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The north part of the Leny hills on the times the fragments are shapeless, but
ner, specimens of terra ponderosa have
ford and Braid hills are much over- right columns, but form a very obtufe grown with whins. Between these hills angle. The summit of the hill is 540 there is an opening, which has been im- feet above the level of the sea. proved to great advantage, and where Around Edinburgh are several seats a very snug house stood, which, from of considerable consequence, the moft its fituation, was called the Hermitage elegant, however, is Duddingston, the of Braid. The present proprietor, residence of the Marquis of Abercorn. Charles Gordon, Elq; has built a most The house is modern, and the pleasure. commodious house on this spot, after the grounds are laid out to great advantage. Gothic stile, which affords a very a.
The beautiful sheet of water lying a grceable summer retreat.
mile to the north-east of the city, called
Lochend, has not been decorated, tho' This is but a small rising ground, it is capable of much ornament. This though, owing to the gradual ascent loch, with the romantic rock and buildfrom the sea, its height is 360 feet a. ing to the east of it, adds much to the bore that level; on its top stands the picturesque scenery of that quarter. ancient castle of the same name, a fa- Adjoining to the capital on the west vourite residence of Queen Mary. It and north lies makes a most generable appearance, and
ST CUTHBERT's, OR WEST CHURCE the view from the windows is highly parish, which comprehends a great part: delightful.
of the suburbs of Edinburgh. It is by The rock composing this eminence far the most populous in Scotland, conis chiefly free-stone : but to the south- taining 32,947 inhabitants. This pao west of the castle there is a stratum of rish contains about 9000 acres, the rent indurated clay, forming a sort of fhistus, of which may be estimated at L, 22,500 which contains a good deal of copper, Sterling. There are several excellent not in seins but intermixed in an irre. free-fone quarries which supply the cia. gulas manner through the stone. ty and contribute to its elegance. The CRAIG-LOCKHART.
6 columns in front of the New Collcge, This hill rises from the west side of measuring each 23 feet, by 3, the largest the Linton road, about two miles south. perhaps of one entire stone in the island, weit of Edinburgh. It is beautifulig were presented by the proprietor of wooded, and fornis a romantic fitua. Craigleith quarry. There are also ex-'. tion for the country residence of Baron cellent quarries of whinitone working Gordon, the proprietor. This small at Bellsmills for pavement. Next to range is covered with fine foil. It di. this, is the parish of rides by a hollow near the middle. CRAMOND, part of which lies in the Where the rock appears to the north- county of Linlithgow. It is wahed by well, it exhibits basaltic columns much the Frith of Forth on the north, and fimilar to those of Arthur's seat, but rises gradually from the fca, the grounds Father more regular and determined in being varied by beautiful and gentie their Ihape, forming a sort of semicircle. swells
. The river Amond is the bunOn the south-east, another set of ba. dary on the welt, the banks of which Elric pillars appear ftill more distinct are beaut?fully ornamented with wood. ihan the former, and of confidcrably There is an iron-work carried on is fu-ller diameter. They are not in up this parish to a considerable extent, and
said to employ a capital of about Tie heights we have given are from 1. 30,000 Sterling. Steel, rod iron, Livics made out by Mr Laurie and another naiis, hoops, spades, bolts for thips, Frodeman, both from actual survey. In these bab.es, the hills now mentioned differ condi- and such articles, are made here. This
parish contains 3890 acres, the rent of
may be reckoned about L. 6700 France, the finances and the people of Sterling. Its population is 11 12 souls. which kingdom were in a miserable ftate, There is little doubt but coal may be he obtained some countenance, and was found in this quarter ; all the accom- permitted to erect a bank : the effects of panying metals are discovered croping which, on the industry and trade of the upon the coast. Considerable quanti- nation, were so beneficial, that, as had ties of iron stone are collected on the been first proposed, it was resolved to shore and carried to the Carron works. take it into the king's hands. Though, Granite, of various kinds, and free- by these means, it received considerable stone, are in abundance. On the lands detriment, it continued useful, and Mr of Marchfield is a mineral spring, which Law began to develope the great prois said to have purgative qualities. In jeet on which he had long neditated, this parish lye the lands of Craigcrook, known by the name of the Millepi mortifyed in 1720 by John Strachan, System* ; which in some measure turned of Craigcrook. The rents, about L. 300 the heads of the French people, but per annum, are ordered to be employed which, his biographer thinks, had it in the support of poor old men, women, been carried into full execution, would and orphans. Several very eminent men in all probability have exalted France have been connected with this parish, to a vast superiority of power and wealth either by birth or property.
over every other state. It n:ust be menOf these may be mentioned, John Law tioned to his honour, that he voluntarily of Lauriston, who seems to have astonish- gave up the whole perquisites as well as ed all Europe, by his projects, his suc salary annexed to his office, was remarkcess, and his ruin. He was born at. ed for plainness and fimplicity of dress, Lauriston in this parish, upon the 21st and for order and strict propriety in the April 1671.
