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system of jurisprudence, was not more not fufficiently enlightened to judge of favourably received. Clamorous com- the motives from which alterations in plaints were set up in all quarters by the form of government are introduced, those interested in the continuation of or of those from which they would be old abuses; and eagerly re-choed by opposed. those who were the dupes of a blind at- in such a dispute, the party whose tachment to ancient usages, and who arguments were addressed to the nahad neither common sense to see the tional prejudices would be sure to have tendency of the proposed laws, nor fpi- the advantage over his antagonist. sit to feel the oppressive nature of those But though it be very unlikely that thai were to be abrogated. “ If they Russia is to obtain a distinguished rank will not consent to receive good laws," among nations, either for the mildnefs said Elisabeth, “ they must be allowed of its government or the civilization of to feel the weight of their bad ones ;” its inhabitants ; the nation is certainly and the attempt was laid aside. in a progreflive state of improvement, in

When I have stated such facts as both respects. For the honour of royalibele in conversation, and still heard the ty I must add, that the progress is entrumpet of reformation founded by the tirely owing to the exertions of the soadvocates for great and immediate al. vereign power. If we were to compare teration, it has always brought to my in this respect the sovereigns of Russia, mind the fanciful experiment which di- from the accession of Peter the First to vines have imagined-of supposing a bad the present time, with the princes of man to have gained admiflion into hea- any other country in Europe for an ven, and there depicting the uncuuth equal length of time, and at a period appearance he would make among bee when the nation was equally unenlightings for whose fociety he is not prepar. ened with the Russians; Peter and his ed. I imagine that Russia would just successors would, I am persuaded, gain make such an awkward figure among much by the comparison. Eren in nations, were its present, government England, national improvements have made as perfect as a republican could feldom had their origin in the fovereign with it. What has sometimes happen. power. The spirit of the people has ed with regard to individuals, might, generally led the way; and the court in this case, be found verified of the has only had the merit of following. nation. I have known a Russian fol. In 'many cases it has been reluctantly dier, who has solicited a discharge with dragged along, and forced to fanction much anxiety and perseverance, return improvements which it could no longer to his old commander a few months retard. after he had obtained his long wilhed- But in Russia this progress has been for liberty, and beg to be again taken completely reversed. At the acceilion into the service ; because he did not of Peter the first to the throne, the naknow how to live as his own master. ion was funk into the groffest ignorI think the nation would be as incapa- ance and barbarity. Peter and his fucble of thaking off at once its old preju- ceffors have had not only to set the exs dices, as this foldier was ; and as un. ample of civilization, but also to comfit for relishing the bleflings of freedom. pel their subjects to follow it. The naToo many are interested, or fancy them- tion, fancying itself, according to the selves interested, in the continuation of absurd pride of barbarism, the first peo. . the existing abuses, to allow them to be ple on earth in regard to every

ufeful remedied without opposition. The re. complishment, has not admitted, withclamation of such men, coinciding with the utmost reluctance, the improvevulgar nocions, would unavoidably ex- ments that have been enforced by the cite general discontent. The nation is sovereign power. The foreigners who

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have been employed to instruct the peo- hopless, put an end to their own lives. ple, have met with every discourage- In the mean time the principal authors ment from the nation, that ignorance, of these abuses, Mr Betskoi and Mr and pride, and prejudice could throw in Rutsky, were continually boafting of

And the natives have ge. their services, and presenting accounts Burally fucceeded in making the fitua- of excellent horfes, and cows, and tion of these men fufficiently irksome. carts, and provisions, they were furnishOf the English officers who have en- ing; and complimenting their sovereign tered into this service, I have not found on the happy consequences which must an individual who has not had caufe to follow from her benevolent plans, for regret that ever he dad flattered him- the improvement of the country, and felt with the dreams of greatness in receiving great fums from the treasury Russia. Admiral Sir Samuel Greig for the behoof of the colonists, besides should have becn an exception. His crosses, and ribbands, and gratuities for integrity was above fufpicion. His abi- their own services. The insignificance biries in his profesfion were not difput- of these men might have classed them ed; and lie poffefied the friendthip of with the multitude of knaves, whose many of the principal men of the em- na

