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Bath, Southampton, Lancaster, &c. are lic art a study ; and it is much to be honoured upon pieces of general circu- wished, that particular injunctions were lation; on this department, however, given to the engravers, to have the it must be observed with regret, that figures on the piece much bolder and the portraits are, in general, far from higher raised than is usually done, which being accurate ; though perhaps, not less is effected by having them more deeply so than the effigies of Roman Emperors, cut into the dye; and the dotted circle a.e given by the degenerate mintages by which the figures on the field are of the lower Empire ; the scarce ones protected, should be much stronger, and of which are collected with so much more elevated ; the shapes of even sluit eagerness and expence, without regard of these pieces which I have commenuto the contemptible or deteitable cha- ed, are 100 thin and broad; they should racters of their proto-types.
Ours are be increased in thickness, even though not leís worthy of being ityled the their circumference should be thereby Concisum argentum in titulos, facicsque mi. diminished.
There has just now been communicate In this respect also, Scotland creeps ed to me a fmall copper coin ; the 's at more than her usual distance behind part of a rurce, done for the East Inuia the Sitter Kingdom. Why are the Company by Mr Bonítone of Birmingfeatures of Buchanan, Napier, the ad- ham, upon a new principal, admirably
irable Crichton, Hume, Robertson, calculated to preserve both the figure:, Cullen, and Reid, consigned to the and legend from being soon defaced by fugitive materials, and faithless charge aurition :~the whole field of the piece of
paper and canvas, and not a lingle is protected by a circle, broad, plain, medal † recording their likenesses to and considerably elevated, into which posterity ?
the letters are indented in intaglio, in V. Some, laftly, are mcrcly curious ; the same foron as they usually are rouud ile engraver James has bien very fuc- the external rim. cessful in two lanuícapes tipon
It may, perhaps, be objected, that police fides of his Duding token ; and these improvements will occafion an adhis elephant upon the Pidcuck exhibition ditional expence, and consequent reducpieces, is at least as well represented as tion of the profits of circulation ; but the fanie animal is by old Roman artists, it is to be considered, that even if less upon denarii, of the family Cæciliu, or weight of copper were given in that upon thofe of Julius, and of Augustus. form, the public would be no lofer, be
I shall conclude this paper, with cause the pieces would be greatly less earnestly foliciting the attention of all liable to wear by fricion, than ilien companies and individuals, who may almost the whole rough surface is expuí . henceforth be disposed to employ the ed to continual rubbing, as isy the prea artists of Birmingham, London, &c. to sent style of insipid bus relief. Let it. fabricate coins for them, to the forego- be impressed upon the mind of every ing observations, whichi, 1 bumbly tiat- citizen, that ihis is a subject in which, ter myself, will be approven by every as a great mafier * of it has told us, person of taste who las made the medal
PERPETUAL Juvenal, in his Vth Satie,
NATION IS INTERESTED.”
CIVIS. + Besides the meed of nucrit given to diftinguished Englihmen on provincial coins, From a Country fire fide, many elegant medals have been struck of them. See Snelling's plates.
* Pinkerton's diffay, vol. 2. (note) p. 148.
OBSTACLES TO HUSBANDRY.
nature open to the designs of an artful AS the honourable Board has conde- tenant, who might think himself at lifcended to ask our opinion, of the suppo- berty to crop his land, as long as it 1.dobitacles to improvement in agricul- would pay him for the tillage, and then iure, it is hunibly lubmitted to their at- resign or sell his lease; it
may reftijn, whether the most useful science swered, that, if-the certainty of lofig 04.d not be grea:ly alited, it the opu- his character, would not operate fuffiest manufacturers were made to contri. ciently upon him, to prevent such im. bure, in a larger proportion, to the ne- politic meafures in a tenant, they might . counces of their weavers, when driven easily be provided against by a clause in 19 th ir parith by distress, than is the the lease, calculated for that end; or, cale a: present; for although it may be by an indemnification of some other repaid, that there is already a law for fort, before the lease was granted. Vis purpose, it is found so difficult to Another circumstance which would re put in practice, that it is not attempt. aid the plough, it is conceived, is lie td here at present.
