attract the watery vapour

It is a mistaken notion that it is too diffolved in the air with the greatest warm a clothing for summer. I have force.

worn it in the hottest climates, and in Perhaps the apparent dampness of all seasons of the


and never found liser, to the touch, arises more from the least inconvenience from it.

It is the case with which that substance parts the warm-bath of a perspiration confined wih the water which it contains, than by a linen shirt, wet with sweat, which from the quantity of water it actually renders the summer heats of fouthern Loids ; in the same manner as a body climates so insupportable ; but flannel mars :10t to the touch, in consequence promotes perspiration, and favours its ci its parting freely with its heat ; while evaporation ; and evaporation, as is well another body which is actually at the known, produces positive cold. I firit locie temperature, but which withholds began to wear fi annel, not from any

-s heat with greater obstinacy, affects knowledge which I had of its properties, sre sense of feeling much less violently. but merely upon the recommendation of

liis well known that woollen clothes, a very able physician, (Sir Richard fish as fannels, '&c. worn next the Jebb), and, when I began the experi1018, grea:ly promote insensible per- ments of which I have here given an

ration. May not this arise princi. account, I little thought of discovering ally from the strong attraction which the physical cause of the good effects : Edits between wool and the watery which I had experienced from it **; cur which is continually issuing from had I the most distant idea of mentione tuman body?

ing the circumstance. I shall be happy, That it does not depend entirely upon however, if what I have said, or done,



; nor

upon the subject, should induce others these experiments, the discovery of the to make a trial of what I have so long relation which I thought might possibly experienced with the greatest advantage, subfist between the warmth of the suband which, I am confident, they will stances in question, when made use of as find to contribute greatly to health, and clothing, and their powers of attracting confequently to all the other comforts moisture from the atmosphere, or, in and enjoyments of life.

other words, between the quantities of I shall then think these experiments, water they contain and their conducting trifling as they may appear, by far the powers with regard to heat, I could not most fortunate, and the moft important find that these properties depended in ones I have ever made.

any manner upon, or were in any way With regard to the original object of connected with, each other.

From the Transactions of the Royal Society of London.



whom the bare mention of the topic I SHOULD be happy if a few observa- will excite the liveliest attention to my tions that occur to me, upon a subject remarks. that I know to be extremely interesting Excepting the coins of the Romans, to many persons of taste throughout there has nothing occurred parallel to Britain, were deemed worthy of being these, within fo short a period, since diffused through the medium of your during the æras of the ancient indepenliterary journal; as they are humbly in- dent states of Greece, when almost every tended to promote improvement in an city had its own distinct coinage, as is elegant art, intimately connected with elegantly illustrated by the engravings the Belles Lettres, and on which, I will and descriptions of Dr Combet. Our venture to say, the reputation of the modern coins of cities in Britain excel present times for industry, ingenuity, the ancient in neatness of finish, from and arts, must in a great measure, de: the use of the mill, and invention of inpend at periods of the latest pofterity. denting letters round the outer edge, as

Such of your readers as have not stu- much as they fall short of them in the died, or contracted a relish for the fub- high relief and boldness of execution, in ject, may smile when they learn that s the representations which they bear ; allude to the designs and execution of but in their great variety, and most cases, the most common current coins of the appropriate imagery, they approach the present day, known by the name of pro- nearest to the merit of the Roman revincial halfpence; being issued by private verses, of any thing that has appeared traders for circulation, in Great Britain, in the mint ages of modern times. chiefly since the year 1786, and which, It is, however, deeply to be regretted, in some districts, have almost totally by every lover of the fine arts, that so fupplanted the present very base and many of these pieces are degraded by barbarous national copper currency. To puerile and contemptible devices : such those who are not aware of the impor- are all emblems of particular trades, or tance of the numismatic study, I would articles of dealing ; mere designations recommend, as introductive to their and sign-pofts; and almost all morfels knowledge in it, Addison's Dialogues ; of heraldry, escutchcons, mottos, fupthe Writings of Folkes, De Cardonnel, porters, &c. These can transmit no and Spelling ; but especially the late

