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Mr Burke then observes on the Duke despots) will abolish with contumely of Bedford's estates as follows : and scorn. These historians, record“ The Duke of Bedford conceives ers,

and blazoners of virtues and arms, that he is obliged to call the attention differ wholly from that other defcripof the House of Peers to his Majelly's tion of liistorians, who never aslign any grant to me, which he considers as ex. act of politicians to a good motive. celove and out of all bounds.

These gentle historians, on the contra" I know not how it has happened, ry, dip their pens in nothing but the but it really seenis, that, while his Grace milk of human kindness. They seek Has meditating his well considered cen, no further for merit than the fircanble fure upon me, he fell into a sort of of a patent, or the inscription on a to.nb. deep. Homer nods ; and the Duke of With them every man created a peer is Bedford may dream; and as dreams first a hero ready made. This judge (even his golden dreams) are apt to be of every man's capacity for offic. by il-pieced and incongruously put toge- the offices he has filled; and the more ther, his Grace preferved his idea of offices, the more ability. Every genereproach to me, but took the subject mat- ral officer with them is a Marlborough; ter from the Crown grants to his own every statesman a Burleigh ; cvery judge family. This is “the ftuff of which a Murray, or a York. They, who abis dreams are made.” In that way of live were laughed. at or pitied by all putting things together, his Grace is their acquaintance, make as good a fiperfectly in the right. The grants to gure as the best of them in the pages of the house of Ruffel were so enormous, Guillim, Edmonfon, and Collins. as not only to outrage economy, but « Is the genius of philosophy not yet even to stagger credibility. The Duke known ? You may as well think the of Bedford is the Leviathan among all garden of the Thuilleries was well prothe creatures of the crown. He tumbles iected with the cords of ribbon insultabout his unwieldy bulk; he plays and ingly stretched by the national assembly frolicks in the ocean of the royal boun- to keep the fovereign canaille from inty. Huge as he is, and while “ he lies truding on the retirement of the poor fvaring many a rood,” he is still a crea- King of the French, as that fuch flimsy tcre. His ribs, bis fins, his whale. cobwebs will stand between the favages bone, his blubber, the very fpiracles of the revolution and their natural prey. through which he spouts a torrent of Deep philosophers are no triflers ; brave brine against his own origin, and covers fans culottes are no formalists. They me all over with the spray--every thing will no more regard a Marquis of Taof iim and about him is from the throne. vistock than an Abbot of Tavistock; Is it for him to question the dispensa- the Lord of Wooburn will not be tion of the royal favour?

more respectable in their eyes than the “ Why will his Grace, by attacking Prior of Wooburn :. they will make no me, force me reluctantly to compare my difference between the superior of a Colitle merit with that which obtained vent Garden of nuns and of a Covent from the Crown those prodigies of pro- Garden of another description. They fase donation, by which he tramples on will not care a rush whether his coat is the mediocrity of humble and laborious long or sort, or whether the colour be individuals ? I would willingly leave himn purple, or blue and buff. They will to the Herald's College, which the phi- not trouble their heads, with what part Infophy of the fans cullottes (prouder of his head his hair is cut from; and by far than all the Garters, and Nor. they will look with equal respect on a Toys, and Clarenciex, and Rouge Dra- tonsure and a crop. Their only quefcons, that ever pranced in a procession tion will be that of their Legendre, or of what his friends call aristocrats and some other of their legislative butchers,


how he cuts up! how he tallows in the pensioner of his Grace's house; and cawl or on the kidnies.”

concludes his pamphlet by a most graceMr Burke next enters into a long ful tribute of affection to the memory history of the different grants made to of his late son ; and to that of Admiral rhe Bedford family, from the time of Keppel. Henry the eighth, to the time of the last


in 1794.

A Philosophicaland Critical History of the Fine readers, it was that great event, to

Arts, Painting, Sculpture, and Architec- fraught with every thing that could strike ture; with occasional Observations on a feeling mind, or suggest impatience to the progress of Engraving in its several a curious mind, because fo disastrous branches; deduced from the earliest to all that hero's family, fo fatal to the Records through every Country in city whose gallant defender he had been, which those Arts have been cherilhed, fo final to every hope, and so ruinous in to their present Liablishment in Great its whole complexion, that beyond it Britain, under the auspices of his Ma- nothing farther was left for that exalted jesty King George III. In four parts, writer to extend his poem. Vol. II. By the Rev. Robert An He has done as much as the pen in the thony Bromley. B. D. &c. 4to. Il. is. hand of Genius could do, to croud that Boards.-Vol. I. il. is. was published grand event into the smallest compass,

