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roots ; yet this tree is thinly, though twice its natural period, if not more, by universally, scattered over the woodlands preventing their feeding. of this country. I can speak from ex

I have been induced to say a great perience, that the luxuriance and ex- deal more on this subject than, I fear, cellive disposition to extend itself in an you will think it deferves, from a conother plant, which propagates itself from viction that immense advantages would the root (the raspberry). decline, in arise from the cultivation of the pear twenty years from the seed. The com. and apple in other counties, and that non elm being always propagated from the ill success which has attended any fcions or layers, and growing with lux. efforts to propagate them, has arisen ariance, seems to form an exception ; from the use of worn out and disealed but as some varieties grow much better kinds.' Their cultivation is ill undera than others, is appears not improbable stood in this country, and worse piaca that the most healthy are those which tised; yet an acre of ground, fully plantbave laft been obtained from seed. The ed, frequently affords an average prodifferent degrees of health in our peach duce of more than five hundred gallons and nectarine trees may, I thiok, arise of l.quor, with a tolerable good crop of from the same source. The oak is much grass; and I have not the least doubt more long-lived in the north of Europe but that' there are large quantities of than here ; though its timber is less ground in almost every county in Engdarable, from the numerous pores at- land capable of affording an equal protending its now growth. The climate duce. of this country being colder than its na- I have only to add an assurance, that tive, may in the same way add to the the results of the for going experiments durability of the elm; which may pof- are correctly stated ; and that sibly be further increased by its not pro

I am, Sir, &c. ducing seeds in this climate, as the life

T. A. KNIGHT. of many annuals may be increased to Elton, Herefordshire.


CONTINUED FROM PAGE 188. Watering of Meadows. the detached hills, interspersed through THE benefit to be derived from the the middle of the district, most of it fooding of land is no where better un-, might be watered, But man, born to derstood, nor the operation more judi- prey upon man, fometines steps forth ciouly performed, than in this district *. to disappoint the beneficent intention. Nature has been so uncommonly boun. From the intermixed manner in which tiful in this respect, that she has left the laod is pofitfd in this county, it little more for man to do, than grate. very frequeátly happens; that a mari fully to accept of her proffered gifts. cannot raise water on his own land, but From the sides of surrounding hills, is obliged :o obtain leave of his neighthe water rushes forth in innumerable bour immediately above him, to bring springs, as if placed there by Him, who it through some part of his land. this formed the mountains, for the husband neighbour is either his foe or his friend. man's immediate use.

If he is his foe, he wili not give min Round most of this district (the hun. leave on any condition. And such are dred of Talgarth and the vale of Un the materials of which human nature as high as Daveynog) the brooks are is composed, that if he is his friend, he formed by springs, illuing from the hills, will be apt to calculate, not the valae of at different degrees of elevation, from the damage done to his land by the waI to 1200 feet above the beds of the ter-course propoled, but the benefit which two main rivers ; excepting therefore his neighbours land below bim, I will • Breckrockshire.

Mm 2


it at a

reap from the proposed cut, and make tances of time, they are obliged to use his charge accordingly.

the water when they can catch it ; but Sand being the prevailing genus of if they had their choice, they would not the soil, this land is wonderfully well with to flood oftener, nor for a longer adapted to receive great benefit from space of time. being flooded with any water, that is Should the frost fet in when the wanot charged with metallic particles ter is on the land, so that some spots hostile to vegetation. They generally should be covered with ice for some days, feed their beeves upon the lattermath the spot fo covered with ice, will be of grafs of their meadows, without facri- a darker green, and appear more healthy fcing this grass ; therefore, they are in the spring, than the rest of the field. prevented from turning the water on the But when they come to mow the hay, land, so early in autumn as they could the crop will be considerably less than that wilh.

