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By repeated examination, asfited by the as he could form a capital fufficient and keeness of suspicion, doubts and diffi- transportable ; its basis confited in the culties were first raised, and soon after. fimplicity of his manner of living, join. wards it became an undubitable fact, ed to the facility of entering into no exthat this sketch contained a complete pence during two-thirds of the year, fyłem of counter-revolution and fede- which he passed in the country with his talism. The reporter was severely ta- - Bishop, at a few leagues distance from ken to talk, for having dared to pre

fent, in the tribunal, any thing which After the decrees which


prohad not been written by a member of perty of ecclefrastics into the hands of the the Mountain. It was considered in the nation, Sieyes concluded that he shouli fame light as if he had been entrapped. soon be reduced to his own private and The affair foon became of importance; independent property. He had, at thao i was treated in a revolutionary way; time, renounced the design of quitting, those who fought for an opportunity, his country. He therefore collected all imagined they had found it; the word the portions of his personal capital, in order is given; the new patriots, on order to found upon it his future title to the 30th of June, ran to hear a truly independence, by securing to himself as delirious oration of Hassenfratz against least the strict neceffaries of life. Witia Sieyes. The journals repeat the decla- this view he purchased, of one of the mation, but refuse to admit the plan most established commercial houses, a!! itfelf. The former day, upon the for- annuity of one thousand crowns, at nine mal demand of Robespierre in the Con- per cent. by a principal sum of abou: vention, this project was rejected with thirty thoudend livres. The contract a high hand, and without discusion. was figned before notaries, at the beThe Committee of Public Safety, at ginning of the year 1791. The remainlength, did not fail to exclude Sieyes der of the same capital increased, by a from the Committee of Public inítruc- small addition, to the sum of fourteen tion, where he had been placed by a spe. thousand livres, was entrusted to one of cial decree of the Convention.

his brothers, to be invested in landed At this time obstacles of another na- property, at the distance of more than ture, and truly insurmountable, came two hundred leagues from Paris. The forward *. Sieyes, nore insulated than last decrees respecting the indemnitis ever, found it necessary to confine him. of ancient incumbents having reduced self, with the utmost strictness, to the the ecclefiallical revenue of Sieyes, like line of his duty.

those of all others, to one thousand His fortune, at the commencement livres, he offered the fame to his couaof the Revolution, consisted in benefices try in the tribune of the Convention, ca and pensions to the amount of seven or the 20th of Brumaire, in the second eight' thousand livres annually; in three year of the republic (Nov. 10. 1793.); small portions of annuities on the Hotel so that the fortune of Sieyes cordilts, if de Ville at Paris, making together the he is to be credited, in one life annuiry fum of eight hundred and forty livres; of three thousand livres, and another of and, lastly, in various sums lent on fe- eight hundred and forty livres, besides curity, which comprehended his patri- the sum before mentioned cntrusted to mony, and savings for nine or ten

his brother. The total, at that time, amounted to the The Caution which Sieyes bad hitherprincipal fum of forty.lix or forty-seven to of_d, had preserved liim amidst the thousand livres. The article of savings deflruction both of friends and enemies, had for its motive the design of retiring and seems to have imposed on hin a reto the United States of America, as soon folution to avoid any fituation of icon* Jusque datum Sceleri, Lucian. libility, which could not bus le held with danger. From the time, therefore, so great a share in the transactions of the that he publicly gave up the emoluments last seven years in France is not likely, of his ecclefiaftical preferments, we hear at the present period, to be spoken of nothing of him until after the fall of with a temperate regard to truth : by Robespierre, when he was in some mea- one party he will be vilified and abused; fure forced into public notice, and com- by the other he will be elevated above pelled to take a share in the administra- the point of humanity. To time, theretion of affairs. He has since come for- fore, we leave him, with a wish that ward on the formation of the new con- the horrid scenes which have lately deftitution, with a proposal which has been graded that unfortunate kingdom may rejected, and has lately been named one never be repeated, and that the perpeof the five sovereigns of the new monar- trators and advisers, whoever they may chy of France, which elevation he has be who have hitherto escaped, may yet alto declined. A person who has had meet with condign punishment.