Scarcely three common pages are emAS this is a work of confiderable mag. ployed, in which almost every line, and nitude and the subject of importance, we

often words themselves, are a sentence. shall give some extracts from each vo- He has bestowed less upon embellishlume, to enable our readers to judge of ment than ever poet or writer beitowed the authors style and matter:

on the like occafion; for, in fact, every In order to show the fuperiority of Paint- incident and expreflion that Nature and ing to Poetry, this author says:

situation dictated, were themselves the “ THE dcath of Hector, and particu- very quinteffence of embellishment. He larly in that moment when his body has evidently haftened to the principal was brought back into Troy, will give groupe, in which was centered all the us an example in every way circum- dignity and pathos of the scene; at the stanced to da juítice to our sentiment. fame time that in touching more lightly On the side of writing it has every ad- the introductory and surrounding ima. vantage that writing can have the most ges, language could not give to each a masterly display of the most original and more pointed selection of expression. lofty poet, who was equal not only to

Yet what reader does nat feel even the the first attractions that could be given language and the dispatch of Homer in to real incident, but to the livelieit and this instance, too slow for the anxiety yet the correctest fallies of imagination, with which his mind

swells to anticipate who knew human nature consummates all that is untold? We no sooner fee, ly well

, knew where and how to give with Callandra from the tower, the aged the finest touches to its feelings, and father returning with his dear fon's re. was perfecily possessed of thirt great mains, but we are eager to behold, betouchstone of true erudition, the art of fore words can tell us, the afflicted coming, by the shortest and choiceft ex- throng that bursts in cries from the Tropreffions, to the most forcible ideas; jan gates, to take their last view of their with a language too in his hands, which loft protector; but, most of all, to hear by its peculiar combinations was most the heart-rending distress of the widowhappily calculated to facilitate this point. ed Andromache, with her desolate in

Besides this, if ever there was a sub- fant, and the maternal lamentations of ject that could call forth the abilities of the aged Hecuba. We are repaid ina Homer, that could make him collect deed for waiting thé progress of the narhimself, and pour forth all the animation rative, in the mingled tears of the geneof his mind to meet with all imaginable rous, grateful Helen, which give us more rapidity the ardent expectations of bis


perhaps than the imagination could have Hecuba's certainly contribute to form ftretehed itself to meet, but which form the grand climax of grief, which has its the finest close to the character of the completion in Andromache.” beloved hero, over whom it is natural Respecting the revival of these arts at indeed that a fond mother, and a dif- Constantinople, and the first introductracted wife, should hang in bitter la- tion of subjects taken from holy writ, he mentations : but when Helen weeps for says: the loss of that amiable friend, whose “The writers who made us acquainted mild and kind deportment towards her, with those works of art, and who, by under circumstances which had shaken their language, would lead us to suppose the temper of almost every

one in that the nature of things was at once Priam's house, was invariable to the counteracted in the new seat of empire, lait ; this gives a finish to the scene, and by the cure of that declension which had endears to every reader the universaly- preceded the age of Conftantine, must lamented man, who now becomes not be read in that respect with caution; more the darling of his family, and of they must be considered as historians, his country, than the darling of humani- but perhaps it was the least part of their ty.

