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implements to carry on their work. here, there was not an instance of any, Their cars have the rude appearance of accident by fire. the earliest ages ; these vehicles are In the houses of foreign merchants, Howly drawn by two stout oxen. The the Galicians are the only fervants emcorn is shelled by the treading of the ployed, and many of the Portuguese fame aninials as in the days of the Ifrae- prefer them to the natives in that capalites; hence, probably, the scripture city; they cook the victuals, clean the proverb, Thou shalt' not muzele the ox rooms, and make the beds. If there ihat treadeth the corn. They have many be any female servants in the house, unother customs, which, to us, appear der the age of five and thirty, they are very singular ; for example, women fit invisible, except to the mistress and her with the left side toward the horse's daughters ; after this age they are left head when they ride. A poftillion to their own discretion, as their charms rides on the left horse. Footmen play are then supposed to be sufficieņıly faat cards while they are waiting for their ded to render them secure from the inmasters. A taylor sits at his work like vafions of gallantry. a shoemaker. A hair-dresser appears

The ladies seldom breath the pure on Sundays with a sword, a cockade, air, except in their short excursions to and two watches, or at least two watch the next chapel, which they visit at least chains. A tavern is known by a vine once a day. buh. A house to be 'let, by a piece of The Portuguese ladies poffefs many blank paper. An accoucheuse door, amiable qualities! they are chaste, moby a white cross. And a Jew is known dest, and extremely affectionate to their by his extra-Catholic devotion.

kindred. No woman goes out of doors The lower class, of both fexes, are without the permission of her husband very fond of gaudy apparel; we observe or parents. To avoid all fufpicion, even the fish-women with trinkets and men, even though relations, are not albrackets of gold about the neck and lowed to visit their apartments, or to wrilt. The fruit-women are distinguish- fit beside them in public places. Hence ed by a particular dress.

their lovers are seldom gratified with a All the drudgery is performed by fight of them, except in the churches ; Galicians, who may be called the hew- here they make signs and ligoals : ers' of wood and drawers of water of

Address and compliment by vision, this metropolis ; they are patient, in- Make love and court by intuition. duftrious, and faithful to a proverb.

Hudibras. One of the principal employments, in which they are daily engaged, is fup- the duenna, the lovers contrive to ex

Notwithstanding the watchful eye of the citizens with water which they carry on their shoulders in small change billet-doux, and that in to fub

tile a manner, that none can perceive it wooden barrels from the different foun

whose breast glows not with a fimilar tains,

fame. The little boys who attend at Every Galician, in this fervitude, is the altar, are often the messengers on obliged, by the police of the city, to these occasions. When one of these carry one of these vessels, filled with wingless cupids receives the letter, he water, to his lodgings, every night, makes his way through the audience till and, in case of fire, to halten with it to he approaches the fair one, then he amit in extinguishing the flames, at the throws himself on his knees, repeating first found of the fire-bell; any neglect his Ave Maris Nella, and beating his in this refpect is severely punished; on breast; after finishing his ejaculations the contrary, they are sure to be reward- and crossing his forehcad, he falls on ed in proportion to their vigilance. But his face and hands, and fervently kiffes the people are seldom visited by that drcadful scourge : during my

the ground; in the mean time he con



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veys the letter under the lady's drapery dest; those who accustom themselves and brings back another.

to exercise have, nevertheless, a beauAt other times when the lovers are tiful carnation. Their eyes are black coming out of the church, their hands and expressive; their teeth extremely meet, as it were by chance, in the holy white and regular. In conversation water font; by this means they ex. they are polite and agreeable ; in manchange billets, and enjoy the delectable ners afsualive and unaffected. The form pleasure of preffing each other's fingers. of their dress does not undergo a change,