St Petersburg. not only dress in the English style : you WERE a philofopher to choose a must also follow all the capricious vastation, from whence to observe human rieties of fashion, if you would avoid nature in its greatest diversity of cha- being marked out as ridiculous, or hootracter and appearance, he ought to fix ed as a monster. In St Petersburg you upon the capital of Rullia. From the are perfe&tly safe from all such ridicuHotel de Londres, from whence I now lous disasters : not only do you see peowrite, he would see a continual succef- ple appearing in national dresses of the fion of people from all quarters of the most various faihions and materials, globe, drefied in the fashion of their without drawing on themselves particucountry; and with the fanciful orna- jar regard"; but often also, on a masments of courtiers, and cavaliers, and querade evening, you observe many heydukes, and running footmen; the walking to the public rooms in their venerable beards and flowing vest. masques and other whimsical accoutrements of priests, and the cropped heads menis, without attracting a troublesome and leather coats of peasants; forming degree of attention. one of the most am using and whimsical Some of our countrymen, who are scenes that can be imagined.

so zealously English, as to revere even The diversity is as great in the man- the follies and excelles which spring out ner of life, as it is in the appearance of our free constitution, affect to conof those who inhabit this city. Fo. sider this circumstance as an instance of reigrers generally continue attached to the stupidity of the Russian character, their native habits and predilections: and of the degradation to which the ard, in St Peterburg, you may be en- people are reduced by the active operatertained after the manner of almost tion of a despotic government. It does every pation in Europe ; as well as most not appear to me, however, that any of the Asiatic tribes, from the wall of such supposition is necessary to account China to the mouth of the Ovv, and for the fact. The kullian Empire is from Constantinople to the sea of Kamt-, made up of a varicty of nations, diffchatka.

fering from one another in larguage, in I am much pleased with the freedom dress, and in manners. Th which strangers enjoy here-I mean dress being purely foreign, there are the freedom from being molefied on ac- no circun tances which give to any one count of the singularity of this manner national dress of +:e Enpire the fupeand appearance. In London you must riority over all the rest. Hence every tribe preserves its own : and as the ca- around them, to see whether any fufpipital attracts to itself fome individuals cious person be within hearing. Yet from every nation of which the Empire is not withitanding the care that is taken composed, the inhabitants of St Peters- to prevent the too free agitation of macburg are accustomed to see much great- ters of ítare, men will fometimes take er variety of dresses than those of almost liberties with forbidden subjects of difany other city. Habit produces the course even in Russia. In thefe cases a fame effects in Russia, that it does in special statute is issued, prohibiting all other countries : a Ruffian can no more conversation whatever, on that particular than an Englishnan be supposed to stand point, and denouncing high pains and 8ping in idle wonder at objects which penalties against all who shall be found he may see every hour of the day. tranfgreffing.


Strangers enjoy in this Empire, as What effect such a prohibition would eatire a freedom in matters of religion have had in England, an Englishman as in dress and minner of life ; neither need not be told. But in Russia there do the natives discover a greater degree are some cogent motives to obedience, of curiosity to observe the one than the which feldoin fail of producing their efother. The English, the French, the fećt. A great teacher of political subGerm175, the Dutch, &c. have churches million, called a knout-malter general, in St Peterburg, which are attended by keeps his refidence in this capital ; who, the ladies and domestics of their res- though but little conversant wiih the pective congregations. Sometimes alfo science of jurisprudence, can by a few pracyou nay see a few gentlemen in these tical trokes, make a statute more coercive churches; but this is comparatively a rare than could be done by all the reasoning occurrence. It is also extremely rare of all the lawyers that ever lived. This to fee natives led, by their curiosity, to august personage, who is generally a man observe the ceremonies of any religion of high rank and higher worthip, never except their own. Indeed, the forms condescends to adopt the pedantic accuof the Ruffian national church are so racy of attending to forms of procedure, splendid and imposing, that those who to attend to distinctions of cases, or to have been educated to revere them, must the tedious investigation of facts and necessarily look with contempt on the circumstances, which tend so much to Dakedness of other religious institutes retard the legal speed of justice in our which have no such pon pous appenda- native country. Without any other ges to set them off.