on the other parts of the field, that were An intelligent farmer observed, that not covered with ice. Should they nenotwithstanding he valued his latter- glect to food their meadows for one math crop at fifteen shillings an acre, season, a lofs from one half to one third yet he found, that the cheapest manure of their usual crops would be sustained. he could dress his meadows with, was If the land be steep, a smaller quantity to sacrifice this crop once in ten or of water is suffered to go over twelve years, by turning on the water time, than the land that is less steep, in August, or whenever a flood hap- left the water should wash off, or carry pened after a long drought. To catch along with it some particles of the loose the first water of a flood after a long earth. They prefer clear water from drought, is of very great importance, the spring for their fandy land, but more especially if the water be collect- brook or river water for that of clay. ed froni common bills, or other pasture The farmers here are very sensible of grounds that are hanging, or lide lands, the benefit of having water from the where sheep and cattle have depallured farm-yard turned over their meadows, for some time; for their dung, as well and they are very careful to have the field as the particles of earth, which the heat under the house always a meadow. The of the sun had pulverized, are all swept good effects that the droppings from the off by the first autumnal floods, and in farm-yard and fold have upon

this fandy general loft from the above circumstance. land, is really astonifiring.

The features of the country, from Although all the waters within this the great number of hillocks and swells district are beneficial in some degree, in which it abounds, renders it in a in the state in which they issue from the peculiar degree, adapted to derive every springs, even before they have been inadvantage from flooding; because the corporated with any other fubftance, water moves quickly off, as soon as it yet some of them are more so than odeposits the wealth with which it was ihers. The genus of the stone, as has charged round the roots of the grass. been observed, is of the fandy kind, After they have eat the lattermath but there is a vein of limestone, that grass, they turn the waters on the mea- runs through grcat part of this district. dows the first flood, for they always When the water from the limestone can prefer food to clear water; they suffer be had, it is preferable to any other. the water to run over the ground for two There is a circumstance which has, in or three days only, never longer at one general, been overlooked by farmers, time.' 'At the end of ten or twelve but which well deserves the attention of days, they turn it on again for the same those who reside in a fooding country space of time, and so on, till the end like this: that the water illuing from of March. Since, however, they can- different springs, are impregnated with not get floods to happen at stated dis different kinds of earth, and therefore


beneficial to the land in very different is composed. Because, not only the proportions, although all of them may qualities of stones differ, but the quanbe lo in fome degree.


of one kind of earth, which the It will not be foreign to our purpose, water is capable of carrying along with to throw out a few hints for the con- it to the land, is een tinies that which fideration of such farmers, as have not it is able to carry of another kind of paid attention to this subje&t. This earth. And let it be held in perpetual becomes the more requ file, because remembrance, that the benefit of floodmost of them are apt to afcribe the same ing will be in the most exact proporproperties, and the fame defects, to all tion, to the quantity and quality of the fyring waters. It may perhaps be it. matter,' which the water carries to the quisite to remind the farmer, though land. not the chymist, that there is no such There are five kinds of simple carths ; element as pure water; for all water is I shall, however, call the farmer's at, mixed with particles of earth, faline, tention (who must be very familiar to or metallic fubitances. It is the qua- them) only to three, limijlone, clar, lity of these particles, with which the and fand, in order to explain to him water is thus charged, that gives that the different proportions in which they of one spring a superiority over those of are found to be contained in water : another; and which alone forms the 580 ounces of water, may contain one characteriftic difference of waters. These unce of limestone; 7700 ounces of particles will always consist of a portion ater, may contain one ounce of clay; Of that earth or stone, over which the 1 ,000 ounces of water, may contain water had paft, while in the bowels of oi : ounce of fand: Such being the the earth, before it bad burst cut in proportions, in which these three diffsfprings to the surface.