character to be critics in the arts. Or, if But might not all this scope of detail they were, they would see with those be embraced by the pencil with the same eyes which were given to the age around effect, nay, with a more abundant one ? them; their notions of taste would forasmuch as the whole is caught at be fuch as were derived from the taste once upon the canvas, and abides upon which they had seen produced: they the senses; whereas, in the poem, it rises would speak of the works which came only in succession, wherein every fuc- forth in their own times, or near them, ceeding gratification treads out in fome as the Florentines spoke in exultation degree the impression of that which is over the first picture of Cimablue, which gone by. Caliandra on the top of Per- they conceived to be wonderful, because gamus, announcing the arrival of the they had seen no better. Even Petrus body, and calling to the Trojans; the Gyllius, who fourished in the age of Trojan throng aisembled below ; are cir. Leo X. if he had studied the fine arts as cumstances which doubtless speak with much as the antiquities of literature, and more variety and glow of expression on if his mission from Francis I. into Italy the canvas than any language can give and Greece, had been to collect works them. The weeping matrons and the of art as well as ancient manuscripts, infant around the body are beheld with cannot be supposed to have beheld them no less striking effect.' If there is any with accuracy of tafte, at a time when thing in which the poet may seem to hardly any of those antiques were recohave the advantage over the painter, it vered, by the study of which that accuis perhaps in that great effort of pathe- racy of taste has chiefly been attained by tic, beyond which fobs must choak all the moderns. If other authorities were farther utterance of the heart-broken not sufficient to shew that, with all the Andromache -—“ O! that thou hadít, encouragements given to sculpture in the in thy last moments, grasped my hand age of Constantine, it cannot be considered in tbine, and said something which I as affording any models of art, the convermight have remembered day and night, fation whichis recorded to have passed beamidst my tears, for ever!” But why between Constantius the son and successor may not Andromache, hanging with of Constantine, and Hormisda the Persian streaming eyes over her lost husband architect, is decisive on the point. Sur. his hand clasped in her's-her every fea- veying the brazen horse in the forum of ture marking affection mingled with a- Trajan at Rome, along with the superb gony—the hopless wish juft itarting from buildings adjacent, Conftantius said that her lips-speak the same sentiment with “bis ut most with would be, to find abithe fame eloquence ? Even the stiller litics in his empire, which could execute grief of inendhip in the Grecian Helen such another {culpture as that;" when is capable of being expressed by the pen. he had some scores of brazen horses on cil; and perhaps with a ítronger contrast the columns, and in the Hippodrom, of to the more intereking and vehement Contantinople. Hormisda's reply did distress of the two Trojan matrons than not mend the matter much, when he obthe poet has given her; while her's and served, with no little vanity intermixed,


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that “ before the Emperor could produce On the patronage of the fine arts, our such another horie, a proper stable thould author has the following remarks: be provided—and then he himself must “ THERE is certainly a great differbuild it."

ence between the state of patronage in “ The encouragements with which the modern world and that which car. Conftantine was enabled to keep up the ried ihe arts to their high celebrity, in powers of art around hin, received a antient Greece ; that difference is just very important strength and increase from as great as the political situation of difthe subjects of holy writ, which then ferent countries, or of the same counopened a new and extensive field for the tries in past and present ages. The proencouragement of ingenious talents. In feilor of fine art, in common with all those powerful and affecting histories, in who move in other professions, looks all the various scenes arising from the naturally and properly for patronage to fcope of divine revelation, wider and his abilities : but the door which opens more attractive interests were disclosed to it is much wider to all others than to to the views of the pencil, ever guided him. before by the hands of heathens, who “The man of letters reposes himself on were aliens to the commonwealth of If- that good sense, or that refined intellirael, who counted the doctrines of the gence, which is diffused through the golpel foolishnets, and who lived with world : nor does he ever quarrel with aout God in the world. Constantine gave nother, merely because that other itan is full effect to the zeal, which as a new as high as himself in the estimation of convert he felt. The arts boih of paint- the learned, even in his own path of exing and sculpture were fully employed in cellence : perhaps those parties of merit, the service of Christianity, and not of where no special differences of princiChristianity only, but of the older reve. ples arise, are more generally seen to be lation. Eufebius enlarged much in com- the bond and cement of amiable and li-. mendation of that Emperor, for the op- terary fociety. portunities he took of making the arts “ The professor of law rises on that u. contributory to useful instruction, while niversal call for his abilities, which is they decorated the city. Thus, (say, he) miniftered by the never ceasing genera" the fountains were adorned by sculp- tion and intercourse of human transactural kill, with the emblems of a good tions, and which he knows will everpator, well known to those who under- more sustain and elevate infinite numa stand the sacred writings ; and among bers besides himself, in spite of all that other attentions of that kind you might he can do or fay: his jealousies there set the history of Daniclandile lions, fi- fore of others, or his opposition to those gured in braís, and thining with plates of who move in his own immediate line, gold.”

