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this time pretty well exhausted, and he pline is less atrocious, and excites less only told Gordon, that; as he had not abhorrence, than seem to imagine. been punctual to his time, he was very When an instance of it occurs, those who lucky in being so far behind it. “ For,” hear of it thank their good fortune chat added' he, “ I am already sufficiently they were not the victims, and continue fatigued with beating these scoundrels ; to treat the sufferer with the same confiand I understand that a Scotch consti- deration as before. I must also add, that tution does not agree well with a drub- the intances of it which now occur are bing,"

very rare. The private infliction of the knout Yet with all the alleviations I can sugo seems to be the legitimate offspring of gest (and I am willing to fuggelt all that this ready discipline. The Russian truth will allow) you will say, that the 90sceptre has, you know, been held, since vernment must be abominable which authe days of Peter the Great, only by thorises such enormities. I thall not difwomen, except during the short reign pute this point with you ; for I think litof Peter the second, and the few months tle can be argued in favour of that systein which Peter the third survived his aunt. of legislation which is held together only Although some of the Princesses who by the fear of corporal infliction, which have succeeded to the throne of Peter must degrade before it can govern, and the Great, have showed themselves qua- make of the human species bad men, in Jified to fway his sceptre, none of them order to render them good subjects. have been able to wield his cudgel. But, although I cannot survey without Hence this duty has devolved on the abhorrence the system of despotism that knout malter genera!.

prevails in this empire, I think there are How far the nation has lost or gained infuperable difficulties in the way of by the change, I shall not pretend to speedily introducing any considerable imguess. But it seems to be owing to the provement. The corruption of the peorespectable origin of this mode of castiga- ple seems to keep pace in every nation tion that there is less of disgrace connec. with the vices of the government. Perred with it than could easily be imagined. haps tyranny in the people aét mutually It is well known that chastisements which in producing one another ; just as,

in

cerPeter the Great inflicted with his own tain diseases, thederangementof the body hand were never supposed to disgrace induces mental debility, and the debility those who suffered them. When a cour- thus induced increases the bodily disorder tier was foundly drubbed, or pulled by the from which itarose. Whateverthere may nose, or had a tooth tornout by the Em. be in this supposition, ihe spirit of the Rufperor, at all which exercises Peter was re- fian government and the manners of the inarkably dextrous, he suffered only the Russians are well adapted to one another, bodily pain of the operation. His honour A free government would hardly be rewas not in the least affected. And as it lished by the nation in its present state, feldom happened that his master put less and a more enlightened nation would not confidence in him after such an accident, tamely submit to such a government. than he had done before it, his credit fuf I have often, indeed, heard bold the. fered as little as his honour. Menzikoff orists propose to anniniate at once whatused to appear in all his native haughtiness ever is vicious in the government of this and presumption, even when his coun- empire, and to create a free conftitution in tenance bore the most unequivocal marks its stead. A furgeon might as well cut off of his master's resentment, In like a limb in order to remove the pain of a manner the private infliction of the knout corn on the toe. The cure might, to be is hardly supposed to disgrace a Ruf sure, be in both cases accomplished; but I fiao gentleman more than ilagellation acknowledge, 1 should not choose to trust does an English school boy.

either my person to such radical practice, On these accounts this species of disci- or my political quiet to fuch active the

ory:

ory. Such men seem to consider the sci- who retain the original impresion and
ence of legislation as analogous to mecha. bent of their character with an obftinacy
nical art, in which, from previously cal. proportioned to the force that is applied
cu'ating the power of every constituent to change them. It is impossible to cal-
part, you can deduce with mathematical culate the effect that niay be produced by
certainty the general effect of the whole an attempt to introduce a great and lud-
Bur ley.lators have not like mechanics den change into the situaticn of a nation
inert matter to act upon, which they can of such beings; becaufe it is impossible to
mould into whatever shape they please. foresee the various accidents that may
They have for the object of their science, and must occur to accelerate, or retard, or
beings refractory to the hand of the ma- change the motion you have comrauni-
nagiiunreasonable in their prejudices, cated to the national spirit.
in their predilections and antipathies, and

(To be continued.)