ent earths are found suspended in water, The unioft tretch of human inge- it becomes an object worthy of attentioa nuity, has not been able to distil water to the farmer, to reflect, chat the para so pure, but that some terrene particles ticles from the limestone, sare not only would ltill renain. Mr Boyle distilled more congenial to his grass than either one ounce of common water two hun- clay or fand would be, but also, that dred times, in glasses, and obtained 600 tons of water from a limestone fix drachms of a white light insipid rock, would bring as much in quantity earth, fixed in fire, and indiffoluble in as 7700 tons of water from clay, or water. It becomes therefore neceffary, 10,000 tons of water f:om a fand-lione to examine the kind of iłone, of which rock. the hill from whence the fpring issues,

(To le continued )



AFTER relating some traits of su- to the entire destruction of

my relt, and perítution in Westphelia, Mr Pratt, in his almost to ihe cat’s infanity, in order to charéter of a gleaner, thus proceeds: make her in love with her new house. “ I thil noi forget, under the article Now in England, you know, where cat's fuiver ition, to mention, that in the pretty are not a whit more remarkable for an Country of Skuytz, fo:th ward of Weft. amiable difpofition, we should have ftrok

lil, they huse an idea that çats are ed the poor animal till Me purred appro:o be reconciled to a new refidence only bation; we should bave permitted her to hy crercive measures. Lo pursuance of fced and dep the first night b; our firswhich noticing a widow woman, at whose fide, and so hospitably trea:ed ber, that touf: I lodged, imprison:d a poor cat at the breakfast-table next mornirs, she three nights and days in a dark rooin,

would musicians

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would have found herself one of the ous and benevolent. The musicians, who family.

had heard of this bird-catcher's fame, Not that I would have you suppose I begged permision to stay; and the master am an advocate for the feline race, ex. of the house, who bad a great share of cept on general principles of justice and good nature, indulged their curiosity : a mercy. A dog is often an example to curiosity, indeed, which every body parhis master, and a proper object of his ticipated ; for all that we have heard or love, honour, imitation, and good faith : seen of learned pigs, affes, dogs, and But a cat I take to be (with very rare horses, was faid to be extinguished in the exceptions indeed) both a traitor and a genius of this bird catcher's canary. The fycophant. She is won to you only by canary was produced, and the owner fawnings, and if you punish her on ever barangued him in the following manner, so just a cause, the either strikes imme- placing him upon his forefiorger. Bijou diately, or owes you a grudge, the un. (jewel) you are now in the presence of executed malice of which she can hold persons of great fagacity and honour : till an opportunity of vengeance occurs. take heed you do not deceive the expecEven when you imagine you have gain- tations they have conceived of you from ed her affections, the will desert

the world's
report : you

laulike a faithless lover, and elɔpe from 'rels : beware their withering. In a word your arms.

deport yourself like the bijou (the jewel) Perhaps, you may not think this the of canary birds as you certainly are. proper moment to introduce an anecdote All this time the bird seemed to listen, of one of these insidious creatures.. You and, indeed, placed himself in the true may suspect me of imitating the grimalkin attitude of attention, by sloping his head disposition by fitting down in malice. to the ear of the man, and then distinctly Were I about to become an accuser, it nodding twice when the master left off might be so: but what I have now to speaking; and if ever nods were intellimention exhibits no charge, though it gible and promissory, these were two of will report an urlucky event.

them. In this very town of Cleves, which That's good, says the master, pulling with its environs will detain us some time off his hat to the bird. Now, then, let longer, I was residing with a Prussian us see if you are a canary of honour. family, during the time of the fair; which Give us a tune :- - The caoary fung. I Mall pass over, having nothing re. Pshaw, that's too harsh : 'tis the note of markable to distinguish it from other an- a raven with a hoarseness upon him : nual meetings, where people affemhle to fomething pathetic. The canary whistled stare at, cheat each other, and divert as if its little throat was changed to a themselves, and to spend the year's fav. lute. Fafter, says the man.-Slower ings in buying those bargains which would very well-but what a plague is this foot have been probably better bought at home. about, and this little head.--.No wonder One day after dinner, as the desert was you are out, Mr Bijou, when you forgot just brought on the table, the travelling your time. That's a jewel.--Bravo, German musicians, who commonly ply bravo, my little man ! the houses at these times, presented them- Allhat he was ordered or reminded felves and were suffered to play, and just of, did he do to admiration. His head as they were making their bows for the and foot beat time-humoured the vari. money they received for their harmony, ations both of tone and movement; and a bird-carcher, who had rendered him- “ the found was a just echo to the sense;"> self famous for educating and calling according to the strictest, laws of poetforth the talents of the feathered race, ical, and (as it ought to be) of mufical made his appearance, and was well re- composition--bravo ! bravo ? re-echoed ceived by out party, which was numer- from all parts of the dining-room. The