names are forgotten when their vices pire : Yet was his fituation rendered have ceased to be troublesome, did not extremely disagrecable, from the na- the nature of their crimes drag them tional jealousy of foreigners, and the from the oblivion to which they seemed fretful opposition of men who would not destined, and hold them up 19 more be instructed, because they were not than common deteftation. convinced that they needed to learn. Almost every plan that has been a" I am sorry, you have so many ene- dopted fuž the improvement of the mies," said the Empress to him on one country has met with a similar oppofioccafion, “but I know the reason of tion. The artists, who were, a few it; and you may depend on my protec- years ago, invited over from Britain to

put the iron works on a better footing, The colonists, whom the present found themselves harassed with so Empress invited to cultivate the waste impositions, and subjected to so many lands belonging to the crown, and in- mortifications, that almost all of them struct the natives in the different opera- bave already resigned their places. At tions of husbandry, met with a ftill Petrazavedíky, where they were chiefly worse reception. The Imperial orders stationed, only two have remained. la in their favour were, it is true, fulfil- all probability, their forbearance will ed according to the letter of the statute. foon also be exhausted. Each family received horses and cows, It has feldom happened, that the foand instruments of hufoandry, and pro- vereigns of Russia have found servants vifions according to the terms of the sufficiently enlightened to see the utiliagreement. But the horses and cows ty of their plans of improvement, and were either old and useless, or else at the same time, sufficiently honest to fry wild and untractable, that a great co-operate, with good faith, in carrying part of them made their escape into the them into effect. The men who have woods. The utensils were the worst been employed for this purpose, have and the cheapest that could be procured; either failed in their duty from national and the provisions were, for the most prejudice, because they did not wish the part, so much damaged as to be unfit objects entrusted to their care to sucfor use. The unhappy colonists were ceed, or they have employed the confireduced, by these iniquitous and inhu- dence repored in them, dilhonestly, to man ants, to extrenie misery. Many satisfy their own avarice. Catherine of them died of hunger; and not a few, the Second has found many a Betskoi finding their situation insupportable and

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and Rutsky to make her plans of im- under Catherine the First; or of Biron, provement fail of the effect they should under the Empress Anne. Elizabetta have produced.

was not naturally cruel. She even af Yet, with all these obstructions, Ruf- fected the praise of clemency: Yet, at fia has certainly made very considerable the accession of Peter the Third to the progress in improvement since the æra throne, seventeen thoufand persons are of Peter the Great. Manufactures of said to have been restored, from banishalmost every kind have been brought to ment or imprisonment, to their livertya much greater perfection, and are car. Many of these had been guilty of no on ried on upon a much more extensive ther crime than that of being the relascale. Most of the useful, as well as tions or dependents of those persons of many ornamental, arts have made great distinction who had been facrisiced to advances. Commerce has been greatly court intrigues. For, even in the reiga extended. Even learning has made of Elizabeth, it continued to be too some progress. It is now no uncom- much the practice, to involve in the ruin mon thing to meet with slaves who can of any great man who had become obe both read and write ; whereas, in the noxious to the court, every person who days of Peter the Great, fo uncommon was supposed to be particularly attached were these accomplishments, that even to his fortunes, Prince Menzikoff, Peter's great favour- During the reign of the present Ema ite, and who afterwards ruled the em- press, this abfurd species of tyranny has pire, under the nominal reign of Cathe- never been admitted. In general, the rine the First, was all his lifetime unac- administration of Catherine the Second quainted with both. The presses of hias been milder than that of her immePetersburgh and Moscow have furnish- diate predecessor. It has cxhibited very ed the nation with a considerable varie- few striking instances of severity. Those ty of books in the Russian language. miserable beings with whom the mines Most of them are indeed only trantia. of Siberia are itill amply supplied, contions from other authors, chiefly Eng- fist almost entirely of the refuse of the lish and French; but Rusia allo fur. people, who have been condemned by nithes fome original writers.