1

ITALY.

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

LITERARY HISTORY OF THI PRESENT PERIOD.

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 172.

been translated into the vulgar tongee; EVERY one koows that, on the re- the bishops of particular dioceses, fupvival of letters, Italy was their first, ported by their respective sovereigns, tea fotter-mother; and the golden age of gin to exercise a jurisdiction indepenLeo will ever be accounted a remark. dently of Rome; papal infallibility is able æra in the history of human know- scouted every where, iave in the papal ledge. For a century, at least, it re territories, and even there fcebly cetained its superiority; and although it fended, perhaps not believed ; fuperitibas since been visibly finking in the tious rites and usages are daily diminishpublic scale, yet it fill holds a confi- ing, and freedom of thought pervades derable rank in every branch of science, all ranks of men who have any fort of where religion is not directly or indi. liberal education. What may we not rectly concerned. It has produced ex- augur from such symp:oms ? cellent historians, moft ingenious poets, and some tolerable orators ; it has Although these nations have, for al. greatly embelliined its fine melodious most two centuries, made very little language, and was the first modern na- figure in the field of science, it is not tion that had a good lexicon. In ma- hence to be concluded, that this has thematics and experimental philosophy, been owing to want of capacity: they it is not below its neighbours ; and it are naturally a thinking and acute peohas always been deemed the best school ple, and, in the sixteenth

century,

held for music, painting, and sculpture. Di- a respectable rank among the nations of vioity alone (and philosophy in as far Europe ; but here the inquisition, more as it is connected with divinity) has rigid and bloody than at of Italy, has been bound in fetters by monachism, fifted every fpark of genius that has fuperflition, and inquisitorial tribunals. come within its reach, and plunged the But these fetters will probably soon be inhabitants into an ignorance hardly to haken off by that ingenious people : be credited. The time, however, seems God grant that they may not at the to approach, when that diabolical tribulame time shake off religiou herfclf, un- nal must be abolished; and, to do julder the idea that she had forged their tice to this and the last reign, its power chains : this is no uncommon process has already been greatly curtailed : ftill, in national revolutions, Some change however, it has power enough to prein the religious creed of Italy, ap- vent a general diffemination of knowpears to be inevitable. The scriptures ledge ; and few, comparatively, are the are more generally, iludied, and have works of value that have yet been writ

FRANCE.

ten on the other side of the Pyrenees. from so dismal a prospect, and cherish a Yet the Spanish language feems pecu- hope, that the genius of France may liarly formed for fine composition, whe- yet trim his withered bags, and rise to his ther in prose or verse ; and they have former renown. row a national dictionary that vies with GERMANY, HOLLAND, &c. acy in Europe.

A petulant French Jefuit once made

it a question, Whether a German was Unhappy France ! Thou wast once capable of wit? And not lefs petulant a naiion of learned men. Although was the observation of an Englithman, thou didht not embrace the muses so that the Dutch carried their genius in early as thy southern neighbour, thou. their backs. Odious assertion! The receivedst them with not leis tenderness, German Luther had at least as much and cultivatedst them with more indus- wit as Father Bouhours; and the Cola try. In what species of writing (Epic loquies of Erasmus, of Rotterdam, conpoetry exccpted) didit thou not scel? tain more Attic humour than can be what art or scicnce didit thou not im- collected from the whole mass of Engprove and adorn? what charms didít lidh writers, from Chaucer to Swift.. abou not give to one of the most bar That the French, a vain and jealous barous tongues in the universe ? Thy nation, should contemn German literaGothogallic jargon, embellished by the ture, is not much 10 bewondered. kill of thy grammarians and orators, They have sometimes affected to defpise became the language of the world, and their masters, the Italians : But that the vehicle of knowledge to the ends of we, a Saxon colory, should join in the the eartlı. “ Ab! how are the mighty affront, is certainly a matter of surprise. fallen, and the weapons of learning The truth is, that, although the Ger

