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sed it a second time, for fear of any mif- feels and describes the abuses which contake, and was obliged to return home ftitute their misery. I saw him, from safe and found, dissatisfied with having the very first time he was present at the made all his preparations in vain. Cha- fittings of the assembly, uneasy at the bot framed some paltry excuses, to pre. disorder of the debates, afflicted at the vent Grangeneuve from upbraiding hin; influence exercised by the galleries, and and fully displayed the poltroonry of a in doubt whether it were posible for priest, with the hypocrisy of a capuchin. such men, in such circumstances, ever
The characters of our countrymen, to decree a rational constitution. Iihink the famous Paine and Williams are thus that the knowledge which he then acdrawn:
quired of what we were already, attachAmong the persons whom I was in ed him more strongly to his country, to the habit of receiving, and of whom I which he was impatient to return. How have already defcribed the most remark. is it possible, faid he, for men to debate able, Paine deserves to be mentioned. a question, who are incapable of liitenDeclared a French citizen, as one of ing to each other? Your nation does not those celebrated foreigners, whom the even take pains to preserve that external nation was naturally desirous of adopt- decency, which is of so much confeing, he was known by writings which quence in public affemblies: a giddy had been useful in the American revolu- manner, careleffness, and a lovenly per. tion, and which might have contributed son, are no recommendations to a legisto produce one in England. I Mall not, lator; nor is any thing indifferent which however, take upon me to pronounce an passes in public, and of wnich the effect abfolute judgment upon his character, is repeated every day.-Good Ileaven ! because he understood French without what would he say now, if he were to speaking it, and because that being near- see our fenators dret, fince the 31st of ly my case in regard to English, I was May, like watermen, in long trowsers, lefs able to converse with him than to a jacket and a cap, with the bofom of listen to his conversation with those their shirts open, and swearing and gefwhofe political skill was greater than my ticulating like drunken fans-cullottés ?
He would think it perfectly natural “The boldness of his conceptions, the for the people to treat them like their originality of his style, and the striking lackeys, and for the whole nation, detruths which he throws with defiance in- based by its excesses, to crouch beneath to those whom they offend, have necef- the rod of the first defpot who shall find farily attracted great attention; but I means to reduce it to subjection.-Wilthink him better titted to fow the feeds liams is equally fit to fill a place in the of popular commotion, than to lay the parliament, or the fenate, and will carfoundation, or prepare the form, of a ry with him respect and attention wheregovernment. Paine throws light upon' ever he goes." a revolution better than he concurs in How Madame Roland employed herself the making of a constitution. Hetakes up, in the prison of St Pélagie will appear and establishes those great principles of from the following extract, which will which the exposition strikes every perfon, hew the vigour and elasticity of her gains ehe applause of a club, or excites mind : the enthusiasm of a tavern; but for closs “ The first part of my captivity I emdifcuffion in a committee, or the regu- played in writing. This I did with so lar labours of a legisator, I conceive Da- much rapidity, and was so happily difa vid Williams infinitely more proper than poíed for it, that in less than a month I he. Williams, made a French citizen had manuscripts sufficient to have fora also, was not chofen a member of the med a duodecimo volume, under the Convention, in which he would have title of Hijiorical Memoirs. They confifted been of more use; but he was invited of details relative to all the facts, and all by the government to repair to Paris, the persons, connected with public afwhere he pafled several months, and fre- fairs, that my situation had brought to quently conferred with the most active my knowledge. I related them with representatives of the nation. A deep all the freedom and energy of my chathinker, and a real friend to mankind, racter, with all the negligence of frankhe appeared to me 'to combine their nets, the unconftraint of a mind superior means of happiness, as well as Paine
to selfish considerations, the pleasure of men extant; but men, such as the andefcribing what I had felt or experienced, cients describe Satyrs, have been found, and finally in confidence, that, whatever who had not only tails, but the feet of might happen, the collection would goats, and horns on their heads. One form my moral and political teftament. of this kind, we are told by St Jerome,
“ I had completed the whole, bring. was, under the reign of Constanține the ing things down to the present moment: Emperor publicly shewn.in Alexandria, and I had entrusted it to a friend, who while he was alive; and after he was set upon it the higheit value. On a fud- dead, his body was preserved with salt, den the storm burit over him. The in- carried to Antioch, and there shewn to ftant he saw himself put under arrest, he the Emperor: so that we ought not to: thought of nothing but danger, he felt treat as a fable, what the ancients have only the necessity of parrying it, and, told us of animals of that form. without thinking of expedients, he threw We have the authority of another fa. my manuscript into the fire. This loss ther of the church, for a greater finguagitated my mind more than the rudest larity fill of the human form; and that fhocks had ever done. It is not difficult is, of men without heads, but with eyes to conceive this, if it be recollected, that in their breasts. This is related by St. the crisis approaches; that I may be Augustine, who saw these men in Ethiomassacred tomorrow, or dragged, I pia, whither he went to preach the gofknow not how, before the tribunal by pel; and was some time among them, those who rule, to rid them of persons and relates several other particulars conthey find troublesome : and that these cerning them. And the same faint tells writings were the pillow, on which I us, that he faw, in the same country, rested the justification of my memory, men with only one eye in their forehead. and that of many other persons, for Nor do these facts reft solely upon the wbom I am deeply interefied.”