the ordinary course of law, and whole These circumstances, while they ar- fate court intrigues could not have indently mark the progressive improve- fluenced. That species of offenders ment of the nation, lead us to conclude, whom the jealousy of former sovereigns that the prejudices which have so long would have punished with the utmost counteracted the attempts of the fove. rigour, I mean those who were suspectreigns of Ruflia, to raise their subjccts ed to be disaffected to the intereit of out of their ancient state of barbarism the ruling party at court, have not geand degradation, will gradually disap- nerally met with a severer punishment pear. The Ruffians will acquire jutter than that of being permitted to travel innotions of the national interest ; they to foreign countries, during a certain will become sensible of their own defi- term of years, for their improvement ciencies; they will deserve a better fyf- Elizabeth, to gratify the spleen of her

tem of government, by feeling that they favourites for the time, banished to Sin Itand in need of it.

beria Lestoc, whose talents and activity I am confirmed in these anticipations, had been the principal means of railing when I consider, that the Ruflian go. her to the throne, and that after the vernment has become much milder in had given him the strongest assurancesa its execution than it was in former confirmed by a folemn oath, that she tines. The administration of Eliza- would never listen to the insinuation of beth was considerably more lenient than his enemies against him. Catherine the that of Peter the Great; of Menzikoff, Second, after her elevation to the throne,

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allowed the Countess Elisabeth Voront. good effects of this liberal policy be-
zoff to live unmolefted, although this come apparent, it is not to be doubted
woman had been the favourite mistress but that it will be more generally adopt-
of Peter the Third, on whose account ed.
he had formed those resolutions against During the present reign, the public
his wife which brought on the revoluce has been totally unaccustomed to such
tion in 1762.

shocking examples of barbarity as were With equal magnanimity, and in e- often presented to them in former times. qual opposition to the maxims of Ruf- The natural confequence of this cirfian revolutions, fhe continued Count cumstance, taken in connection with Munich in all his offices and appoint. the increased diffusion of knowledge, · ments, although he had been the most has been, that the national spirit has zealous of Peter's adherents, and had acquired a certain degree of indepenbeen prevented only by his master's pu- dence which it did not before possess. fillanimity from precipitating her from Abfolute fubmiffion to the will of their the throne to which she was raised. superiors, though Itill a very prevalent

The same spirit of moderation has principle, is not now the ruling prindistinguished the course of her reign. ciple which actuates the subjects of this Under former sovereigns, the dismissal enipire. Were Peter the Great to rise of a favourite or minister from his office from the tomb, and seize his former was generally the prelude to fending fceptre, his courtiers and officers would him to Siberia. The present Empress not submit to be publicly beaten by him has feldom changed her servants ; and without resistance; nor durst he ale those of them who have been dismissed, tempt to exercise on the most defpica. have been allowed to retire honourably, ble set of men in the empire those atroand live in peace. Although her plan cities with which he formerly extinof forming a new code of laws has not guished the Stçelgi.. been carried into effect, she has esta. Although, therefore, much remains blished many particular statutes, and a. to be done, in order that the govern. dopted many regulations favourable to ment of this country may be established an equal diftribution of justice. In the on liberal and equal principles, yet conemancipation of the peasants on the liderable approaches have been made to crown lands, she has set an example this object. The administration of Cawhich, it is to be hoped, many of the therine is as different from that of her Ruffian gentlemen will soon follow. A predecessors, as it is from that of our few of them have already been in part own government under George 111. her imitators in this respect; and as the

A SCOTCH GRAND VISIER.-AN ANECDOTE. AT the conclusion of a war between ed suddenly, and coming up to the the Ruffians and Turks, before the Marshal, took him freely by the band, treaty of peace was concluded, there and in the broadelt Scotch dialect, was occasion for a conference between spoken by the lowest and most illiterate the Russian General, who was Field of our countrymen, declared warmly, Marshal Keith, and the Grand Visier, that it made him “unco happy, now to settle some preliminary articles. he was fae far frae hame, to meet a

When the conference was at an end, countryman in his exalted station." they arose to separate ; the Marshal Marshal Keith was astonished; but the made his bow with hat in hand, and the Visier told him, “ My father, said he, Visier his falam, with turban on his was bell-man of Kirkaldy in Fife, and head : But when these ceremonies of I remember to have seen you,

fir, and taking leave were over, the Visier turn- your brother often occasionally passing."