berty to the poor to seek a livelihood Other obstacles may be the total want wherever work off.rs, or inclination clases, or the short terms and Itrict leads them to seek for it, instead of cod penal covenants sometimes infifted being subject to be taken up, if found
pon by gentiemen of property, which out of their own parish, and carried, to prohibiis ihat return which is neceffary, what is called their place of settlement, io ind.ce a man to disburse his propere at the caprice of an overseer, to lit at ty in the improvements of the natural home, or what is worse, while they foil; and were the land owners to con- have any credit lest, at the ale-house, filer, that, except in very few instan- for want of employ : labourers will then, ces of converting meadows and old leys it is presumed, naturally be led to reirto tillage, destroying timber, &c. their fide, where they could render most serand their teranis real intereits are the vice to the comnunity, and have a prof. I.me, for the greater pait of a lease ; pect of supporting themselves and fadey would see it to be their own and milies, without being reduced to the the public advantag, to suffer their te- mortifying application of an unfeeling Dants to manage the land in such way, parish officer." The rates would be less as would best enable them to pay their heavy, the land better tilled, at a smallTents with punctuality, and almost give er expence than at present, and both Lem their own covenants, till the term the rich and poor would feel the benefit. came within five or six years of its es Another hindrance to the improveFirdion ; when, perhaps it might be no- ments, which men of property and ting more than policy, to guard against spirit might otherwise make, particularthe poffibility of abuse, by laying down ly in regard to waste and upcultivated fome rules zo govern their conduct, in land, is the present mode of rewarding tole particulars, where their intereit the labours of the clergy. Could the militates against that of their landlords; honourable Board suggest fome fair ebut any certain fixed method, or rota- quivalent, which would make that most 11on of inanagement, will ever be disad. valuable member of society, the farmer, vantageous to the growth of corn, so secure in all the just gains of his labolong as feasons are uncertain, and the rious endeavours, without injuring the many casualties a farmer is liable to, legal rights of the church, it would con(which no art or industry can prevent) fer the most fubftantial benest on the continue to perplex him. If it hould landed interest in general, allist mobe thought this liberal conduct on the rality and good neighbourhood, and part of the landlord, might lay his good give comfort to the tithe gatherer, as
well as to the landlord and the huf- cording to their own discretion, by bandman, all of whom, were the sub- which means, the neglect of an indiject properly understood, it would not vidual, may cause not only ruin to himbe difficult to satisfy.
felf, but to many of his more careful A further improvement, which seems neighbours, and spread a general disto follow that of a commutation of trels around him. eithes, and would increase the growth It cannot, we flatter ourselves, be of the necessaries and conveniencies of thought foreign to the present subject to life, would be, empowering the clergy, remark, that, as the justice done to the to grant leases of the church lands, for labourers, by those with whom they fuch terms, as would insure their te lay out their little earnings, must, in nants à reasonable time to reap the fair fome degree, affect the price of work returns of the best modes of husbandry; here ; officers are appointed to secure for as they are now circumstanced, no that defireable end, not known in every permanent improvements are attempted, county in the kingdom. Two men are the land lics half cultivated, and seems, nominated for that purpose, at a certain in almost every parisla you go through, to annual salary (251. each), whom we plead for better treatment, by the un- call public weighers, whose business it exampled poverty of its appearance. is to go to the several parts of the coun
An object, not perhaps beneath the ty, and examine the weights of all milmotice of this most useful institution, is lers and Mopkeepers, and make returns thought to be a general commission of of those in whose possession any light fewers, for the repairs ard preservation weight is found, to the quarter feffions, of the fea-walls along the coast, which by whose authority they act: and prote: the lands most capable of im- whenever complaint of this fort is provement, from the destructive inun- made, the suspected dealer is fummonriations of the salt water, which is ed to appear at the following sessions, known to leave such fatal effe&s be- where, if he is unable to acquit himkind it, that the land is not worth the self of the charge alleged against him, tillage for several years after it has been he is sure to be exposed, and otheroverflowo ; besides, that the expence wise punished, in proportion to his deand trouble which may have been laid merits. out upon it, are for ever lost. At pre
(To be continued.) fent, it is common for the owners of From the Report delivered to the Board land, to manage their own walls, ac of Agriculture.