formality than that of announcing an orThe freedom which foreigners enjoy der from his fuperiors, he proceeds dia in these respects is, however, counter- rctly to the exercise of his occupation, balanced by some restraints and mortific and generally applies his admonition fo Catio:s to which they are exposed. An vigorously, that he who has çeceived one Englifhman, for example, thinks it ex. lesson feldom cares to be found ftanding tremely hard that he is not at liberty to in need of a second. Ipeak his sentiments of political measures, You may perhaps think that any thing cr political men and women ; nor to tra- like levity is very much misplaced on vel more than a few postsoutoftown with such a subject. Englihmen are accutout a passport; nor to pass a man of rank tomed to speak of the kort, as of the without making way for him. In these re- most dreadful and most degrading :'ufpeûs, however, he is only on a footing nishment that can be conceived." Yet' with the natives. Political discussion is it is neither more cruel nor more dealmost wholly interdi&led: and those grading than fome punishments that who still venture to speak of the mea- are inflicted in our country.

Consider fores of goverament, do it in whispers; the public whippings which a's, in a and not til they have locked carefully multitude of calis, awarded by our own Vol. LVIII.

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law; or the still more dreadful flog- which seldom exceeds twelve or fif gings, &c. which our military delin- teen, has been heard to say, that for quents are obliged to undergo ; and you a bottle of brandy, he would undergo will fee that one of the freest and most as many more.

You may indeed inlienlightened nations that ever existed, duate, that this must have been awing has not yet been able to devise any pro- to his attachment to brandy, rather bable expedient to mitigate, beyond a than to the mildness of the punishment. certain degree, the severity of legal in. But I imagine the greatest drunkard in fiction, I would not be understood to the English army, when suffering the insinuate any unqualified approbation of excruciating effect of five hundred lashes, either the one practice or the other. I would not consent to take another five only wish to assure you, that the dread- hundred for all the distilled spirits in ful descriptions we have read, of the Britain. But, although in point of punishment of the knout, are considerably corporal sufferance," a flogging in overcharged ; at least, that they are not Russia be not more severe than one in applicable to the present practice; al. England, I acknowledge that I cannot though they may have been suggested think of the office of knout-niaster by some of the most atrocious instances ral without abhorrence ; because, from of former times.

the manner in which the fufpicious policy Travellers have either been misled by of favourites and ministers causes it to their own feelings on this subject, or be exercised, it is a vile instrument of they have voluntarily milled their read- oppression, employed to execute the ers. Were I to translate the word knout atrocious purposes of private revenge, by its precife equivalent whip, and tell as often as to punish the guilt of real you that, in Rusia, persons convicted' delinquents. Not only may masters of certain crimes are punished by whip- order their saves to be knouted by the ping, I should tell you the exact truth: public executioner, without assigning any and yet it would not strike you as in reason but their own pleasure ; but a the least degree extraordinary'; because mandate is sometimes issued, under the you may see the fame species of disci- authority of government, ordering the pline inflicted on the fame description knout-mafter general to infli&t the fame of offenders in every town in Great punishment on persons of rank and Britain. But when I retain the Russian fashion, who have had the misfortune to word, and say, that in this unhappy fall under suspicion ; that is, who have country malefa&ors are knouted ; ina given offence to some of those poisonous gination supplies the place of exact des. infects, which, under the names of cription, and your blood begins to courtiers and favourites, are continually freeze, from a confused notion you form, buzzing about the ears of majesty. In of Aaying alive, and tearing out the these cases the knout-master, attended tongue, and otherwise mangling the by some of his gang, goes privately to carcase of such miserable wretches as the house of the devoted person, and, are condemned to this unhuman punilh- whatever be the rank, or sex, or age. ment. Trust me, there is more decep- his victim, executes his orders with untion in this than you may be apt to im- pitying rigour. agine. The knout, as it is commonly I have been told (for I never had an inflicted, is not more severe than the opportunity of seeing it) that when this whippings in many cases ordered by an officer is ordered to Moscow, which English judge. It is not by any means fome times happens, as most of the disso terribic as the floggings sometimes affected or disappointed nobles have inflicted on our military offenders. A their winter residence there, his appearRussian, after having just received the ance operates like the breaking out of ordinary number of trokes of the knout, the plague. The public places are shut.