Various are the contrivances to which perhaps, once in an age ; milliners, perthey are compelled to refort, in order fumers, and fancy dress makers, are to elade fufpicion ; and in no part of professions as unknown in Lisbon, as in their lives do they evince more prudence ancient Lacedemon. than during their courtship. Their na- Widows are allowed to marry, but tural disposition to secrecy is the means they do not avail themselves of that priof their continuing for years under the vilege as often as in other countries. impression of the tender passion; and There are many Portuguese, particularly they must have fallen victims to it, were those of the good old stock, who look it not that refined, that virtuous, love upon it as a species of adultery fanctionwhich Guevara describes.

ed by the law. Arde y no quema; alumbra y no Women do not assume the familydanna ; querna y no consume, resplende names of their husbands, as with us. y ne lastima, purifica y no abrasa; y In all the viciffitudes of matrimony, auo calienta y no congoxa.---It glows, they retain their maiden names. but scorches not; it enlightens, but The men are generally addreslied by hurts not; it consumes not, though it their Christian names, as Senhor Peburns ; it dazzles not, though it glit- dro. Supernames are also very common ters; it refines without destroying; and here, which are derived from particular though it be hot, yet it is not painful.” trades, remarkable incidents, places of

Marriage feasts are attended with vast residence, or striking blemishes or acexpence; the resources of the lower complishments. clafs are often exhausted in the

prepara- Strangers' surnames are frequently tions made on these occasions. The translated, especially if they bear any nuptial bed.chamber is ornamented in allusion to substantives or qualities. For the most costly manner, with silks, bro- example, Mr Wolf, they call Senhor cades, and flowers ; even the wedding- Lobo; Mr Whitehead, Senhor Cabeca sheets are trimmed with the finest lace. Branca. To the Christian names of

In their christenings and funerals also men and women, are often superadded they are very extravagant ; but in other those of their


for distinction respects very frugal and temperate, par- fake. This custom obtained very much licularly the females, who seldom drink among the ancient Irish, and is not unany thing but water ; if they drink wine, ufiial at this day in the southern provinit gives rise to fufpicion of their chastity, ces of that country. and suspicion is often held tantamount With respect to the middling class, to a crime. The Enpress Dona Lea- in their ideas and manners they differ nor, daughter of Fdward king of Por- from those of the rest of Europe ; the tugal, endeavoured to introduce the like unfrequency of travel, except to their caitom among the German ladies ; but own colonies, excludes them from moneither her majesty's example or per- dern notions and modern customs; hence fuasion could induce them to exchange, they retain much of the ancient simplicithe “milk of Venus” for the limpid rill. ty of their ancestors, and are more con

The abitemiousness of the Portuguese versant in the transactions of Asia or Iudies is conspicuous in their counte- America than of Europe. nince, which is pale, tranquil, and mo- Whether it proceeds from a fondness for ease, or want of curiosity, they ap- fection, I mean bathing; neither do pear to have an aversion for travelling, they take exercise enough for the preeven in their own country. A Portu- servation of health. guese can steer a ship to Brazil with less The lower class are endowed with difficulty than he can guide his horse many excellent qualities ; they are relifrom Lisbon to Oporto.

gious, honest, and fober, affectionate People, thus estranged from the neigh- to their parents, and respectful to their bouring nations, are naturally averse fuperiors. We must not, however, exfrom the influx of mere theoretical doc- pect to find them possessed of these quatripes, which tend to disturb the tran- lities on the verge of seaport towns, as quillity of established opinions. They their manners are there corrupted by exclude at once the sources of modern mingling with refugee adventurers from luxuries and refinements, modern vices various nations. Strangers, therefore, and improvements.

are often misled, who form the characHence their wants, comparatively ter of the people through this adulte{peaking, are but few, and these are ea- rated medium. It is in the country onlily satisfied; their love of ease exempts ly they can be found, uninfluenced by them from many passions to which other foreign manners or foreign customs, in nations are subject; grofs offences are their true national state, and there we rarely known among them, but when behold them honeft, obliging, affable, once offended they are not easily ap- and mannerly. A Portuguese peasant peafed ; passions that are seldom roused, will not walk with a superior, an aged act with the greater violence when agi- person, or a {tranger, without giving tated ; under this impression individuals him the right-hand side, as a mark of have sometimes been hurried to violent respect. He never passes by a human acts of revenge ; but now, the vigilance being without taking off his bat, and of the magistrates, and the growth of faluting him in these words : “ the Lord civilization, have blunted the point of preserve you for many years." Io the dagger.

