Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

doubts arisen, concerning their authen- ter of indifference, whether the heroes ticity. I shall probably hear more of were born in the little village of Angles the same kind after the present Poems in Juteland, or natives of the barren make their appearance. Whether these heaths of Caledonia. That honour fufpicions are suggested by prejudice, or which Nations derive from ancestors, are only the effects of ignorance of facts, worthy or renowned, is merely ideal. It I shall not pretend to determine. To may buoy up the minds of individuals, me they give no concern, as I have it but it contributes very little to their always in my power to remove them. importance in the eyes of others. But An incredulity of this kind is natural to of all those prejudices which are incident persons who confine all merit to their to narrow minds, that which measures own age and country. These are gene- the merit of performances by the vulgar rally the weakest as well as the most ig- opinion concerning the country which norant of the people. Indolently con. produced them, is certainly the most fined to a place, their ideas are very nar- • ridiculous.' Ridiculous, however, as its row and circumscribed. It is ridiculous is, few have the courage to reject it; enough, to fee such people as these are and I am thoroughly convinced, that a branding their ancestors with the def- few quaint lines of a Roman or Greek picable appellation of Barbarians. Sober Epigrammatist

, if dug out of the ruins reason can easily discern where the title of Herculaneum, would meet with more ought to be fixed with more propriety. cordial and universalapplause than all the

“ As prejudice is always the effect of most beautiful and natural rhapsodies of ignorance, the knowing, the man of true all the Celtic Bards and Scandinavian taste, despise and dismifs it. If the Scalders that ever existed." poetry is good, and the characters na- (To be concluded in our next.) tural and striking, to them it is a mat

THE LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS. THIS Gentleman, whose fame will more than one voyage.

On quitting Jast as long as the noble building of this employment, he determined to folSomerset Houfe shall rear its majestic low the bent of his genius, which led head, was by birth a Swede. It has him to Design and Architecture. been said, that he was descended of His first residence in London was in the ancient family of Chalmers in Scot- Poland street; but not, as has been afland, Barons of Tartas in France, and serted, in the business of a carpenter. that his father was a merchant, who He, at an early period, displayed the suffered much by supplying Charles XII. talents he possessed, and soon was conwith money and goods during his wars, sidered as one of the best architects and for which he received only the base cop- draftsmen in Europe. His abilities inper coin of that monarch, ftruck for troduced him to the knowledge of the the purpose in his emergencies, and, late Lord Bute, by whose intereft he like the French assignats, afterwards was appointed drawing master to his depreciated ; by which means the hol. Majesty, the Prince of Wales. der was involved in ruin.

His first work of consequence was At the age of two years, Sir Wil. Lord Besborough's Villa at Rochampliam was brought over to England, and ton, which, from his conduct in that

a proper time, placed at Rippon business, procured him many other buildschool in Yorkshire, where it is believo ings. He gave in his plan to Lord ed, he continued until he was appoint-. Besborough with an estimate as an arted "chief Supercargo of the Swedish chitect; and, on that nobleman's applyfhips to China. In this situation he ing to him to know whether he would did not remain long, probably not build it himself for the money mention



ed in the estimate, he consented to un- roic Epistle.” Sir William Chambers' dertake it.

work was entitled “ A Dissertation on It was accordingly finished, and both Oriental Gardening," 4to. which, in parties, the employer and the builder, the preface, he fays, was collected froni were satisfied with their bargains, and his own observations in China, from each with the other.

