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ing of this or that religious perfuafion. cient and valuable Greek version, known Theological knowledge is proinoted by by the name of Septuagint. No doubt, divisions ; every party exert their ta. the other more ancient versions, partilents and fagacity, to seek and draw, cularly the Syriac and Latin Vulgate, from the common arsenal of controver- will, in time, be also collated ; and sy, arms to support their own cause ; each of these collations will contribute and from the clash of arms meeting to remove from the sacred Books, the arms, some sparks of unquestionable grubs and straws that have stuck to their truth are now and then elicited. In one amber in the course of time. point of divinity, we seem almost agreed, The fine arts have flourished in Engnamely, that the scriptures, our com- land since the commencement of this mon rule of faith, have not been hand- century, and particularly since the instied down to us in their original purity; tution of the Royal Academy. The and both the orthodox and the dissen- late President, both by precept and ex. ter have acknowledged the expediency ample, inspired our painters with a spiof correcting them by the canons of rit of emulation, which has produced found criticism. The collation of the as many good artists, as, perhaps, any MSS of the New Testament, by Mills, other nation, during the same period. and of the Old Testament, by Kenni. We have also sculptors, who do honour cort, does honour to the University of the nation ; and our engravers are e. Oxford ; and, from the fame seminary qual to any that France or Italy have of learning, we expect with avidity, a produced. collation of the MSS of the most an



upwards of 420 varieties,

420 varieties. I have seen AFTER confidering the remarks by a printed catalogue containing a descripCivis, in your last, p. 184, I cannot tion of 361 different kinds, published help going into his opinion, that coins some months ago. Artists remark, too, would be an excellent mean of preserve that our gold coinage is but indifferently ing traces of architecture, or remark- executed, and in a much worse style than able events. How valuable would any that of any former period. As to the coin be on which was struck, a good de- state of the silver coinage, that has been [ign of the elegant porch which orna- the subject of daily complaint for many mented the approach to Holyroodhouse, years back. Such is the rage for proor of the arch and spire which termi- vincial halfpence, or tradesmen's tokens, dated the High Street at the Nether as they are called, that, in one instance, Bow. Would not this also be a very the dye broke when the third token proper method of handing down like was striking; of course, of that imprefnell's of eminent men ? Who would lion only two exist; and I am informnot wish to be poffeffed of a good me- ed, that the present possessor of one of dallion of Smith, Hume, Robertson, them has refused ten guineas for his im&c.

preffion. There is such a demand, Another observation occurred to me, from the number of collectors, that, in Damely, that there is surely a moft fu- some instances, the specimens fell at se. piac negligence in the perfons to whom veral shillings. I understand that the the duty of supplying coinage is entrust- first impresions bring generally fixpence ed by Government. I am well inform- _a-piece. All this serves to mark one fea. ed, that the provincial halfpence through- ture, at least, of the present times. out the kingdom at present amounts to

Edinr. 14th April 1796. VOL. LVIII.


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METALS, COAL, AND LIME. IT is obvious, that we can be but ticular district. In the neighbourhood imperfe&tly acquainted with the inter- of Newcastle, for example, from a mulnal structure and substance of this globe. titude of experiments made in search of The difficulty and expence of searching coal, it has been found, that after bodeep into the bowels of the earth, are ring through a certain number of strata, a sufficient cause for our want of infor- composed of known materials, that mation. It is only where rents or mineral is to be found. The same thing chafms are laid open to our inspection is also pretty well established in many by the operations of nature, by means parts of Scotland. With regard to the of volcanos, earthquakes, &c, or where metals, þess accuracy may be looked the scanty probbings of the miner are for : However, even here certain matraced, that we are made acquainted terials are in general found to accomwith the interior structure of the earth. pany these substances. This is going