up ; focial intercourfe is almost wholly ties which distinguish nations is very fufpended, and the city waiting in feara remote, and that it is vain to search for ful expectation where the blow is to its causes. But, when the tendency of fall ; for it is well known that the knout, national manners and opinions is once master never makes fuch journeys in formed, it is caly


government to ask!t vain.

its progress, to complete its effcct, and

prolong its duration. - According to You express your astonishment how this view, the forms of government, any pation can submit to a government which have been fanctified in Russia by which authorises fuch enormities as the immemorial prescription, appear fuily private castigations mentioned in my adequate to account for the abject subletter. Had you attended to the in. million which distinguishes the subjects tergal history of this empire, your fur- of this empire. Without recurring to prise would have ceased. The annals the barbarity of more ancient times, I of the princes of this country, with only shall beg leave to turn your attention to a few exceptions, are stained with deeds Peter the Great, juftly in many respects cf uncommon atrocity. The gibbet, styled the father of his country. I need the axe, and the knout, were the great not remind you of the atrocious punishinstruments of their administration ; and ments inflicted in his name, and by his hence the people, seeing the rod of ty- authority. You cannot be ignorant of ranny continually waring over their them, and I wish not to revive in you heads, become by degrees callous to its the sentiments of horror and indig. impreffion. From the practice of sub nation, which you must have felt in mitting to the will of their princes arose perusing the accounts of them. Peter, habits of subjection in the people, which indeed, feldom had recourse to the prihave rendered them the willing victims vate mode of punishment which I men. of arbitrary power, and riveted the fet- tioned in my last, but he often punishters of despotism.

ed with his own hands, such delinquents At what period, or from what cir- as he did not wish to deliver up to the cumstances, this tendency was first im- public executioner. pressed on the national spirits is perhaps The instances of this kind that are on impoffible to be known. The causes record are almost innumerable. * I sewhich give to nations their distinctive lect a single, example : He had sumcharaéter, seem to me to lie generally moned a council, I forgot on what occawithout the reach of our observation. Í fion, at seven in the morning. When imagine that government, which is ge. he entered the fenate-house, he was as. Derally supposed to be the great agent tonished to find not one of those arrived in this case, is as much the consequence whom he had ordered to attend. By as it is the cause of national character. the time he had waited about ten mi At one period, the form of government nutes, and wrought himself up to a pro. over the greater part of Europe was per degree of rage, the president apo nearly the same. The characters of the pears ; who, seeing the storin was about different European nations were, how to fall on him, begins to make an apo, ever, at that period, as distinct as they logy. But in vain. Peter, whose palare now. The three nations of which fions never listened to excuses, instantly the British empire confifts have long seizes and belabours him most severely. enjoyed similar privileges; yet the Every member shared the fame fate aca English character is very different from cording to the order of his arrival, una the Irish, and the Scotch is distinct from til General Gordon appeared. The both.

General was not a little alarmed at the It would seem, therefore, that the appearance which the council-room preorigin of those characteristic peculiari- feated. But the Emperor's rage was by

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