conversations with their artists, and reThe intercourse which Sir William marks transmitted to him at different kad obtained with his Majesty, soon after times by travellers. A sketch of it had his Sovereign's accession to the crown, been published fome years before ; but procured for him the laying out and im- the performance itself appearing immeproving of the Gardens at Kew, which, diately after Mr Mason's English Garfrom the nature of the ground, he was den, it was invidioully suggested, that obliged to ornament in the Chinese the intention of our author was to detalte. In 1763, he published “ Plans, preciate English gardeners, in order to Elevations, Sections, and Perspective divert his Royal Master from his plan Views, of the Gardens and Buildings of improving the gardens at Richmond, at Kew in Surry, the seat of her Royal as they are to be seen at this time. The Highness the Princess Dowager of horrible and strange devices described Wales; a magnificent work, in which to exist in the Chinese gardens have the architectural designs were drawn by been much ridiculed, but are no more our author, the views by Messrs Kirby, than had been before published by FaThomas Sandby, and Marlow, and the ther Attiret, in his account of the EmIngravings by Paul Sandby, Woollette peror of China's gardens near Pekin, Major, Grignion, and Rooker. In this translated by Mr Spence, under the name work, Sir William afligns the reasons of Sir Harry Beaumont, in 1753, and of his adopting the Chinese style in this fince re published' in Dodsley's Fugitive instance. “ The gardens of Kew," Pieces. says he, “ are not very large, nor is Sir William Chambers' next work their situation by any means advantage. was on Civil Architecture ; and in the ous; as it is low, and commands no year 1775, on the building of Somerprospects. Originally the ground was set House, he was appointed to conone continued dead flat: the soil was duct that great national work. He was in general barren, and without either also Comptroller General to the works wood or water. With so many disad- of the King, Architect to the Queen and vantages, it was not easy to produce the Princess Dowager, Treasurer to the any thing even tolerable in gardening : Royal Academy, Member of the Royal Lut princely munificence, and an able Academy of Arts at Florence, and of the director, have overcome all difficulties, Royal Academy of Architecture at Paris. and converted what was once a defart. After a long illness he died, at a very into an Eden.” The difficulty of or- advanced age, the 8th of March 1796 ; namenting such a situation few persons leaving a son, married to Miss Rodney, will deny ; but as few will be inclined and three daughters, the wives of Mr to delire the introduction of such exo- Cotton, Mr Innes, and Mr Harward, tics, in places where nature has been with a considerable fortune, acquired more bountiful.

honourably, and enjoyed with hospitaIn the year 1771, our architect was lity bordering on magnificence ; and, announced in the catalogue of the Royal what is still better, quitting life with Academy, as Knight of the Polar Star,' the regret and concern of all those with and the next year he published the work whom he had been connected; elleemwhich has afforded much entertainment ed, loved, and lamented, by all with from itself, but more from the admir. whom he had any intercourse either as able piece supposed to be the produc- an artist or as a man. lica of Mr Mafon, entitled “ An He- On the 18th of March, his remains

I i


were interred in the Poets Corner, ing to the Board of Works, who at-
Weitminister Abbey, being attended by tended unfolicited, to testify their re-
his son, his sons-in-law, his executors, gret for the loss, and their esteem for
the Dean of Lincoln, Minister of the the memory, of a man, by whom their
Parish, Mr Penneck of the Museum, claims had ever been examined with
and a few other friends, the President, attention, and decided with justice, and
Officers, and Council of the Royal A. by whom themselves were always treat-
cademy, and the Clerks of the Board ed with mildness, courtesy, and affabi-
of Works. In the Abbey they were lity.
joined by the Master-workmen belong-

[ocr errors][ocr errors]


(CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 159.) AFTER a certain length of time, which was, in fact, no more than the Sieyes had reason to suspect the prepara- oath of equality decreed fifteen months 'tives for a coalition of certain parties. before by the legislative body, subseThey spoke of the necessity of a second quent to the 10th of August 1792. It chamber, in the English mode, rendered contained, besides, an engagement to more perfect according to a French fa- maintain the unity and equality of the fhion, which, they faid, ought neces- representation charged to vote the law; farily to be the portion of the minority and that in all cases, not excepting that of the nobleffe, “because they were the of the motion already made for two effective caule of the Revolution.” fections, if decreed by the Assembly.