ON THE CULTURE OF POTATOES. Cultivation of the Early Potatoe. being done with safety. The sets must CUT the sets, and put them on a be frequently examined, and when the room floor, where a strong current of thoots have sprung an inch and a half, air can be introduced at pleasure; lay or two inches, the covering is to be them thin, about two or three lays of carefully removed, either with a wooden depth, cover them with oat-shells of rake, or the fingers. In this manner saw-duft, to the thickness of about two they must remain until the planting feaor three inches : this, at the same time fon, taking care to give them all the that it screens them from the frost, af- air possible by the doors and windows fords a moderate degree of warmth, when it can be done with safety ; which causes them to vegetate ; bnt, at by. this method the shoots will become the same time, admits air enough to broken, put out leaves, and be modeharden the Moots: the doors and win- rately hardy. In this way four crops dows are to be open as often as the have been raised, upon the same ground, weather is mild enough to admit of its in one year ; taking care always to have
sets from the repository ready to put in more labour than dropping the fets into as soon as the others are taken up. A the furrows; to balance which, the crop of winter lettuce is sometimes rais- young tender shoots are preserved, ed afterwards from the same land. none of the plants are liable to be
We are enabled to say, from expe- bruised by the horses feet, and the rience, that two crops may be obtained work is regularly and accurately performfrom the same ground yearly, with great ed.-N. B. The Royal or Cumberland ease, and afterwards a crop of cole- early, is most recommended for the first worts or greeps.
crop, it being of a large size, very proTo raise tavo good Crops in one rear. lific, of an excellent flavour, and ripens
The method that has, from expe- early enough to admit of another crop. rience, been found most successful, is, The reason for preferring the Kidney to plant the ground in the spring, with or Killimanca, for the second crop, is the best early potatoe (managed in the obvious; both of these are more proway already quoted * ) these will be ready ductive than any of the early potatoes ; in the beginning of summer : the foil and as the price, at an advanced period should then be ploughed once, and of the season, is always considerably planted either with the large white Kid- lower, any potatoe that will produce a ney or Killimanca, the fets of which greater bulk will be more profitable. should be cut at least six weeks or two There is, besides, another reason of months before they are planted. They considerable weight; it is found, from fhould be kept in a place where both experience, that when succeslive crops air and light may have free access to of potatoes are taken from the same them, by which means their shoots land, the second and succeeding crops will be strong and vigorous ; and as are always more abundant when a difthey will then have no frosts to encoun- ferent kind of potatoe is planted. This ter, they will grow immediately when circumstance is well worth the attenthey are put into the earth. The ope- tion of farmers, as, by a due observance rations of planting should be performed of it, they may plant potatoes for years with the greatest care, in order to pre- upon the same soil, with profit to themserve the shoots from being broken, as selves, and without injury to the proin that case the crop will be rendered perty. considerably later.
