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Bath, Southampton, Lancaster, &c. are lic art a study ; and it is much to be honoured upon pieces of general circu- wished, that particular injunctions were lation ; on this department, however, given to the engravers, to have the it must be observed with regret, that figures on the piece much bolder and the portraits are, in general, far from higher raised than is usually done, which being accurate ; though perhaps, not less is effected by baving them more deeply so than the effigies of Roman Emperors, cut into the dye; and the dotied circle a.e given by the degenerate mintages by which the figures on the field are of the lower Empire ; the scarce ones protected, should be much stronger, and of which are collected with so much more elevated ; the shapes of even rivit eagerness and expence, without regard of these pieces which I have commendto the contemptible or deteítable cha- ed, are 100 thin and broad; they should racters of their prototypes.
Ours are be increased in thickness, even thougli not less worthy of being styled the their circumference should be thereby Concisam argentum in titulos, faciifque mi- diminished. nutas*.
There has just now been communicate In this respect also, Scotland creeps
ed to me a small copper coin ; the 's at more than her usual distance behind part of a rupee, done for the East Inuia the Siller Kingdom. Why are the Company by Mr Bonttone of Birmingfeatures of Buchanan, Napier, the ad- ham, upon a new principal, admirably mirable Crichton, Hume, Robertson, calculated to preserve both the figure, Cullen, and Reid, consigned to the and legend from being soon defaced by fugitive materials, and faithless charge autrition :---the whole field of the piece of paper and canvas, and not a single is protected by a circle, broad, plain, medalt recording their likenefies to and considerably elevated, into which pofterity ?
the letters are indented in intaglio, in V. Some, lastly, are mcrcly curious ; the same form as they usually are round ile engraver James has been very suc- the external rim. cessful in two landscapes upon the op- It may, perhaps, be oljected, that police sides of his Dudley token ; and these improvements will occasion an adhis elephant upon the Pidcock exhibition ditional expence, and consequent reducpieces, is at least as well represented as tion of the profits of circulation ; but the fanse animal is by old Roman artists, it is to be considered, that even if luis upon denarii, of the family Caciliu, or weight of copper were given in that upon those of Julius, and of tugujtus. form, the public would be no loser, be
I shall conclude this paper, with cause the pieces would be greatly less earnestly soliciting the attention of all liable to wear by friction, than wien companies and individuals, who may
almost the whole rough for face is exporhenceforth be disposed to employ the ed to continual tubbing, as by the prea artists of Birmingham, London, &c. to sent style of infipid buis relief. Let it. fabricate coins for them, to the forego- be impressed upon the mind of
every ing obfervations, which, I bumbly tiat- citizen, that this is a subject in which, ter myself, will be approven by every as a great mafier * of it has told us, person of talte who has made the medal
NATION IS INTERESTED.” Juvenal, in his Vth Satire,
CIVIS. + Besides the meed of micrit given to diftinguished - Englithmen on provincial coins, From a Country fire ficie, many elegant medals have been track of
Feb. 1796. them. See Snelling's plates.
* Pinkerton's affay, vol. 2. (note) p. 143.
OBSTACLES TO HUSBANDRY.
nature open to the designs of an artful AS the honourable Board has conde- tenant, who might think himself at lifcended to aik our opinion, of the suppo- berty to crop his land, as long as it fed obstacles to improvement in agricul- would pay him for the tillage, and then ture, it is hunibly lubmitted to their at- resign or sell his lease; it may be aritention, whether the most useful science swered, that, if the certainty of lofia would not be greatly afilted, it tie opu- his character, would not operete fulli. ient manufacturers were made to contri. ciently upon him, to prevent such imbute, in a larger proportion, to the ne- politic meafures in a tenans, they might cellities of their weavers, when driven easily be provided against by a clause in to their parith by distress, than is the the leaf, calculated for thit end; or, cafe at present; for although it may be by an indeninification of some other replied, that there is already a law for fort, before the lease was granted. this purpose, it is found so difficult to Another circumstance which would be put in practice, that it is not attempt. aid the plough, it is conceived, is lird, here at present.
