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its success has exceeded the most fan. their purpose, and to recoil on those guine expectations which were formed who dire&t them. Dr Henry had many of it. The plan itself, now sufficiently friends, and till lately had not discoverknown, it is unnecessary to explain mi. ed that he had any enemies. But the nutely. But it is mentioned here, be- author of the anonymous vindication cause Dr Henry was accustomed in the was unknown to him, till the learned Jalt years of his life to speak of this in- and respectable Dr Macqueen, from the stitution with peculiar affection, and to indignation excited by the confident reflect on its progress and utility with petulance of the answer, informed him that kind of fatistaction which a good that the letter had been written by him. man can only receive from “ the la. These anecdotes are still remembered. bour of love and of good works.” The progress of Dr Henry's work
Not having been able to transact with introduced him to more extensive patronthe booksellers to his fatisfaction, the first age, and in particular to the notice and five volumes of his history were origi- esteem of the late Earl of Mansfield. nally published at the risk of the author. That venerable nobleman, who was so When the first volume appeared, it well intitled to the gratitude and adwas censured with an unexampled acri- miraiton of his country, thought the mony and perfeverance. Magazines, merit of Dr Henry's history to conreviews, and even newspapers, were siderable, that, without any folicitation, filled with abusive remarks and invec- after the publication of the fourth votives, in which both the author and the lume, he applied personally to his Mabook were treated with contempt and jetty to bestow on the author fome mark scurrility. When an author has once of his royal favour. In confequence of submitted his works to the public, he this, Dr Henry was informed by a has no right to complain of the just fe- letter from Lord Stormont, then fecra-, verity of criticism. But Dr Henry had tary of state, of His Majesty's intention to contend with the inveterate scorn of to confer on him an'annual pension for malignity. . In compliance with the life of 100l. “ considering his distinufual custom, he had permitted a fermon guished talents and great literary merit, to be published which he had preached and the importance of the very ufetul before the Society in Scotland for Pro and laborious work in which he was so pagating Christian knowledge in 1773; fuccessfully engaged, as titles to his a composition containing plain good senfe royal countenance and fav ur.” The on a common subject, from which he warrant was issued on the 27ih of May expected no reputation.
1781 ; and his right to the pension comeagerly seized on by the adverfaries of menced from the 5th of Airil precedhis History, and torn to pieces with a ing. This penfion he enjoyed till his viralence and afperity which no want of death, and always considered it as inmerit in the fermon could justify or ex- ferring a new obligation to persevere plain. An anonymous letter had ap- steadily in the prosecution of his work. peared in a newspaper to vindicate the From the Earl of Mansfield he receivHistory from some of the unjust cer- ed many other testimonies of esteem sures which had been published, and as both as a man and as an author, which serting, from the real merit and accuracy he was often heard to mention with the of the book the author's title to the ap- most aff.ctionate gratitude. The octavo probation of the public. An answer edition of his history, published in 1988, appeared in the course of the following was inscribed to his Lordship. week, charging him, in terms equallye quarto edition had been dedicated to confident and indecent, with having the King. written this letter in his own praise. The The property
of the work had hitherefforts of malignity feldom fail to defeat to remained with himself : but in April
1786, when an octavo edition was in the gaiety of youth, long after his bodily tended, he conveyed the property to strength had yielded to the infirmities Messrs Cadell and Strahan for the sum of age; and even within a few days of of 1000l. ; reserving to himself what his death, which he was every day exstill remained unsold of the quarto edi pecting, he could mix anecdotes and tion. Dr Henry had kept very accu- pleasantry with the most serious discourse. rate accounts of the sales from the time No man could meet death with more of the original publication; and after equanimity, or with a fortitude derived his last transaction he found that his from better sources. He mentioned his real profits had amounted in the whole death easily and often, as an event to about 3,300l. ; a striking proof of which, in his fituation, was desireable ; the intrinsic merit of a work which had sensible that from the exhausted state of forced its way to the public esteem, in his body he could no longer enjoy this spite of the malignant opposition with world, or be useful in it; and expressing which the first volumes had to struggle. in the most explicit terms his firm pera
Dr Henry was naturally fond of so- fuasion of the great doctrines of Christia ciety; and few men ever enjoyed fo- anity, and the full expectation he dea ciety more perfectly, or were capable rived from them of “ life and immorof contributing so much to the pleasures tality through Jesus Christ our Lord.” of conversation. Notwithstanding his His faculties were perfectly entire ; nor literary pusuits, he was always ready to could any change be observed in his make one in a party of his friends; and conversation with his friends. He was attached himself to pleasant and respect. never confined to bed, and conversed able companions wherever he found easily till within a few hours of his them, without any regard to the com- death. He had a strength of mind petitions or contrary opinions which which falls to the lot of few; and Prouohappily so often prevent worthy men vidence permitted him to preserve the from associating. His extensive know- full possesfun of it. ledge, his cheerfulness and pleasantry, A few days before his death he exi his inexhaustible fund of humour and ecuted a deed, which he dictated him anecdote, would have made him a dif- felf, by which he disponed his collection tinguished character among any descrip- of books to the magistrates, town-council, tion of men, although he had had no and presbytery of Linlithgow, as the pretensions as an author, His great foundation of a public library; under extent of solid information gave a va. certain regulations and conditions, which riety to his conversation, to which he expressed very distinctly, and by much was added by his talents for con- means of which he flattered himself vivial pleasantry. He had a story or that a library might at last be created, anecdote ready for every occasion, and which might contribute to diffuse knowadapted to every subject; and was pe- ledge and literature in the country. This culiarly happy in selecting the circum- idea had been suggested to him by his stances which could render it interest- experience in the public utility of libraing and pointed. If the same narratives ries of this fort, which had been estawere sometimes repeated, a. circum- blished at Berwick and at Kello. By starice which was unavoidable, they such institutions the means of knowwere always seasoned with a new relish; ledge may be obtained in remote fituaand even those who lived most with him, tions at a small expence, and are easily have seldom been in his company with- circulated among the different orders of out hearing from him something which men : and though his collection of books was as new to them as to strangers. was not a large one, he believed that His character was uniform to the end. the institution required only to be beHe conversed with the ardour, and even gun under proper regulations, and VOL. LVII.