The surface of the earth is almost so far : Not that where we meet with every where, to a certain depth, co- ftrata of a particular description, there vered with mould or earth, which serves we are to find certain metals; only, that to sustain and cherish the vegetable the metals have never been found, but kingdom. But that 'is not its natural, in the neighbourhood of, or accompaor original state ; these are only the nied by these materials. Should any fragments of more solid materials, bro- man take it into his head, that he would ken down by the action of water, and find silver in a freestone

quarry, because, by the weather, mixed with the re- perhaps, it is full of bright and shining mains of decayed animal and vegetable particles, he would be much mistaken; substances. If we go a little deeper, and after trial, made at perhaps much we come to strata, or beds of more ho- expence, he will find all his hopes end mogeneous and solid materials, regu- in disappointment. It may be laid down larly covering one another. These as a certain rule, that the metals are strata are not exactly parallel : they in never found in the following strata, viz. general dip, or incline a little to the fand-stone, lime-stone, chalk, marble, horizon. Neither are they arranged coal, gypsum. according to their specific gravities; for Belides the materials which are arwe often find a bed or stratum of stone, ranged in beds or strạta, there is anfor example, above a stratum of sand, other substance which is spread over a below that a stratum of clay; or in the great part of our globe. Its form is reverse order. These strata lying in rugged and uneven, and when peneno determined order, as to specific gra- trated into, shows no appearance of vity, nor following any law as to fitua- layers, or strata in its structure. To tion, no exact or fixt rules can be laid this we give the name of rock : Rocks down for finding a stratum of any par. in general are hard stony substances, to ticular description. In one place we all appearance composed of matter that have fand-stone, then clay, then gravel, has been once in fusion, or partly so. then whin, then sand-stone, and so on; Rocks are often rent, and divided asunin another place, this arrangement is der, and, as it were, cemented again perhaps just reversed.

It is only by by a different kind of matter. There comparing various trials and experie rents are called veins and fiffures: veins ments, that


information, a little be- are to be seen of a prodigious depti), yond conjecture, can be obtained. In much beyond our reach ; for the molt some instances this knowledge is pretty part they are from an inch co three feet accurate, in so far as it regards a par- wide. The materials which fill these fiffures and veins, have often a whitish or design. The rich mines of Potosi appearance, and it is in these that we in were discovered when rooting up fome general find metallic and mineral sub- trees. The falling and decay of rocks, Itances. Mines then are more gene. and the rushing of torrents down the rally found in bills than in plains, and sides of mountains, have led to the knowalmost always in hills which form a ledge of most mines. Some writers continued range. The matter which have laid a good deal of stress on the fills the veins is a sparry substance, in growth of pariicular plants, as accomwhich the metal is lodged Excepting panying the metals ; but there seems to gold, none of the metals are to be found be no good ground for this. All such pure in any quantity. They are found plants are found to grow where we are in a state of combination and mixture certain there is no metallic matter. In with other substances. The substances fome cases, a partial or stinted vegetawhich combine with the metals, and tion has been made a mark of the near which are for this reason denominated presence of metal. A more certain their mineralizers, are sulphur or ar- mode of finding any metallic substance, senic; and in some instances, a part of is, by examining the water of the neighboth. The stony matter in which they bouring springs and brooks. If there is are found imbedded, is called the ma- any mineral water discovered, there is trix. Quartz and spar are the most a good deal of certainty, that it comes common matrices of the metals, and from a metallic vein in the vicinity. sulphur the most ordinary mineralizer. Very lately, a copper mine was discoThese mineralizers often convert the vered at Anglesea, in this way. Copper metal into a dull, earthy-like matter, dif- was found to be dissolved in the waa fering externally from itony matter only ter. When there is iron dissolved in in weight. In this state, they are called water, it always shows itself by depositores or calces.

fiffures ed and ill-Ihaped ; snow melts there, almost subject, it will not appear surprising, that

ing a yellow ocre on the sides, and stones, The following metals are mineraliz- in the bed of the rivulet. ed by suluhur: arsenic, antimony, cop- Another way is, by examining the per, filver, zinc, bismuth, cobalt, leat, fand near any gully or opening, or in iron, mercury. By arsenic-cobalt, the bottom of the brook. This is done, bismuth, copper, tin; iron and gold by taking a quantity of the fand and uocertain.