appears to have been management of his household. Mr Law a man of education, of wit, of engag concluded the chequered course of his ing manners, and of ability: his cal life at Venice, in the year 19729, and culating genius is said to have aslifted the 58th of his age, dying in a state him in gaming, and his gallantries pro- but little removed from indigence. duced some difficulties which obliged John Elphinstone, second Lord Bal. him to leave his country : but about the merino, nored for his fpirited oppofiyear 1700 he returned, and then pue tion to the tyrannical proceedings of blished “ Reasons for constituting a Charles I. and being one of the best council for trade,” and “ A proposal friends, that the covenanters ever had ; for supplying the nation with money;" Sir Thomas Hope of Grantoun, an both relative to Scotland. His
able Scotish lawyer; George M.Kenzie, fitions gained the attention of parliament, first Earl of Cromarty, a voluminous as well as of the court, and of the most author; and George Cleghorn, an emiconsiderable people in the country : pent physician in Dublin, are also among but his scheme, though said to be fixed the eminent - men belonging to this on found and incontrovertible principles, parish. was rejected ; and justly so, if the apprehension be well founded that, had it A trading company was erected under taken effect, all the estates in the king- the title of the Western or Mililoppi Company. dom would thereby thave been brought the French colonies in North America.
Its object was the planting and culture of
The to a complete dependance on govern- King gave to this company all the lands of ment.-Disappointed as to his plans, he Louisiana ; and the country was represented abandoned his native country. To as a Peru, more fertile in gold than that of other ministers and princes he proposed the Spaniards, his arrangements ; and at length in
(To be continued.)
OBSERVATIONS ON THE GRAFTING OF TREES.
apple-trees which grew from cuttings,
defect may, I think, be the immediate I fufpected that the appearance of cause of the canker and moss, though it decay in the trees I had seen lately is probably itself the effect of old age, grafted, arose from the diseased state and therefore incurable. of the grafts ; and concluded, that if I Being at length convinced, that all tock scions or buds from trees grafted efforts to make grafts from old and in the year preceding, I hond succeed worn-out trees grow, were ineffectual, in propagating any kind I chofe. With I thought it probable ihat those taken this view I inserted some cut:ings of the from very young trees, raised from seed, beit wood I could lind in the old trees, could not be made to bear fruit. The on young
stocks raised from feed. I event here answered my expe&tations. again inserted grafts and buds taken Cuttings from feedling appie-trees of from these on other young stocks, and two ycars old were inserted on stocks wishing to get rid of all connection with of twenty, and in a bearing state. Thele the old trees, I repeated this fix years ; have now been grafted nine years,
and each year towing the young foots from though they have been frequently transthe trees laft grafted. Stocks of dif- planted to check their growth, they ferent kinds were tried, some were have not yet produced a fingle bloliom. double grafred, others obtained from I have since grafted fonie very old VOL. LVIII.
trees with cuttings from secdling apple tree when cropped will produce an altrees, of five years old : their growth most eternal succesion of branches. The has been extremely rapid, and their ap- durability of the apple and pear, I have pears no probability that their time of long fuspected to be different in different producing fruit will be accelerated, or varieties, but that none of either would that their health will be injured, by the vegetate with vigour, much, if at all, begreat age of the stocks. A seedling- yond the life of the parent stock, proapple-tree usually bears fruit in thirteen vided thai died from mere old
I or fourteen years ; and I therefore con- am confirmed in this opinion by the clude, that I have to wait for a blossom books you did me the honour to send to till the trees from which the grafts were me: of the apples mentioned and destaken attain that age, though I have rea. cribed by Parkinson, the names only son to believe, from the form of their remain, and those since applied to other buds, that they will be extremely pro- kinds now also worn out ; but mary
of lific. Every cutting, therefore, taken Evelyn's are fill well known, particufrom the apple (and probably from e larly the red-streak. This apple, he invery other) tree, will be affected by forms us, was raised from seed by Lord the state of the parent stock. If, that Scudamore in the begining of the last be too young to produce fruit, it will century*. We have many trees of it, grow with vigour, but will not blossom; but they appear to have been in a state and if it be too old, it will immediately of decay during the last forty years, produce fruit, but will never make a Some others mentioned by him are in a healthy tree,' and consequently never- much better state of vegetation ; but answer the intention of the planter. The they have all ceased to deserve the atroot, however, and the part of the stock tention of the planter. The durability adjoining it, are greatly more durable of the pear is probably something more than the bearing branches; and I have than double that of the apple, no doubt but that scions obtained from It has been remarked by Evelyn, and either would grow with vigour, wh:n by almost every writer since, on the those taken fom the bearing branches fubject of planting, that the growth of would not.
The following experiment plants raised from feeds was more rapid, will at least evince the probability of and that they produced better trees than this in the rear-tree : I took cuttings those obtained from layers or cuttings. from the extremities of the bearing This seems to point out some kind of branches of fome old ungrafted par: decay attending the latter modes of pro
trees, and others from scions which pagation, though the custom in the : sprang out of the trunks ncar i he ground; public nurseries, of taking layers from
and inserted some of each on the same stools, (trees cropped annually close to
stocks jest raised from seeds, were con eternal succession of healthy plants from z vered with thorns, and have not yet its roots, I think our woods must have • produced any blooms.
been wholly over-run with those species The extremities of those branches, of trees which propagate in this manner, which produce seeds in every tree, pro- as those scions from the roots always bably thew the first indication of decay; grow in the first three or four years with and we frequently see (particularly in much greater rapidity than feedling the oak) young branches produced from plants. An aspin is feldom seen with : the trunk, when the ends of the old out a thousand suckers rising from its - ones have long been dead." The fame * Probably about the year 1634.