speaking of an absent friend, he says, The temperance of the people, and morro com saudades de o ver: I die their exemption from hard labour; the with impatience to see him.” Of a fragrance of the air, and the number of morning, when he meets the compamineral springs with which the country nions of his toil in the field, he falutes abounds, are circumstances so favourable them in a complaisant manner, and ento the human constitution, that we should quires after their little families. His naturally expect to find the Portuguese day's work is computed from the rising live to a great age, yet there are not of the fun to its setting ; out of which many remarkable instances of longevity he is allowed half an hour for breakfast, among them ; but there are fewer cut and two hours for dinner, in order to off by natural causes before the age of refresh himself with a pap during the threescore, than among an equal num- meridian heat. If he labour in the vineber, perhaps, in any other part of Eu- yard, he is allowed a good portion of rope. One rarely meets a Portuguese, wine. When his day's work is over he however aged, crippled with the goût, fings vespers, and on Sunday he attunes or bowed with infirmity.

his guitar, or joins in a fandango dance. The handsomest persons of both sex His male children are educated in the es, are found in the province of Estra. neighbouring convent, whence he also madura ; that scourge of beauty, the receives sustenance for himself and fasmallpox, does not rage here with the mily, if distressed or unable to work. fame violence as in cold climates. The They all imagine their country is the inhabitants neglect one thing, which, in blessed elysium, and that Lisbon is the a country like this, would tend to ex. greatest city in the world. In their pand the human frame to its full per- proverbial language, they say, “ He


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who has not seen Lisbon, has seen no- which nature has blessed them, and the thing.” Indeed they have proverbs abundance of delicious fruit the soil yields for almost every thing, which, being with little labour. · Under every misfounded on long experience, are gene fortune they are sure to find consolation rally true, though the above is a striking in religion; and next to these divine inltance to the contrary. Of the coun. favours, music is the greatest solace of tries which, like their own, do not pro- their lives : it dissipates the forrows of duce corn, wine, and oil, they enter- the poor man, and refines the sentiments tain but a mean opinion. They picture of the rich ; life glides on agreeably ato themselves the mifery of the inhabi- mid such endearing scenes. It would tants of northern climates, who shudder be vain to persuade a Portuguese, that in the midst of frost and snow, while they he could enjoy such happiness in any themselves are balking in their green other quarter of the globe : he is curfields. These circumstances, and the tured in this opinion, and if chance or affectionate attachment they have for misfortune should impel him into a fo. their king, endear them to their native reign land, he pines as if in a state of foil

. They centre a great portion of captivity: their happiness in the fine climate with

(To be continued.)

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tellectual than creative, they owe their
attainments more to the powers

of ratioTHE following attempt, by a South

cination than the intuiiion of genius. Britain, to characterize the Scotch,

Excited by the natural activity of their may be amusing to your readers. I think it is not without discernment, tinual exercise, laborious, steady, and

inindswhich are strengthened by though, perhaps, it is not ftrialy juft. By persevering, they feldom fail to attain giving it a place, you will oblige your the object of their pursuits, constant reader,


In thcir tempers they are naturally SINCE the union effected between choleric, petulant, and pertinacious, imthe two kingdoms of Scotland and Eng- patient of contradiction, and indignant land, the Scotch have formed so conli- at reproof; but their natụral habits are derable and distinguished a part of socie- often times subdued by prudence, correctty in this country, that it may not be, ed by discretion, and softened by the parhaps, an useless or unimportant task, influence of polite intercourse. to delineate their national character, as In their manners they are originally it may

contribute to rescue merit from unpolished, but they afterwards become the detra&tion of calumny, on the one nicely adapted to their situations in the hand, and to circumscribe within the world : Strangers to that equality of rebounds of truth, the praise which is at- finement which is produced by the getributed to it in the other.