A crop of this kind of potatoes Perhaps there is no way of doing will be ready to take up about the bethis so completely as with a stick; in ginning or middle of October. Indeed, this way the plant is not only placed at if the real kidney is planted, they will a proper depth, but the shoot is pre- be ready in September, when sufficient ferved and set upright in such a way, time will remain either for a crop of that the top is equal with the surface. greens, coleworts, or a broad cast crop It will certainly be objected to this mode of turnips, to be eaten off in the spring of planting, that it requires more labo:r with sheep. These are not matters of than the ordinary method of dropping conjecture: the Author of the present the fets into the furrow; but, when memoir had, last year, two very abundant properly considered, this objection will crops of potatoes from a patch of ground vanith, as three people with dibbles will in his garden, which was afterwards plant as many in one day, as two per- planted with coleworts, which were fons could do in the ordinary way.
very large before the winter fet in. No If this comparison as to the difference manure was made use of for the first of expence is just, and we believe it crop of potatoes, and only a small
quanis very near the truth, it will appear, tity of new earth (part of the sub-foil that dibbling requires only a third of the same garden) was given to the See vol. 57. p. 17. method in Lancashire, second. It is worthy of remark, that
the Vol. LVIII.
the second crop was not planted till the fuch poor as may be inclined to cultivate end of June ; and though the season was the same ; and in order to make such exceedingly dry throughout, the crop cultivation as extensive as poslible, will was very productive.
it not promote that end greatly, by fulfw As the extending the culture of po- fering the poor to plant upon all the tatoes, and in particular the obtaining head-lands, and such other places where an early crop, must be extremely bene- corn cannot be sown ; and also on the ficial to the poor, it is humbly submitted road fides, and all other walte lands, as to the gentlemen of every parish, whe- the poor will take the trouble of breakther it will not be humane and politic to ing up? Report of the Committee of furnish, at their expence, feed, to all
Board of Agriculture. OF THE SENTIMENTS OF THE SOUL.
CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 92. Of the Sentiment of Admiration. miration, did not make, in his own lanTHE sentiment of admiration trans. guage, the same exclamation which we ports us immediately into the bosom of do, and who did not lift
his hands Deity. If it is excited in us by an ob- and his eyes to heaven. ject which inspires delight, we convey
Of the Marvellous. ourselves thither as to the source of joy ; The sentiment of admiration is the a terror is roused, we flee thither for fource of the instinct which men have, refuge. In either case, admiration ex- in every age, discovered for the marvelclaims in these words, “ Ah, my lous. We are hunting after it continu-God!” This is, we are told, the ef- ally, and every where, and we diffuse fect of education merely, in the course it, principally, over the commencement of which frequent mention is made of and the close of human life ; hence it is the name of God; but mention is still that the cradles and the tombs of so more frequently made of our father, of great a part of mankiod have been enthe king, of a protector, of a celebrat- veloped in fi&tion. It is the perennial ed literary character. How comes it, source of our curiosity ; it discloses itthen, that when we feel ourselves stand self from early infancy, and is long the ing in need of support, in fuch unex- companion of innocence. Whence pected concussions, we never exclaim, could children derive the taste for the
Ah, my King!” or, if science were marvellous ? They must have fairy-tales; concerned, " Ah, Newton !
and men must have epic poems and It is certain, that if the name of God operas. It is the marvellous which be frequently mentioned to us, in the constitutes one of the grand charms of progress of our education, the idea of the antique statues of Greece and Rome, it is quickly effaced in the usual train representing heroes or gods, and which of the affairs of this world ; why then contributes, more than is generally ima. have we recourse to it in extraordinary gined, to our delight, in the perusal of emergencies ? This sentiment of nature the ancient history of those countries. is common to all nations, many of whom It is one of the natural reasons which give no theological instruction to their may be produced to the President Hess children. I have remarked it in the nault, who expreffes altooishmerit that Negroes of the coast of Guinea, of Ma. we should be more enamoured of an, dagascar, of Caffraria, and Mosambique, cient history than of modern, especially among the Tartars, and the Indians of that of our own country: the truth is, the Malabar coast, in a word, among independently of the patriotic sentiments men of every quarter of the world. I which serve, at least, as a pretext to the never saw a single one who, under ex. intrigues of the great men of Greece traordinary emotions of surprize or of ad- and Rome, and which were fo entirely