Already had certain members of the It is to be remarked, that Sieyes reAfscmbly, far from being leaders of the ceived, on all hands, the highest encouintention, but unacquainted with all the ragement, and the most pressing instanintrigues, made a motion to divide the ces to the speedy accomplishment of his legislative body into two feciions ; a design. motion many good depu- The writing, here mentioned, was ties, but very differeit from the nobili- scarcely gone to press, before these men tary project of two chambers, though procured a copy.

A molt virulent de. calculated to facilitate its admission dur- famatory libel was put into the hands of ing the heat or the wandering of debate. a dangerous ignorant man, Salles, who It became Sieyes to consider the pro- was charged to commence the attack, ceeding with anxiety ; Sieyes, who had by reading it at the Jacobins. It was first held out the distinction of orders previously adjusted, that this was to be in a state as a political moniter, and had received with the most violent applause. placed among the social principles, the Such measures being taken, then folunity and equality of the people, and lowed a manœuvre of the most extraorthe unity and equality of its legiflative dinary kind of calumny on the one part, representation.

and gross ignorance on the other. The He addreffed himself to various chiefs declaration was not yet published, a few of the parties, to clear up his doubts. propfs only having been first intrusted They had the duplicity to assure, and to those only who had engaged to colto swear to him, that no wish was en- lect signatures, when Sieyes was folemntertained to impair or diminish the prin- ly denounced, on the 19th June 1791, ciple of equality. He was not convin- from the tribune of the Jacobins, as ced, and therefore adopted the delign to having formed the counter-revolutioncompel them to exhibit their sentiments ary project : 1A, Of reviving the nobiliin more open day. He composed, with ty; ad, of instituting two legislative another, a project of a declaration to chambers; and, 3d, Of having inunbe voluntarily subscribed, the object of dated the 83 departients with a formu


lary for signature for this criminal pure this, but the general inquietude on the pose. As a proof of this, a copy of the 21st June ; the delusion of the public, so still unpublished declaration was-pre- easily led to act upon the nearest and sented, a declaration composed ex pro- most striking objects, the great mass of fello, against the two supposed projects. incidents and abominable attempts, still But it was the supporters of the nobili- little known, which filled that and the ty, and of the two chambers, who ma- following days ; the sma!l, and almost naged this denunciation, and conducted imperceptible number of deputies who all the detail of this strange hostilit; ! had remained faithful and pore; and, It must be especially remarked, that the lastly, the unsteady, ihameless, and utKing was to take his flight the follow- terly unprincipled reign of the famous ing day, in the night between the 20th revifing coalition, icfjired Sieyes with and zilt, and that the masters of this his ultimate determinazion. It was 10 Jacobin convulsion were accomplices in fhut himself up decidedly in a philusothat act. Time, which has unveiled phical silence. the whole of this manœuvre, has equal- Here ended, as we have already rely discovered the intention of the coali- marked, the second period of the career tionary leaders. They supposed they of Sicyes. could much more effectually insure the From this moment, during the whole success of their cdicus designs, if they sitting of the legislative assembly, till the could facrifice Sieyes, or at least render opening of the Convention, he remained him so far suspected, that it should be a complete stranger to all political acimpossible for him to gain attention at tion. This is the third interval, and the firft eclat of this meditated flight ; presents nothing remarkable, except for they were well acquainted with his bis peaceable contempt for the fuppoopinion of the absurdity of acknowledg- fitions of which he has not ceased to ing, as representative, any one who be the object. But to return to the should not have been freely elected by facts : the body represented. This accounts At the first formation of the departfor the precipitation in denouncing a ment of Paris, he was elected adminiwork not yet published, and the pace strator and member of the directory. of the libcl, where the early mention The sketch of the usesul operations he is made of sending it into the depart- performed in this situation, is no pari

This anecdote, the develope- of the object of this writing, any more ment of which to the Jacobins, in the than the account of his speeches or midst of iludied rage, lalled three days, writings in the constituent alien:bly.; was so difguiling to the few impartial It was also proposed to make him honest men of that fociety, that they bishop of Paris. He saw that he was returned thither no nicre. In its de- urged to this place by enemies as well tail, as well as in the disavowals, both as friends : but his opinions alone made succeslive and combined, of many of it his duty not to accept it. At the those who signed, and of fumeothers who moment of election, he wrote to the were not in the secret, it exliibits a mass electoral body, to acquaint them witla of little vile pasions, a combination of his intended vi efufal. wickedness and treachery.