berty to the poor to seck a livelihood Other obstacles may be the total want wherever work off.rs, or inclination of leases, or the short terms and strict leads them to seek for it, initead of and penal covenants sometimes insisted being fubje&t to be taken up, if found upon by gentlemen of property, which out of their own parish, and carried, to prohibits that return which is neceifary, what is called their place of settlement, to induce a man to disburse bis proper- at the caprice of an overseer, to sit at ty in the improvements of the natural hone, or what is worse, while they foil; and were the land owners to con- have any credit lest, at the ale-house, sider, that, except in a very few instan- for want of employ : labourers will then, ces of converting meadows and old leys it is presumed, naturally be led to reinto tillage, destroying timber, &c. their fide, where they could render molt serand their tenants real intereits are the vice to the community, and have a prof. fame, for the greater part of a lease; pect of supporting themselves and fathey would see it to be their own and milies, without being reduced to the the public advantage, to suffer their te- mortifying application of an unfeeling Dants to manage the land in such way, parish officer." The rates would be less as would belt enable them to pay their heavy, the land better tilled, at a smallrents with punctuality, and almost give er expence than at present, and both them their own covenants, till the term the rich and poor would feel the benefit. came within five or six years of its es- Another hindrance to the improvepiration ; when, perhaps it might be no- ments, which men of property and thing more than policy, to guard against fpirit might otherwise make, particularthe posibility of abuse, by laying down jy in regard to waste and uncultivated Some rules to govern their conduct, in land, is the present mode of rewarding those particulars, where their intereit the labours of the clergy. Could the militates against that of their landlords ; honourable Board suggest fome fair ebut any certain fixed method, or rota. quivalent, which would make that most tion of inanagement, will ever be disad. valuable member of society, the farmer, vantageous to the growth of corn, so secure in all the just gains of his labolong as feasons are uncertain, and the rious endeavours, without injuring the many casualties a farmer is liable to, legal rights of the church, it would con(which no art or industry can prevent) fer the most fubftantial benefit on the continue to perplex him. If it should landed interest in general, aslist mobe thought this liberal conduct on the rality and good neighbourhood, and part of the landlord, might lay his good give comfort to the tithe-gatherer, as
well as to the landlord and the hus- cording to their own discretion, by bandman, all of whom, were the sub- which means, the neglect of an indiject properly understood, it would not vidual, may cause not only ruin to himbe difficult to satisfy.
felf, but to many of his more careful A farther improvement, which seems neighbours, and spread a general difto follow that of a commutation of trels around him. tithes, and would increase the growth It cannot, we flatter ourselves, be of the necessaries and conveniencies of thought foreign to the present subject to life, would be, empowering the clergy, remark, that, as the justice done to the to grant leases of the church lands, for labourers, by those with whom they such terms, as wonid insure their te. lay out their little earnings, must, in nants à reasonable time to reap the fair fome degree, affect the price of work returns of the best modes of husbandry; here ; officers are appointed to secure for as they are now circumstanced, no that desireable end, not known in every permanent improvements are attempted, county in the kingdom. Two men are the land lics half cultivated, and seems, nominated for that purpose, at a certain in almost every parish you go through, to annual salary (251. each), whom we plead for better treatment, by the un- call public weighers, whofe business it exampled poverty of its appearance. is to go to the several parts of the coun
An object, not perhaps beneath the ty, and examine the weights of all milnotice of this most useful institution, is lers and Mopkeepers, and make returns thought to be a general commission of of those in whofe poffeffion any light kewers, for the repairs ard preservation weight is found, to the quarter fesfions, of the fea-walis along the coast, which by whose authority they act: and protect the lands most capable of im- whenever complaint of this fort is provement, from the destructive inun- made, the fufpe&ted dealer is fummonciacions of the salt water, which is ed to appear at the following sessions, known to ieave fuch fatal effects be- where, if he is unable to acquit himhind it, that the land is not worth the self of the charge alleged against him, tillage for several years after it has been he is sure to be exposed, and otheroverflowo ; besides, that the expence wise punished, in proportion to his deand trouble which may have been laid merits. out upon it, are for ever loft. At pre
(To be continued.) fent, it is common for the owners of From the Report delivered to the Board land, to manage their own walls, ac- of Agriculture.
ON THE CULTURE OF POTATOES. Cultivation of the Early Potatoe. being done with safety. The sets must CUT the sets, and put them on a be frequently examined, and when the room floor, where a strong current of thoots have sprung an inch and a half, air can be introduced at pleasure; lay or two inches, the covering is to be them thin, about two or three lays of carefully removed, either with a wooden depth, cover them with oat-shells of rake, or the fingers. In this manner faw.duft, to the thickness of about two they must remain until the planting seaor three inches : this, at the same time fon, taking care to give them all the that it screens them from the frost, af. air pollible by the doors and windows fords a moderate degree of warmth, when it can be done with safety ; which causes them to vegetate ; bnt, at by this method the shoots will become the same time, admits air enough to broken, put out leaves, and be modeharden the shoots: the doors and win- rately hardy. In this way four crops dows are to be open as often as the have been raised, upon the same ground, weather is mild enough to admit of its in one year ; taking care always to have sets from the repository ready to put in more labour than dropping the sets into as soon as the others are taken up. A the furrows; to balance which, the crop of winter lettuce is fometimes rais- young tender shoots are preserved, ed afterwards from the same land. none of the plants are liable to be
We are enabled to say, from expe- bruised by the horses feet, and the rience, that two crops may be obtained work is regularly and accurately performfrom the same ground yearly, with great ed.-N. B. The Royal or Cumberland ease, and afterwards a crop of cole- early, is most recommended for the first worts or greeps.