authority of St Augustine ; but ancient We shall give her character of Lewis, authors mention them, particularly Straand her own portrait, in our next num- bo, who tells the story of men with eyes ber.
in their breasts, which he says is attefte
ed by several authors whom he names, Ancient Metaphysics. Vol. IV. Contain though he does not believe them. As ing the History of Man. With an ap- to the men with one eye, it is related by pendix, relating to the Fille Sauvage Herodotus, of a people in Scythia, who, whom the Author saw in France. 4to. from that quality, had their name of
Boards. Cadell jun. and Da- Arimaspians, as he interprets the word. vies. 1795
We must not therefore treat as a fable THE hiftory of man, and chiefly of what Homer has told us of the Cyclops, his intellectual powers, is the subject of any more than what is related, by other this volume, which may be considered ancient authors, of Satyrs. as containing a summary of what the au There is another singularity of the huthor has published in his former works man form, as great or greater than any on the subjects of Language, Logic, and I have hitherto mentioned, and that is, Metaphyfics.
of men with the heads of dogs. That To give our readers fome notion of such men did exist, is attested by the the many excentric opinions contained authors I have elsewhere mentioned, in this fingular performance, we shall whose authorities cannot, I think, be transcribe two passages, one relative to questioned. One of them, by name A. the form and aspect of man, the other gatharchides, says, that they were to be to his intelle&ual powers.
leen in Alexandria in his time, having “Nor is man,” says the author,” less been fent thither from Ethiopia and the. raricus in the figure of his body, than country of the Troglodites. So that it in the other things I have mentioned; appears, that the Latrator Anubis, as and the individuals of the species are, I Virgil calls him, which was the form of am perfuaded, more different one from one of the Egyptian gods, was not an another than thofe of any other species. imaginary form, but taken from real life. And first, that there are men with tails, This author, Agatharchides, mentions ich as dogs ats hay I think I another animal of mixed form, having have prover nd the possibility of the head of a man and the body of a lion, doubt. Aou only are there tailed such as he is represented in ancient sculp
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ture, and is called a Sphynx. He says form of man, there is a variety in one he was sent into Alexandria from Ethio- part of him, which I think wonderful, pia, with the dog-headed man above though, as it is so familiar to us, it be mentioned. And he describes him to not commonly observed. The part 1 be, by nature, a tame and gentle animal, mean is the face, in which a man may and capable of being taught motion to observe, in a crowd of people, or walkmufic; whereas the dog-headed men, ing the streets of a populous city, such he says, were exceedingly fierce, and a variety of form, and figure, and feavery difficult to be tamed. According, tures expressing different difpofitions and therefore, to this author, the sphynx fentiments, as is really wonderful. was no imaginary animal, but had a “ Thus I think I have shewn, that real existence, as well as the dog-headed man is more various in the form of his men. Agatharchides, however, is the body, than in any thing else ; and that only author, as far as I know, who men- there is a peculiarity in the form of tions the sphynx, as an animal actually some of the individuals of the species, existing ; whereas the dog headed men which is not to be found in any other are mentioned by several other authors. species; I mean the mixture of different It may be observed, however, that Aga- specieses in the fame animal. And yet tharchides had an opportunity of being I think it is not unnatural, if we convery well informed; for he lived about fider how much his inward part or mind the time of Ptolemy III. King of Egypt, is compounded; for it confifts not only who had a great curiofity to be informed of the vegetable and the animal life, but about the wild men of Ethiopia, and for of the intellectual; and if fo, I think it that purpose fert men to that country, needs not be wondered, that his nature particularly one Symmias, from whom should admit of a composition likewise, Agatharchide's got his information. And in his outward form, of different fpecieses I am disposed to believe that he was well of animals.” informed; for I have read his book, and On government he makes the followI think it has all the appearance of an ing refe&tions: authentic narrative, without any mix. “ In all governments there must neture of fable, unless we are disposed to cessarily be two orders of men, the gobelieve