The corftituent affembly had scarcely As to Sieyes, he was not aware of closed its fittings, before he resigned his danger. He prepared to reply. On liis place in the department, and rethe day after the 20th June, he had al- tired into the country, about a league ready annexed, in print, to the calun- from Paris. niated declaration, a narrative of the He had been on a visit to a friend, at extraordinary scene which had passed at the distance of more than fixty leagues the Jacobins. He was about to publish from Puris, and was still there when he



[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]


heard of the events of the roth of Au. timate. He applied to observation, gutt. This great event gave him no fur- while they urged the enterprize they had grise. It was naturally to be expected. formed to ranquish and destroy the He wrote to Paris, what if the infur- Convention, already degraded by their rection of the 14th of July was the re- presence. volution of the Frencli, that of the Several times he endeavoured to be Toth of Auguit might be called the re- useful otherwise than by simple assiduity volution of the patriots ; but, at the · at the fittings. Among his perfectly Tune time, he alived, whether the legif- ineffectual attempts, we may quote, tative body had seized the government, his report of the 13th of January 1793, and proposed to direct the fame with upon the provisionary organization of out participation, till the new conven- the administration of war, a report at cien thoud mect.

first received with the filence of inquiThe events at the end of August and fitive curiosity, afterwards calumniated beginning of September prove that the and ridiculed, and at last rejected by Epiflative body wanted Itrength. It all parties. durft not feize the reins 'of government. He laboured to organize a new esta

The hopes of Sieyes for the public blishment for public instruction ; which velfare had been re-animated, though nuust not be confounded with the incurin truth, they ought to have been de- able madness of fixing dogmatically, prefier. He waired in expectation of and legislatively decreeing the materials ihe carly fittings of the Conrenrion, of instruction. and proposed to retreat, during the win- His plan was, at the time it appeared, der, to a place ftill more remoic than the shortell, and is still the most comduis refdence, it that time.

plete of any which bave been presented. In the midst of these reflections, he The Committee of Instruction, after halearned that he had been chosen deputy ving adopted, charged one of its mem. to the Convention, by three depart- bers, to whom the affembly was well

This was without his know.. disposer, to report the fame from the ledge, for he had no psifonal acquaint- tribune. ance in either of the three. Neither his It was not ill received. The Congipofition nor liis inclination could lead vention adjourned the discussion to a him to a poft, in which be no Jorger near day. The reporter, in conformity conlidered him elf as called to serve to tlie prudence of the times, thought

country, " Put the circumstances of proper previously to submit it to the afthe times did not admit of a refusal, fembly called La Reunion ; where, which wouid surely have been misin- after some fight amendment, there re. gerpreted. He therefore fowly pro- mained no difference of opinion, excecdes to Paris, where he arried, and cepting on the manner of palling it, attended the Convention the same day, whether in ihto, or article by article. Fort..21. From the objects, from the The following day, or the next day igures, which on all fides claimed his but one, the name of Sieyes was menaiteneic and allorishment, as well as tioned, together with the plan of infrom the difccurfes he heard, he night, struction. It was earneitly demanded without deriliction of mind, havcihought in certain groups, whether Sieyes was himself transported by magic to an un- the author ; aod, upon the afíirmative krown country at the extremiry of the answer, these dispositions were immecarii.

diately changed. They pretended 10 He found himself a stranger to all be mistrust his views and intentions. The rrei, and particularly fo to the men in plan was serased, and re-perused, with power, with whom his unhappy fate à ridiculous earneftnes, not unlike that scendio connund inim to liecome in- of the monkey inspecting a lookirs-olafs

. By

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« ZurückWeiter »