man be the parent of our own tongue, Reader, we mean not, by this apo- or at least a sister dialect, we have not, strophe, to debase the French nation, until very lately, paid any attention to nor to throw any flur upon their late German books, unless they were writexerticos to shake off the yoke of def- ten in Latin. Yet Germany has, in the potism, and vindicate their juft rights; course of the present century, produced we are only penetrated with sorrow and as many good works, in German, as any regret, thiat the vindication of those country in the world. We know not rights should be attended with conse- even if it be saying too much, to affirm, quences fo fatal to Learning, and we that more German books are annually fcar to liberty itself, at least for a long published than in one half of the world portion of time. But is France at pre- besides : they are not all excellent, to fent without learned men are the arts be fure, bui most of them are good, and and sciences there totally neglected? few intolerable ; and there is not a Neither the 072 nor the other! But,, branch of science which is not liighly alas ! the number of truly learned men cultivated, especially in the Protestant in France, at this moment, are like the universities. Formerly, the Germans gleanings of the field: old age, exile, wrote in various dialects, as numerous or the guillotine, has swept the great as their various prorinces ; and still harvelt away.; and it will be yet a long, there are shades of difference in the lanlong winter, before such another crop guages of Berlin, Leipfic, and Vienna : can appear. The arts and sciences are But having now an excellent lexicon, not altogether extinct; but they shed and several good grammars, they seem only a faint light : the rays of which to aim at fcme sort of uniformity, both serve chiefly to shew what Vandalic de- in fiyle and phraseology. Their poetry vastation has been made among their is greatly improved, and every day ime belt productions. Let us cuin cur eyes proving ; in novel writing, they are

perifhed ?"

more

GREAT BRITAIN.

more natural than we; of their oratory faid to be copious and harmonious : if we cannot say so much ; in mathema. any works of great importance hall aptics, natural history, phyfic, experimen- pear in it, we will endeavour to give an tal philosophy, they are second to none; account of them. The number of Poin rational theology, they have made lish publications is not great; and now, great progrefs : and in biblical criti- we imagine, that unfortunate nation wilt ciím, hold the very first rank. be taught to lisp in the respective lan

What we have said of Germany is guage of its new, masters. more or less applicable to Holland, Sweden, Denmark, and the other northern Having thus made the grand tour as regions that border on Germany, and rapidly as most of our modern travellers, peak Teutonic dialects. To them the we return with pleasure to our natis : German has been chiefly the great ve- soil; and are happy in the thought that bicle of knowledge, which they have it has not been less productive of every generally diffused into their own tongues; fort of knowledge, than climes that bu: in Sweden, of late, many very learn- enjoy a warmer fin. Montesquieu was ed men have arisen, who, in philology, won: to say, “ That England was a and every species of critical knowledge, country to think in ;” and this concefare not inferior to the Germans; and fion from a French writer is no small they have one of the best translations of eulogy. In fact, we are a thinking, the Bible that has been made into mo more than an ingenious nation : w dern languages.

have seldom been guilty of invention ; The literature of Holland is, in fome but we are bold and perfevering initameafare, peculiar to itself. Although tors, and have generally perfected what their language be a German dialect, it had been invented by others : of this has not been much written in ; their our various manufactures are a sensibile principal works are in Latin or French, and striking proo. 66 V os machines Tnis laiter was imported by the French fort mieux_montées,” said to us refugees, who fled from the persecution telligent Frenchman, whom we met of Louis XIV. and, through them, soon fome years ago at Birmingham ; and becane familiar to the Dutch them- this is pure truth. The employers of selves ; almost as many French works our artists spare no cost ; and our are have iffued from the presies of Amster- tills, patient and well paid, leave nodan, Rotterdam, and the Hague, as thing unfinished in their varicus operafrom those of Paris and Lyons. We tions, from the mill that grinds the Speak not at all of the Netherlands, be- sugar.cane, to the screw that draws a cause we know no works of any great cork. Hence the grese demand for our merit in the Flemish dialect. It has, 'wares all over the globe. for many years, been giving place to If our learning and science bad but the French, which now bids fair to ex- kept pace with our mechanics, we should tinguish it. The language of Lifle is have been the most learned and enlightbecome the language of Brussels ; and, ened people under the fun : as it is, in half a century more, perhaps, there we have no reason to blush. vill be no other dialect spoken on this see what we have done in the lapse of Gde the Rhine.