that there never exifted, on this vernors and the governed; which must earth, men different from those we see be distinguished from one another. And now. But the variety of nature is . fo the first thing to be considered is, who great, that I am convinced of the truth are by nature fit to govern; and who of what Aristotle says, that every thing on the other hand are only fit to be goexifts, or did at some time exist, which verned: I say by nature ; for nature is possible to exist. And though it must take the lead in all the arts of life, were certain that such animals as the and as much or more, I think, in the sphynx, or the other animals that I have great art of government, than in any mentioned, did no longer exist on this other. And I think the Greek philosóearth, it would not from thence follow, phers, in what they have written upon that they never existed. I do not believe government, have said much too little that men with eyes in their breafts, or of nature, but so much of education, as with only one eye in their forehead, one should believe they thought that are now to be found on the face of the education alone could fit men to be earth : and yet I think we cannot doubt good governors or good subjects. But that they once existed in Ethiopia, where though I hold it to be absolutely necefSt Augustine says he saw them. We are fary for both these purposes, nature must sure that there are whole specieses of a. do her part, and lay the foundation, nimals, which were once in certain coun- without which the best education can tries, but are not now to be found there, avail but little. such as wolves in Britain. It is not pro “ That men are different by nature, bable, that such compounded animals as as' well as by education, I think it is imthe dog.headed man and the sphynx, possible to deny. We must, therefore, were ever very numerous; and if so, it begin this inquiry, by confidering the is likely that they would be considered nature of man, and try to discover of as monsters by the other men of the coun- what kind those men are, that by nature try, and so would be destroyed by them. are destined to governor to be governed. * Beside these varieties in the whole And here an antient Greek poet, I mean
lefiod, has given us a division of men, cularly, the horse, whose blood is known he best, I think, that ever was made by his spirit, as well as by his figure, vith respect to government. Some men, shape, and movements. ays hè, are capable of giving good ad. « Thus I think it is evident, that narice; others, though they cannot give ture has laid the foundation of excel. ood advice, will take it : but there is lence in the great art of government, as
third kind, who neither can give good well as in other arts; and that no edudvice, nor will take it when given by cation can make a man fit to govern, thers; and these, says he, are useless who is not by God and nature destined
for that office : and it only remains to “ That there is a difference of natural be inquired, how we are to discover this arts among men, and that all men by destination ? That men by governing, ature are not fit for all things (for, non will show themselves fit to govern, therc mnia poffumus omnes, as the poet says), is no doubt. But the question is, by
what I think undeniable. And it is e. what marks they were first distinguished, ually certain, that of the first and fupe. and allowed to govern? And I lay, that for class of men, mentioned by Heliod, the character of a governing man is 'as he governors are by God and nature easily to be discerned in the features of estined to be. These must in all coun- a man, his look, his voice, and the moveries be very few in number; for it is ments of his body, as blood is in a horie, rith men as with other animals, the ex. by his look and movements: nor do I ellency of the species is confined to a think that there is any designation of ew individuals, and their race. And if character so marked in us, as that of a
were otherwise, - man would be an ex- governing man. These marks that I eption to a rule, which we find to hold have mentioned, joined with a fuperior universally, among the animals that we size and figure, make what Euripides are best acquainted with, and whose na- calls the idos áśloy tugavvidos, or as Taciture we have studied, such as horses, ox- tus has very well translated it, forma prin. en, and dogs. The fecond class of men, cipe viri digna." is more numerous; and these are the
Were thefe remarks well forinded, men who are capable of being governed men would not dispute about those who as free men, that is, not by terror or are entitled to rule and govern them. compulfion, but by persuasion, being able to judge of what is right or wrong
NEW PUBLICATIONS. when it is set before them. But the third class is the most numerous of all in eve.