gravel, with water in a wooden dilla, In some cases, there is both arsenic agitating the contents. gently under waand sulphur in the compound. One ter, so as ust to allow the water to carry metal, too, is sometimes in anion with off the larger gravel, and other matanother ; tho' arfenic, or more frequent- ters, and thus cause the heaviest to fall ly folphur, is the proper mineralizer. to the bottom, amongst which will be But we do not enter minutely into this found the metallic particles. The cofubjeét. Several metals are found, some lour of the earth is also a symptom of times, in a crystallized state, as the fol- metallic matter. When highly colour- , lowing : cobalt, silver, zinc, iron, tin, ed, it is always the effect of a metal. and lead; jn which case they are com. If red, it contains iron; if greenish, or bined with the marine acid. The bluish, it probably contains copper; if carbonic also crystallizes several, espe- white, grey, or yellow, lead ; and per. cially lead. The metals are also found haps silver also *. As sulphur, or ar. in combination with some other acids. * Fourcroy says, it has been observed, that Gold is almost always found pure, and plants growing on hills which contain metalin a quartzy matrix.

lic matters, are never luxuriant, but dry and From the view we have given of the dwarfish; trees in such a situation are crook

as soon as it falls, and the sand is metal cofew mines have been discovered by art loured.

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senic, accompany all the metals (ex- dication of coal. When the miners find
cepting gold) there may be fome, the blaes marked with the impressions
thing proceeding from a partial decom. of vegetables, they never despair of find-
position in the mine which may retard ing coal. In general, coal lies at a consi-
vegetation, both these substances being derable depth below the surface. The
noxious to plants. This, however, is feams of coal are from a few inches to
not well ascertained. It is believed, eight and ten feet in thickness, and
that in the neighbourhood of most of sometimes even more.
the mines presently working in this Lime-stone is found both in the pri-
country, large spots are to be seen, mary and harder (trata, and in the le-
where there is no vegetation. Such ap- condary, though most frequently in the
pearances ought not therefore to be over- latter. Lime-Itone is generally suppo-

sed to be derived from the shells and
COAL AND LIME-STONE. relicts of marine animals, and it is ac-
The minerals most abundant and most companied by similar materials as coal
useful in this country are' coal and for the most part it is imbedded in sand-
Jime-stone. With regard to the first, stone. It is known by the effervescence
coal, it never is found in primitive stra- occafioned by pouring a few drops of
ta, or in rocks like the metals. The aqua fortis on the stone. The incrustation
strata which accompany coal are sands of vegetable matters, by the waters is-
stone, lime-stone, blaes, shiver, and suing from lime, conimonly known by
dogger. Unless the country abound the name of petrifying springs, also in-
with these we shall in vain expect to dicate the presence of lime in the neigh-
find coal. Hence we see that no coal bourhood. Lime-stone feldom lies many
has been discovered north of the Lo- fathoms below the surface. In making
monds of Fife, (excepting in Suther- trials it should be attended to that the
land,) there being no sandstone, lime, upper part or crop of the stone, as it is
or other accompanying materials north- called, is never so rich as that below,
wards of these bills : the mountains be the lime being in part dissolved, and
ing, in general, composed of thistus and wasted by rain and other causes.
moor-stone, or granite. The discovery

of foffil plants is also a pretty sure in-


found, a particular species of iron stone
A most beautiful and singular spotted has been discovered, which rises in
jasper was some years ago dug out of labs from the fiffures, and takes a very
this hill, below St Anthony's chapel ; fine polish. In the cavities, where at.
the basis is generally of one uniform tempts were made to obtain fpecimens
colour, sometimes veined, but always of the jasper, several remarkable cryf-
spotted with another colour. It con- tals were discovered, partly filiceous
tains a good deal of iron in small round and partly calcareous, of the dog-tooth
balls ; it admits of an elegant polish, kind, intermixed, and shooting from the
and is wrought into seals, buttons, &c. fame base. Red-keel, or Ruddle, is al-
the colours are brown with white spots, so found on the north-east side of the
blue with white spots, white with red hill.
spots, and sometimes all these colours
blended together.