neral diffusion of afiluence in a wealthy In considering them with a view to state, and accustomed to the establithed their intellectual faculties, we must ac- gradations of fuperiority, their manners knowledge, that they possess a quickness are originally stamped with the inptesof comprehension, a clearness of concep- fion of their particular station, and aftion, a penetrating sagacity, and a folid terwards conform themselves only to the judgment; but they are distinguished exigency of temporary circumstances. rather for a strength of understanding, To their inferiors they are haughty, to than a sublimity of genius, or a brillian- their equals severe, and to their fuperiors cy of imagination.

submislive; but their haughtiness is not Their minds are a rich foil, which is always accompanied with contumely, always fertile in proportion to its culti- their severity with moroseness, or their .vation ; possessed of faculties rather in- subinillion with meanness. In the quaVol. LVIII.



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lities of their heart, as in the faculties tion by the acquirement of power ; but of the mind, we find them impressed governed by the precepts of that frugal with the stamp of education : imbibing, prudence which is a part of their educain their earlieit age, the facred princi. tion in an inaftuent state, or biassed by ples of religion, their conviction com- the considerations which suggest themmonly remains for ever imprinted on felves to the mind employed in the purtheir minds, and they are therefore ge- suit of wealth, they possess not, in a nerally fincere in its profeffion, even very eminent degree, the more generous though they may not be exactly obser- affections of the human breast. Carevant of its precepts : rarely becoming ful only to obey the compulsory mandates profligate, though they may have ceafed of duty, if they satisfy its demands, to be virtuous, and retaining a sense of they feldom exceed its limits; and, conpiety, although they may have disregard- tracting the expanse of human charity, ed the dictates of morality.

they too often circumscribe the extent of Influenced by these principles, they their beneficence within the circle of na. commonly act with integrity, unless cor- tional philanthropy, rupted by affluence, or excited to ambi


THE customs introduced by the the husbandman. • By these pursuits," Normans to England, were, in general, says John of Salisbury, “ they lose their praise-worthy and gentleman-like, when humanity, and become monsters like compared to those of the Anglo-Saxons. the favage animals they chase ; shepKnighthood, which necessarily compre- herds and their flocks -are driven from hended a brave and liberal heart, a firm their pastures, that wild beasts may demeanor, and a graceful performance range in them at large ; should one of of manlike exercises, flourished under these potent noblemen approach your their protection. The knight, after dwelling, hasten to bring out every rehaving served a kind of apprenticeship, frelhment which you have in your house, during seven or eight years as an es or which you can beg or borrow of your quire, bound himself, by a folemn oath, neighbours, lest you should find the fato be loyal to his king, to protect the tal consequence of your neglect; and, virtuous part of the fair sex, and to re. perhaps, be accused of treason.” fcue widows and orphans from oppref- The game of chess, and still more sion, at the hazard of his life. The the various chances of the dice, contilts and tournaments (which were pom-. stituted domestic amusements for the pous festivals, where the skill and agili- great. That they carried these to exty of the knight were severely tried,) cess we may judge from many circumafforded perpetual incentives to excel stances. Even the horrors of civil war lence in military science; and the pic- could not damp the spirit of gaming ; turesque duty annexed to chivalry, of for M. Paris complains of the barons, chusing a fupreme lady, in defence of, associated to resist the tyranny of John, whose beauty and virtue, her knight was for spending their time in luxury, and always ready to combat, hid its own playing with dice, when their appearabsurdity under a veil of elegance.-$t ance was wanted in the field. ExcefPalaye fur la Chevalerie.

five gaming at sea was restrained by the Besides the tournament, a diversion second of those laws, which the united only allotted to persons of rank, the fa- kings of England and France drew up vourite sports of the principal Normans, in 1190, for the government of the were hunting and hawking ; these the force fitted out against the Saracens. king's prelates, and noblemen, pursued There it is enacted that knights and with an incredible eagerness, and with. clerks shall be restrained to the loss of put the smallest regard to the labours of twenty Shillings (nearly what fifteen


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