A

A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF SUGAR, IN THE EARLY TIMES, AND THROUGH THE MIDDLE AGES.

BY WM FALCONER, M. D. F. R. S. THE use of sugar is probably of in reeds in India and Arabia Felix. high, though not remote antiquity, as This, he adds, has the appearance of po mention of it is made, as far as I falt; and, like that, is brittle when can find, in the sacred writings of the chewed. It is beneficial to the bowels Old Testament *. The conquests of and stomach, if taken dissolved in waAlexander seem to have opened the ter; and is also useful in distales of the discovery of it to the western parts of bladder and kidneys. Being sprinkled the world.

on the eye, it removes those substances Nearchus, his Admiral (A. C. 325) that obfcure the light." The above is found the sugar cane in the East Indies, the firft account I have seen of the meas appears from his account of it, quoted dicinal virtues of sugar. by Strabo. It is not, however, clear, Gaien (A. D. 143) appears to have from what he says, that any art was been well acquainted with sugar, which used in bringing the juice of the cane to he describes, nearly as Dioscorides had tre consistence of sugar.

done, as a kind of honey, called facıhar, Theophrastus, who lived not long that came from India and Alavia Feafter (A. C. 303) seems to have had lix, and concreted in reeds. He defome knowledge of fugir, at least of scribes it as less sweet than honey, but the cane from which it is prepared. In of similar qualities, as detergent, desicenumerating the different kinds of ho- cative, and digerent. He remarks a ney, he mentions one that is found in difference, however, in that sugar is reeds, which must have been meant of not like honey, injurious to the stomach, some of those kinds which produce sugar. or productive of thirst.

Eratosthenes, also (A. C. 223) is if the third book of Galen, “ Upon quoted by Strabo, as speaking of the Medicines that may be easily procured" roots of large reeds found in India, be genuine, we have reason to think which were sweet to the taste both when sugar could not be a scarce article, as it raw and when boiled.

is there repeatedly prescribed. The next author, in point of time, Lucan alludes to fugar, in his third that makes mention of sugar, is Varro book, where he speaks of the sweet (A. C. 68) who, in a fragment quoted juices expressed from reeds, which were by Isidorus, eviden:ly alludes to this drank by the people of India. subliance. He describes it as a fluid, Seneca, the philosopher, likewise pressed out from reeds of a large size, speaks of an oily sweet juice in reeds, which was sweeter than honey. which probably was sugar.

Diofcorides (A. C. 35) speaking of Pliny was better acquainted with this the different kinds of honey, says, that substancewhich he calls by the name “there is a kind of it, in a concrete of faccaron; and says, that it ftare, called jaccharon, which is found brought from Arabia and India, but the

best from the latter country. He deSince writing the above, I have observed scribes it as a kind of honey, obtained that the frucet cane is inentioned in two places from reeds of a white colour, resemof Scripture, and in both as an article of merchandize. It does not seem to have been bling gum, and brittle when pressed by the produce of Judea, as it is spoken of as the teeth, and found in pieces of the coming from a far country. Isaiah, chap. xliii. lize of a hazel nut. It was used in ver. 24. jerenziah, chap. vi. ver. 20.- it is

medicine only. worthy oi semark, that the word fachar 'liga nifies, in the Hebrew lauguage, inebriation,

Salmafius, in his Plinianæ Exerci, which makes it probable, that the juice of tationes, says, that Pliny relates, upon the cane had been early used for making tome the authority of Juba the historian, that fermcated liquor.

some reeds grew in the Fortunate Vol. LVIII.

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