musicians swore the canary-was a greater terval. Accordingly, after drinking a master of mufic than any of their band. glass of wine, (in the progress of taking And do you not thew your sense of this off which he was interrupted by the civility, sír, cries the bird-catcher, with canary-bird springing suddenly up to alan angry air. The canary bowed most fert his right to a share, really putting refpe&tfully, to the great delight of the his little bill into the glass, and then company His next achievement was laying himself down to sleep again) the going through martial exercise with a owner called him a faucy fellow, and Araw gun, after which, my poor bijou, began to show off his own independent says his owner, thou hast had hard work, powers of entertaining. The forte of and must be a little weary : a few per. these lay chiefly in balancing with a toformances more, and thou shalt repose. bacco pipe, while he smoked with an. Shew the ladies how to make a curtsey. other, and several of the positions were The bird here crossed his taper legs to difficult to be preserved, yet maniand funk and rose with an ease and grace tained with such dexterity, that the that would have put half our belles to general attention was fixed upon

him. the blush-That's my fine bird—and But while he was thus exhibiting, a huge now a bow, head and foot corresponding. black cat, who had been no doubt on Here the striplings for ten miles round the watch, from some unobserved corner London might have bluhed also. Let sprung upon the table, seized the poor us finish with a hornpipe, my brave fel- canary in its mouth, and rushed out low--that's it-keep it up, keep it up. of the window in despite of opposition.

The activity, glee, spirit, and accu- Though the dining room was emptied Tacy with which this last order was obey- in an instant, it was a vain pursuit; the ed, wound up the applause, (in which life of the bird was gone, and its manglall the musicians joined, as well with ed body was brought in by the unfortutheir instruments as their clappings) to nate owner in such dismay, accompanied the highest pitch of admiration. Bijou, by such looks and language, as must himself, seemed to feel the sacred thirst have awaked pity in a misanthrope. He of fame, and shook his little plumes, and spread him half-length over the table, carolled an lo pean that founded like and mourned his canary bird with the the conscious notes of victory.

most undissembled forrow. Thou ha't done all my biddings I grieve for thee, poor little thing; well bravely, said the master, carefing his may I grieve : more than four years haft feathered servant; now then, take a nap, thou fed from my hand, drank from my while I take thy place. Hereupon the lip, and slept in my bosom. I owe to Canary went into a counterfeit flumber, thee my łupport, my health, my strength, so like the effect of the poppied god, first, and my happiness ; without thee what shutting one eye, then the other, then will become of nie. Thou it was wio nodding, then dropping so much on one ensured ny welcome in the best

comside, that the hands of several of the pany. It was thy genius only made me company were stretched out to save welcome. But thy death is a just punifhhim from falling, and just as those hands ment for my vanity: had I relied only on approached his feathers, suddenly reco- thy happy powers, all had been well, and vering and dropping as much on the thou hadft been, perched on my finger, other; at length the Neep seemed to fix or lulled in


breast at this moment ! him in a steady posture ; whereupon the but trusting to my own talents, and gio: man took him from his finger, and laid rifying myself in them, a judgement has him flat upon the table, where the man fallen upon me, and thou art dead and affured us he would remain in a good mangled on this table. Accurred be the found fleep, while he himself had the hour I entered thiş house! and more honour to do his best to fill up the in- accursed the detestable monlter that kill.


Well may

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