crop, it being of a large size, very proTo raise two good Crops in one Year. lific, of an excellent flavour, and ripens
The method that has, from expe- early enough to admit of another crop. rience, been found most successful, is, The reason for preferring the Kidney to plant the ground in the spring, with or Killimanca, for the second crop, is the best early potatoe (managed in the obvious; both of these are more proway already quoted *) these will be ready ductive than any of the early potatoes ; in the beginning of summer : the foil and as the price, at an advanced period should then be ploughed once, and of the season, is always considerably planted either with the large white Kid. lower, any potatoe that will produce a ney or Killimanca, the sets of which greater bulk will be more profitable. should be cut at least six weeks or two There is, besides, another reason of months before they are planted. They considerable weight; it is found, from should be kept in a place where both experience, that when successive crops air and light may have free access to of potatoes are taken from the same them, by which means their shoots land, the second and succeeding crops will be strong and vigorous ; and as are always more abundant when a difthey will then have no frosts to encoun- ferent kind of potatoe is planted. This ter, they will grow immediately when circumstance is well worth the attenthey are put into the earth. The ope. tion of farmers, as, by a due observance rations of planting should be performed of it, they may plant potatoes for years with the greatest care, in order to pre- upon the same soil, with profit to themserve the shoots from being broken, as felves, and without injury to the proin that case the crop will be rendered perty. confiderably later.
of this kind of potatoes Perhaps there is no way of doing will be ready to take up about the bethis so completely as with a stick; in ginning or middle of October. Indeed, this way the plant is not only placed at if the real kidney is planted, they will a proper depth, but the shoot is pre- be ready in September, when sufficient served and set upright in such a way, time will remain either for a crop of that the top is equal with the surface. greens, coleworts, or a broad cast crop It will certainly be objected to this mode of turnips, to be eaten off in the spring of planting, that it requires more labour with sheep. These are not matters of than the ordinary method of dropping conjecture: the Author of the present the sets into the furrow; but, when memoir had, last year, two very abundant properly considered, this objection will crops of potatoes from a patch of ground vanith, as three people with dibbles will in his garden, which was afterwards plant as many in one day, as two per- planted with coleworts, which were fons could do in the ordinary way. very large before the winter set in. No
If this comparison as to the difference manure was made use of for the first of expence is just, and we believe it crop of potatoes, and only a small quanis very near the truth, it will appear, tity of new earth (part of the sub-foil that dibbling requires only a third of the same garden) was given to the
See vol. 57. p. 17. method in Lancashire, second. It is worthy of remark, that Vol, LVIII.
the second crop was not planted till the such poor as may be inclined to cultivate end of June ; and though the season was the same; and in order to make such exceedingly dry throughout, the crop cultivation as extenfive as poshble, will was very productive.
it not promote that end greatly, by fulfAs the extending the culture of po- fering the poor to plant upon all the tatoes, and in particular the obtaining head-lands, and such other places where an early crop, must be extremely bene- corn cannot be sowo ; and also on the ficial to the poor, it is humbly submitted road fides, and all other walte land3, as to the gentlemen of every parish, when the poor will take the trouble of breakther it will not be humane and politic to ing up? Report of the Committee of furnish, at their expence, seed, to all
Board of Agriculture.
CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 92.
Of the Marvellous. ourselves thither as to the source of joy ; The sentiment of admiration is the a terror is roused, we flee thither for fource of the instinct which men have, refuge. In either case, admiration ex- in every age, discovered for the marvelclaims in these words, “ Ah, my lous. We are hunting after it continuGod!" This is, we are told, the ef- ally, and every where, and we diffuse fect of education merely, in the course it, principally, over the commencement of which frequent mention is made of and the close of human life ; hence it is the name of God; but mention is still that the cradles and the tombs of fo. more frequently made of our father, of great a part of mankind have been enthe king, of a protector, of a celebrat- veloped in fiction. It is the perennial ed literary character. How comes it, source of our curiosity ; it discloses itthen, that when we feel ourselves stand. self from early infancy, and is long the ing in need of support, in such unex- companion of innocence. Whence pected concussions, we never exclaim, could children derive the taste for the
Ah, my King!” or, if science were marvellous ? They must have fairy-tales; concerned, " Ah, Newton !
and men must have epic poems and It is certain, that if the name of God operas. It is the marvellous, which be frequently mentioned to us, in the constitutes one of the grand charms of progress of our education, the idea of the antique statues of Greece and Rome, it is quickly effaced in the usual train representing heroes or gods, and which of the affairs of this world ; why then contributes, more than is generally imahave we recourse to it in extraordinary gined, to our delight, in the perusal of emergencies? This sentiment of nature the ancient history of those countries. is common to all nations, many of whom It is one of the natural reasons which give no theological instruction to their may be produced to the President Hos children. I have remarked it in the bault, who expresses aftooishmerit that Negroes of the coast of Guinea, of Ma. we should be more enamoured of an. dagascar, of Caffraria, and Mosambique, cient history than of modern, especially among the Tartars, and the Indians of that of our own country: the truth is, the Malabar coast, in a word, among independently of the patriotic sentiments men of every quarter of the world. I which serve, at least, as a pretext to the never saw a single one who, under ex. intrigues of the great men of Greece traordinary emotions of surprize or of ad. and Rome, and which were so entirely