would probably never throw the smallest “It was natural for those arts to direct shade on their situation, nor aniwer any their attention not only to leffions and end but the vexation of his own heart. events, but to those great chariters from “ The physical and the ecclefiaftical whom both had fowed. They feized man, although both of them perhaps with rapture, as well they might, the come nearer than many others to that representation of those chofen apostles, peevithness of spirit, which counts evewho planted the gospel through the ry thing gained by others as fo much loft world at the expercc of their own lives to itself, yet move on fo broad a ground --of those firit disciples and mariyıs, who that if one man does in fact stand there helped forward ihat gloriuus work, not in the way of another, the Thade is too less by their death than their labourse indistinct to irritate the temper, and the and, above all, of that divine person, origin of it is too remote or too diffused, whom to view in the well. fek chud traits to be controuled by any schemes of enby which the imagination of the artist vy or ill nature. would approach to the expression of that “ The professor of the fine art labours “ human form divinc,'' has ever been under different circumstances, and exthe highest of contemplative enjoyments; periences patronage in a different meabut to behold him in ary aftured traits fure. It rises to him more limited in of likeness would juftify, we do not he- its compafs. It is capable of feeding infitate to say, nay, wouid command, the finitely fewer numbers. And if the internal adoration oi alienlightened minds number of artists be every where smaller to all eternity.

in fact, than of other professors, yet a


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mong the former every individual is a the united work of three men equally
candidate for the same reward. They zealous for the perfection of their art,
all seek to gather the same rays of light and who have thewn us, in that great ex-
and warmth : they must all bask in the ample, how much may be reached,
fame local sunshine, or be left in the whenever the efforts of human genius
thade. If, to those circumstances, nature are fairly concentrated, and earnestly di,
Inould add in the individual the spirit rected to their object, and when all
of a Diogenes, will he not be as severe meaner pallions are absorbed in a com-
and cynical as that philofopher ? Every mon zeal to excel.
man that comes across him will inter “ Reverse the case, and let contradic-
cept his comfort. Of a scanty and con- tion, and strife, and malevolent cenfure
fined stock every particle intercepted is occupy the theatre of art, the taste
a grievous loss. He grudges it; he can- which would otherwise rise in a country
not bear it. Malevolence fucceeds to is chilled at once. The private genile-
disappointment, or even to the fear of it. . man has no encouragement to admire
And ihould the spirit of a Caravaggio what is elegant, or to promote what he
be uppermost, violence will prefently would admire. The progress of the
become engrafted on ill will : all will be arts is chilled in the very hands of artists,
instant uproar.

whose genius is unquestionably affected
“Thus it is that the world of art, for by the consideration, that it is sure to
want of being tempered by those difpofi- be followed by the keen severity and
tions which are at all times necessary to malevolence of cotemporary antagonists.
extract the sting from rivalship, and to ren- In such a state of things, where would
der emulation fair, and honourable, and you find three men, all equal in art,
pleafailt, or for want of that patronage like the three Rhodians who formed the
which might open a wider field to the Laocoon, to unite in the accomplifli-
efforts of the professor, has too often be- ment of any great work?
come a world of strife, and in countries “ But that is not the only misfortune
where that strife might be indulged to a which flows from a bitterness of contena
greater extent by the connivance of the tion. It entails on the arts as well as
civil power, it has sometimes become a' on their professors an opprobrium not
field of blood.

easily to be removed. When we fce “But the fine arts can never thrive very those professors indulging a common much, or very long, where such a spirit rapine on each others talents, or each prevails. With unanimity and an har- others fame, we forget that the arts monious contribution of abilities for car- which they profefs are arts of elegance; rying the arts to perfection, great ad. the painter or fculptor faks into the vantages may be gained even where pa- mere mechanic, who abuses the comtronage is rare. That patronage will be modities of his neighbours in the fame come infenfibly extended. Those who trade, looks with anger on their gains, have no taste will gather it from profef- and has no other object but the low.and fional men, they will gather the zeal of wretched one of bringing every customer thole who can best display the attrac- to his own shop, by every misrepresentations of art, and whose zeal goes hand in tion of others." band with their amiableness of temper. They will come to admire what excites A Reply to the Instructions given by the general admiration; and having fancied

Common Council of Oxford, to F. Burin themselves something that is fed a

ton and A. Anneley, Efqrs. their regreeably by the taste around them, they

presentatives in Parliament. By an will be disposed to nourish the growth

Oxfordshire Farmer. Ridgway. of that tafte in themselves, and to shed THE subject of this pamphlet, viz. favour and patronage upon it in others. the causes of the present high prices of It was by luch harmonious efforts of pro- grain is of confiderable importance, and feffional men that the fine arts every has been the subject of much inquiry of where gained their first footing, and that late. Among other causes, the enlargeflourishing academiesgrew into existence. ment of farms and making enclosures, It was a cordial communication and mu have been alledged as contributing to tual candour, which produced some of that effect. We shall present our readers the first standards in art and antiquity. with the author's remarks on this branch From thence came forth the Laocoon, his subject: VOL. LVIII.



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