a hundred years. It might be expected that we should In the first place, we have confiderfaye fomething of Polish and Ruffian lite- ably polished and, at the same time, rature ; but we confess we are little ac perhaps, enei vated our language ; we quainted with either, except through write more grammatica'ly, but not more the medium of German reviews. We forcibly nor clequently; we have a know only that the Russian language has good dictionary of our language, but for been improved in later times, and is from being a perfect one, or even equal

an in

Let us

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to those of some other nations, though genious systems have been broached, we are sometimes apt to boast the con- which have not yet received the sanction trary.

Its defects are great and nu- of public approbation. We avoid menmercus; and we cannot but lament, that tidning names, that we may avoid the a gentleman *, who has long laboured imputation of partiality. to improve it, and supply its deficiencies, In theology, a wonderful revolution has not met with that encouragement has happened in this country.

The to which he had a claim ; and without principles of Calvin, which were once which he could not carry on so expen- common to Presbyterians and Episcopafive an undertaking.

lians, are now, in a great measure, On oratory and elocution, several exploded by both ; and Arminianism useful tracts and lectures have appeared, has had a complete triumph over the but there is very little new in them. gloomy syhem of Gomarus.---There Dr Campbeil's Philosophy of Rhetoric, were some few Socinians in the days and Mr J. Walker's Melody of Speaking of Charles II. and in

every

succeed. delineateil, are the only works of the ing reign; but they were individuals, kind that possess originality ; ye: they who had no public conventicles, por have been liiele read.

oftenfible communion. At present, they History has had a better fate. We are a numerous and respectable body, have many good historians ; but Hume and are daily increasing. The acriand Robertson Phine among them like monious opposition which they have the moon among inferior itars.

met with from the established church From history to novels, the transi- and the obstinate refusal of government to tion is short : and here, if number pre- repeal the test and corporation acts, have vail, we are invincible. Since the fer- not a little contributed to this increase. tile pen

of Richardfon poured forth its Sanguis martyrum femen fun&orum, is an sentimental torrent, a ti.ousand stream- axiom that will always be found to be lets have enrulated its course, and pur- true, whatsoever be the principles of led away, with an uniform fimilarity the persecuted. We fay perfecuted ; bethrough the enchanted plains.

cause we are thoroughly convinced, that An inundation of pretty poetry has every sort of restraint, in matters mereallo deluged the land; but the grand, ly religious, is a species of perfecution ; the fublime, the Shakesperian, and the althonghit be not persecution unto death. Miltonic, seem beyond the grasp of mo. This latter, indeed, is happily abolishdern bards. Two or three good co. ed, or, at least, gone gradually into difmedies have graced the stage ; but the us. We no longer hang a Pojih priest Tragic Muse Bas been in a deep lethar- for saying nass, nor bore the tongue of for many years.

an Unitarian with a hot iron for denying Natural history and experimental phi. the Triniry. The times will not bear losophy, more especially botany and che- fich severities; yet we have no hesitamistry, have made grcat progrefs among tioo in afferring, that as long as a single us; but the Swedes and Germans led Eriton is, on account of his religious

tenets, excluded from any place which The chair of Newton has not been be is capable of filling, genuine liberty refilled; and this is no matter of alto. he does not enjoy. To oblige men, by Dithment, lince academical honours have penal laws, to think alike, is to renew been made the reward and badge of a the bed of Procrustes, which philosoparty.

phy ought to have broken in pieces Politics have been cultivated with for ever. Difference in opinion is as uncommon ardour, especially fince the natural as difference in complexion ; Trench Revolution; and some new in- and one may be as juftiy persecuted for * Mr Herbert Cook,

Leing blick, brown, or fair, as for be

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