ry nation; and they must be governed The Age of Reason. Part the Second. Being by fear and dread of punishment, that is an Investigacion" of true and fabulous Thelike faves; and as they are so numerous ology. · By Thomas Paine. Svo. in every country, it is for this reason Symords. Aristotle has said, that a great part of Mr Paine wrote his first part without con. mankind are by nature doomed to be fultiag the Bible at all. This fecond rash and Naves; and that, therefore, there is no- impotent attack on the Scriptures, is 'iimsy thing contrary to nature in the state of and fuperficial, and contains nothing which Navery: and I will add, that there is has not been ohjected and refuted before. many a man, who could hardly have a There is one paragraph in this volume, worse malter than himself. Thus it ap
which is ingenious and curious, which we
fhall transcribe : pears, that Hesiod's way of classing men, not only points out to us those who are
M: Paine mentioned in the first part, his fit to govern, but also those who are fit hope of inmortality ; in this second part iie to be governed as free men, that is, by states his reasons for this hope : persuasion, and also those who must be of fine matter it is, that produces a thought
“ Who can say what exceeding fine astion governed as slaves. 66 There is another thing to be obser- thought, when produced, as I now produce
in what we call the mind? And yet that ved concerning the nature of man, the th ught I am writing, is capable of bewhich, I am perfuaded, Hefiod knew, coining immortal; and is the only production though he has not told it; that the qua; of man that has that capacity. lities of miud as well as of body defcend
“ Statues of brass or marble will perish ; to the race. And in this respect, too, and statues made in insitation of them are not man resembles other animals, and parti- the same statues, nor the same workmanship,
2s, 6 de
any more than a copy of a picture is the same This publication contains ten essays; the firi, pidure. But print and reprint a thought a of which, being introductory to the rest, serve thousand times over, and with materials of any to explain the views and objects of the author kind, carve it in wood, or engrave it on stone, and to point out the scope and tendency o the thought is eternally and identically the his work. fame thought in every case. It has a capaci Mr Malkin concludes his introductor ty of unimpaired existence, unaffected by essay with the following intimation, explana change of matter, and is essentially distinct, tory of his general purpose : and of a nature different from every thing else • To delincate prejudice and corruptio that we know of, or can conceive. If then in their true colours, and to place in a clea the thing produced has in itself a capacity of point of view the importance of first princ being inmortal, it is more than a token that ples, is the design of the present work : to er. the power that produced it, which is the seif- force the superiority of freedom from bai , same thing as consciousness of existence, can barity, the state of being civilized, conistin be immortal also ; and that independently of in goodly conversation and the studies ? the matter it was first connected with, as the knowledge and humanity--to the mere polite thought is of the printing, or writing, it first ness, complaisance, elegance of behaviou. appeared in. The one idea is not more difficult which marks the frivolity of the present agi to believe than the other; and we can see At the same time, I do not affect to defpise ili that one is truc."
latter : yet I would have it not originate fror “ In the former part of the sige of Reafon I the precept or example of the dancing mafts have called the creation the true and only real or foreign hireling, but fronı genuine urbanit word of God; and in this instance, or this of character : for it is an undisputed maxin text, in the book of creation, not only fews that artificial accomplishments can never cor to us that this thing may be fo, but that it is ceal the defects of an uncultivated understand so; and the belief of a future state is a rational ing ; it is equally certain, that true liberalit belief, founded upon facts visible on the crea- of mind dignifies the performance of dutie tion: for it is not more difficult to believe the most folemn, and lends a grace to action that we shall exist hereafter in a better state the most indifferent.” and form than at present, than that a worm The Antiphlogistic Doctrine of M. Lavoisier should become a butterfly, and quit the dung- critically examined, and demonfruiively confuted; hill for the atmosphere, if we did not know By E. Peart, M. D. &c. 8vo. 45. Boards. it as a fact.”
Miller. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A Narrative of the Revolt and Insurrection of of London, for the Year 1795. Part 1. 4to. 36. the French Inhabitants in the Ijland of Grenadı. fewed. Elmsey. The subjects of the papers By an Eye Witness. 8vo. 2s. 6d. contained in this volume are, Aftronomical & Hood. Papers. On the Nature and Construction of Confiderations on the State of Public Affairs, at the Sun and fixed Stars. By Dr Herschel. - the Begining of the Year 1796. 8vo. 25. ód. New Observations in further Proof of the Owen. Mountainous Inequalities, Rotation, Atmos The Trial of John Horne Tooke, for High phere, and Twilight, of the Planet Venus. By Treason, at the Seflions House in the Old J. J. Schtoeter, Esq.-- Philosophical and Me Bailey, November 1794. Taken in Shorts dical Papers. An Account of the late Eruption Hand by Joseph Gurncy. 2 Vols. 8vo. 148. of Mount Vesuvius ; in a Letter from the Boards. Gurney. Rt Hon. Sir William Hamilton, K.B.F.R.S.
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