might soon become considerable if pro- wished to be present at his funeral ;
He gave very minute directions long after the events of his private life with regard to his affairs, and even shall become too distant to be intereltdictated a list of his friends whom he ing.
CHARACTER OF LOUIS XVI.
BY MADAME ROLAND. LEWIS XVI. behaved to his new and was the best geographer in the kingministers with the greatest appearance dom. His knowledge of the names, of frankness and good nature. This and his application of them to the faces, man was not precisely what he was de- of all the persons about the court to picted by thofe who took a pleasure in whom they belonged, as well as his vilifying him; he was neither the bru- acquaintance with the anecdotes pecutish blockhead, who was held up to the liar to each, had been extended to all contempt of the people; nor was he the individuals who had distinguished the honest, kiad, and sensible creature, themselves in any manner during the whom his friends extolled to the skies. revolution ; so that it was impossible to Nature had endowed him with ordinary present to him a candidate for any place, faculties, which would have done very concerning whom he had not formed an well in an obscure station ; but he was opinion, founded on particular facts. depraved by his princely education, and But Lewis XVI. without elevation of ruined by his mediocrity in difficult foul, energy of mind, or firmness of times, when his fafety could be effected character, had suffered his views to be only by the union of genius and virtue. still further contracted, and his fentiA common understanding, educated for ments to be twisted, if I may use the the throne, and taught diffimulation expreffion, by religious prejudices, and from the earliest infancy, has a great jefuitical principles. Elevated ideas of advantage in dealing with mankind. religion, a belief in God, and the hope The art of shewing to each person only of immortality, accord very well with what it is proper for him to fee, is in philosophy, and fix it upon a broader him no more than a habit, the practice basis, at the same time that they comof which gives him the appearance of pose the best ornaments of the superability ; båt a man must be born an ideot structure. Woe to the legislators who indeed to appear a fool in similar circum- despise these powerful means of inspiring stances. Lewis XVI. had besides an the political virtues, and of preserving excellent memory, and an active turn the morals of the people! Even if they of inind; was never idle, and read a were illusions yet unborn, it would be great deal. He had also a ready recol necessary to create and foster them for lection of the various treaties existing the confolation of mankind. But the between France and the neighbouring religion of our priests presents nothing nations; was well versed in history, but objects of puerile fear, and miserable
practices, to supply the place of good and by fo doing only taught his people actions; and it fanctifies besides all the how to refift. Nothing remained for maxims of despotismı which the autho- him but to sacrifice one portion of his rity of the church calls in to its aid. authority with a good grace, that he Lewis XVI. was afraid of hell, and of might preserve in the other the means excommunication*: with such weakness of recovering the whole; but for want as this it was imposible not to make a of knowing how to go about it, he turndespicable king. If he had been born ed his attention to nothing but petty intwo centuries before, and his wife had trigues, the only kind familiar to the been a rational woman, he would have perfons chosen by himself, and favoured made no more noise in the world, than by the Queen. He had, however, reso many other princes of the Capetian served in the constitution l'ufficient means line, who have “ fietted their hour of power and of happiness, had he known upon the stage,” without doing either how to be content; so that, wanting as much good or much harm.-But raised he was in abilities to prevent its eltato the throne when the profligacy of blishment, he might still have been saved Louis XV.'s court was at the highest, by his good faith, if after having acand when the disorder of the finances cepted it, he had sincerely endeavoured was extreme, he was led away by a gid- to promote its execution.