† Essay on Coins and Medals, London, excellent publication of the ingenious Edwards, 2d. Edit. 2 vols. 8vo. 1789. Mr Pinkertont. There are others, in # Num. veterum populorum et urbium

This came too late for insertion last 4to. London, Cadell, 1782. month,


thought, no information to posterity. The at Ketley : Thames and Severn canal amazing durability of coins should be piece, has a barge sailing ; reverse, a ever remembered by those who are con- maffy acqueduct bridge : a Kent halfcerned in issuing them; and such designs penny, on the union of Appledore, has adopted as may reflect the most striking, a wind-mill, the miller, and his house ; and important features of the present the great iron-works of Wilkinson are timez. Among sereral bundreds of differently pourtray'd on his currency. differently designed pieces in my poffeffi- It is to be lamented, that among the on, such only as come under fome of few struck for Scotland, not one comes the five following descriptions feem to under this description. How ornanendeserve being fignalized and recom- tal and honourable would it be, for mended to imitation :

fome of them to bear the figures, and I. Such as have fac fimiles of remark- perpetuate the dates of the ei ion of able buildings; e. . The Canterbury ihe greatest foundery in the world at halfpenny, bearing the cathedral ; the Carron ; the north-bridge at EdinYork one, with the noble minster ; re. burgh ; the elegant bridges at Perth verse, Clifford's tower: the Leeds cloth- and Glasgow ; the great quay at Aberhall appears upon one of the Leeds deen ; or the valt and useful aqueduct tokens; the west-front of St Paul's over the Kelvin, supporting, at a stuchurch upon a London one ; Ipswich- pendous elevation, one of the greatest cross, a neat relique of ancient architec- canals in Europe ! ture, graces the Ipswich halfpenny ; as III. Striking emblems of that fpirit an old tower, a very entire remain of of industry and commerce, which chagothic labour, does that of Dundee; the racterizes the present times, and especialvenerable ruins of Bigod's castle in ly the British nation. One payable at Suffolk is on that of Bungay ; one of Ipswich, has may God preserve the Bedal, in Yorkshire, gives a Itreet in plough and fail ;" a team in a field, perspective, two inns, and a spire ; the and a fhip in full fail, coming into view fplendid front of the new pump-room, behind a headland : a weaver is at embellishes halfpence and farthings of work upon a Haverhill coin ; reverse, Bath, &c. These medals may exhibit a plough and Muitle : fhips in full fail to future times the forms of the struc- are meet insignia of the trade of Livera tures which they bear, long after their pool, Yarmouth, Shields, Portsea, and the originals shall have faded and moulder- Cinque Ports ; as a theep, reverse, a ed in the dust :

woolen weaver, is of the manufacture
Ambition figh’d-she found it vain to trust of Rochdale ; and a hop-plantation of
The faithless column, and the crumbling butt; the best product of the county of Sufsex ;
Huge moles, whose shadows stretch'd from the rapid and useful mail-coach, and ex-

shore to shore,
Their ruins perish'd, and their place no more!

hibitions of whale-fishing, and hat-makConvinc’d, she now contracts her valt design, ing, are seen upon different London And all her triumphs shrink into a coin.

pieces, &c.

IV. Tlustrious characters and re-
The Abbeys of Melrose, Paisley, St markable men, in British history, have
Andrews, Arbroath, &c. and the best now their features transmitted to
modern buildings in Edinburgh and tant climes and ages," upon common
Glasgow, would be desirable objects for currency; which, perhaps, conveys
Scottish provincial pieces.

" the charge of Fame*," better than II. Others afford representations of expensive nedallions. Newton, Shakethe great and ufcful undertakings of the speare, Johofon, Howard, Howe; and present times ; such as the ironabridge the founders, or greatest benefactors of over the Severn, on the Colebrook-Dale

* Pope.-- Verses to Addison on his Dialialfpenny ; reverse, the inclined plane logues on Medals.


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