This hill is well worthy the attenAt the place where this jasper is tion of the naturalist, from the various * Some account of the more precious

strata that compose it, which our limits stones and remarkable minerals, found in the will not admit of going into the detail county, will be given afterwards.


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Iteatites, green

of. We shall only observe, that the on which the castles of Dumbarton great mass of whin rock is incumbent on and Stirling, are built ; it is a species grit and clay, these latter are common- of whin-stone, and of an exceeding ly thought to be of posterior formation, dark colour, called by the Swedish nawhich Bikes this arrangement to be con- iuralists trap, by Wallerius, Corneus fidered as fingular. Beautiful specimens trapezius niger folidus. It is not in if radiated hæmatites are found in the the least acted upon by acids ; the acid, quarry near Holyroodhouse. These has no other effect upon is, than merely are intermixed

to discolour the surface. In for

parts Crous iron ore, and calcareous spar; form- of this rock, very beautiful specimens ing in many specimens a very uncommon of white radiated zeolite have been ouis,

found, particularly when digging the Veins of calcareous spar, beautifully reservoir for water, under the halffripped, are met with in many places. moon battery ; it was little attended to Alo lac lunæ, zeolite, and amethystine at the time, and it is believed few speciquartz crystals. There is a good mens of it have been preserved, the fragfand-stone quarry at the back of the rock, ments of the rock being immediately carCALTON HILL.

ried off to the high roads, which they The east side of this rock being are particularly well adapted to, when mostly covered with foil, cannot be nar- broken in fufficiently small pieces. This rowly examined ; 'the detached frag. kind of zeolite has also been found in the ments are of the fame nature as the lower parts of the rock fronting PrioCaitle hill, viz. a coarse-grained trap; ces Street. When the foundation of some of which contains a considerable the barracks, presently building in the quantity of hæmatites and fhorl, and is castle, were digging, a beautiful zeolite acted upon by acids. Near the top of was found incrusting the whin-Itone, the hill they assume a porphyric ap- of an opake white colour, with rays pearance, which is very visible in the diverging from a centre, not the twenquarry above the bridewell. The low- tieth part of an inch in thickness, and est Atratum is a coarse pudding Itone, from one to two inches long. The zeolite formed of fragments of a porphyrous found here is not affected by being dirock, of a number of different sizes, gested with the strongest acids, owing mixed with a good deal of red feli-fpar; to its containing a very great proportioa above this stratum is another of por- of siliceous earth ; when exposed to phyry from 30 to 40 feet thick. A the fire it swells greatly, and its surface very rare fosil was discovered in this exhibits a ftriated rugged appearance. porphyry, in the year 1785, by a In a wider circle, the hills of CorFrench gentleman, viz. the margodes of storphine, Braid, and Craigmillar surLinnæus; it was found from the size round the capital; and at about four of a pea to that of a hazel nut and up- miles distance, the range of the Pendland wards, of a tesfalated crystalized shape, hills commences. with regular fides and angles, refem

CORSTORPHINE HILL, bling a gardet, of different colours, About three miles west from Edinfrom a deep red to a light brown co- burgh, stretches from north to fouth lour ; its earth approaches nearest to somewhat more than a mile. It has that of the zeolite. This curious fossil a gradual afcent from the west, but has also beco found, in a quarry, upon is pretty abrupt and rugged to the Arthur's Seat, at the east end of the east. The rock which composes the Duke's Walk.

greater part of the hill, and particular

ly the north end, is a very coarse whin ; The rock upon which the castle of when exposed to the air for some time, Edinburgh is built is the same as those it breaks afunder, and crumbles down.



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