But always dy woman, who united with Austrian protesting, on the one hand, his inteninfolence the presumption of youth and tion to support what he was undermining high birth, an inordinate love of plea- on the other, the obliquity of his prosure, and all the thoughtleisoess of a ceedings, and the fallacy of his conduct, light mind, and who was herself seduced first awakened distrust, and at last exby the vices of an Afatic court, for cited indignation. which she had been but too well prepared As soon as he had appointed patrioby the example of her mother.--Lewis tic ministers, he made it his fole study XVI. too weak to hold the reins of a 'to inspire them with confidence; and government which was running to de. so well did he succeed, that for the first struction, hastened their common ruin three weeks, Roland and Claviere were by innumerable faults.
enchanted with the good difpofition of Lewis XVI. constantly Auctuating the King. They dreamt of nothing between the fear of irritating his subjects, but a better order of things, and Aattered and the inclination of keeping them in themselves that the revolution was at an awe, wliile incapable of governing them, end. • Good God!" I used to say convoked the states-gencral instead of to them, “ every time I see you set of retrenching his expences, and intro. for the council with that wonderful conducing order into his court. After fidence, it secms to me that you are a. having himself fowed the seeds, and bout to commit a fully.” “ I assure provided the means of innovation, he you,” would Claviere answer, “ that pretended to prevent it by the affecta- the King is perfectly sensible, that his tion of a power, against which he had interest is connected with the observaestablished a principle of counteraction, tion of the new laws; he reasons too What will our Cbrißian readers think of pertinently on the subject not to be con
vinced of that truth." Madame Roland for making it a serious charge against Louis XVI. that he had the added Roland,“ if be be pot an honest werkness to be afraid of bell; or in other man, he is the greatest knave in the words that he sincerely believed in the doc- kingdom ; it is impoflible to carry distrines taught by Christianity, that after death simulation to so great a length.” As there is an accourt to be given of the actions of men in this life, followed by rewards and to me, I always replied that I had no punifoments?
faith in the love for the constitution
" Ma foi,"
profeffed by a man who had been brought concerning anecdotes, and so on : the up in the prejudices of despotism, and council chamber was converted to a cof. the habits of enjoyment, and whose re. fee-room, where nothing was heard but cent conduct proved him wanting in idle conversation ; nor were any minutes both genius and virtue. My great are taken of the proceedings, nor was there gument was the fight to Varennes. any secretary to keep them. At the
In the mean time, the King suffered end of three or four hours they broke his ministers to confer, read the ga. up, without doing any thing but figning zette, or the English newspapers in their names, and this was repeated three the original language, or else wrote a or four times a week." Why ?tis few letters. The sanctioning of decrees pitiable !" cried I out of all patience, obtained more of his attention : he fel. when, on Roland's return, I enquired dom
gave his consent easily, and never what had passed—“ You are all in good without a refusal ; always declining to humour, because you experience no accede to the first request, and postpo. contradiction, and are treated with cining the matter to the next meeting, vility. You seem indeed to do whatwhen he came with his opinion ready ever you please in your several departformed, though appearing to ground it ments; but I am terribly afraid that you upon the discussion. - As to great poli. are duped—however the public business tical affairs, he often eluded their in. is not at a stand-no, but much time is vestigation, by turning the conversation lost; for in the torrent of affairs that to general topics, or to subjects suited overwhelms you, I would rather fee to each particular person. If war was you employ three hours in solitary methe question, he would talk of travel. ditation on the great interests of the ling; if diplomatic concerns were upon state, than spend them in idle chat.” the carpet, he would relate the manners, In the mean time the enemy were mak. or enquire into the local peculiarities ing their difpofitions ; for it had become of the country ; or if the state of affairs absolutely necessary to declare war, a at home were in discussion, he would measure which was the subject of an dwell upon some trifling detail of econo animated discussion, and which the King my or agriculture. Roland he would did not seem to take without extreme question about his works, Dumouricz repugnance. INTERESTING PARTICULARS OF THE GOVERNMENT
AND PRESENT STATE OF RUSSIA.
CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 235. IN attempting to change the institu- ple were received by the nation. Had tions, and manners, and spirit of a na. Peter's genius been less sublime and tion--- at least of such a nation as Ruf- imposing, or had his people been more sia, the only way you can proceed with closely united by a free communication, safety, or with a certainty of accom- and a knowledge of the national tem: plishing your end, is to proceed with per, this great legislator might have extreme caution ; to advance toward been known to the historian only as filyour object slowly ; and to undermine ling up a blank in the barren arnals of gradually the prejudices and habits - despotism, or at best as a prince who which length of time has consecrated in perished in the rash, though generous the minds of the people. The nation attempt, to overcome nature, and immust be made to wish for a reformation press the polish of civilization on the before they will accept of one. Every barbarous manners of a favage people. one knows the reluctance with which The attempt which the Empress Elisathe plans of Peter the Great, for the 'ci- beth made to introduce a more regular vilization and improvement of the peo- administration of justice, and a better