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ance, asked him what he meant by di- My curiosity was awakened by the recting my attention to it. He answer. very extraordinary commencement of ed me in the following manner, which, his narrative ; and I determined, if from the singularity of the narrative, and possible, to hear it out: so, aífuring him his strange mode of telling it, I think that I meant nothing either of Night or it would injure to take out of his own wickedness by my laughter ; that i had words: I will, therefore, endeavour, as too serious ideas of such things to treat well as I can, to give you a literal trans- them with levity: and, what was more lation of it; and, indeed, the impres- convincing logic with him, promising 19 fion it made on my menory was such, reward him for it, he proceeded with that, I apprehend, I shall not material. his story as follows: ly differ from his words:

“ Well, fir, you say you were not “ You must know, fir, (for every one sporting with those spirits--and fortuin the world knows it) that all thefe nate it is for you : at all events, St mountains around us, are the abodes of John of God be our guide, and bring good and evil spirits, or Genii ; the us fafe to Inpspruck. Just io the great jacter of whom are continually doing e. Maximilian was wont to laugh at them; very malicious thing they can devise, and you shall hear how he was punithto injure the people of the country, such, ed for it—and that was the story I was as leading them attray, smothering them about to tell you. The Emperor Maxi. in the snow, killing the cattle by throw- milian, that glory of the world, (he is ing them down precipices ; nay, when now in the lap of the blefied Virgin of they can do no worle, drying up the Paradise) once on a time, before he was milk in the udders of the goats, and Emperor, that is to fay, when he was lometimes putting between young men Archduke, was always laughing at the and their sweethearts, and stopping their country people's fears of those spiritsmarriage. Ten thousand curses light and an old father of the church foreupon them! I should have been mar. warned him to beware left he should sicd two years ago, and had two chil. fuffer for his rathness : so one day he dren to-day, but for their schemes. In went out a-hunting, and at the foot of short, fr, if i: were not for the others that mountain a most beautiful chamois the good ones who are always em- started before him ; he shot at it, and ployed (and the blessed Virgin knows miffed it (the fult shot he had missed they have enough on their hands) in for many years, which you know was preventing the mischiess of those devils, warning enough to him) however, he the whole place would be destroyed, followed, shooting at and mising it, the and the country left without a living animal standing every now and then till thing, man or goat !”

he came up within shor of it: thus les Here I could not, for the life of me, contioued till near night, when the goat retain my gravity any longer, but burlt, disappeared of a sudden, and he found ii spite of me, into an immoderate fit himself buried, as it were, in the bowels of laughter, which so disconcerted and of the mountain : he endeavoured to effended him, that he sullenly refused find his way out, but in vain ; every to proceed with the story any farther, step be took led him more astray, and but continued marking bis forehead (his he was for two days wardering about hat off) with a thousand crosses, ytter. Chriit fave us !--in the frightfo! kol. ing pious ejaculations, looking at me lows of those mountains, living all the with a mixture of terror, distrust, and time on wild berries : on the second admiration, and every now and then night he bethought himfulf of his want glancing his eye askance toward the of faith, and of the faying of old father bills, as if fearful of a descent from the Jerome; and he fell on his knees, and trii puits.

wept and prayed all night; and the Vir

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370 Soine Fiffects of Réfpiration upon the Animal Body.

Vol. 58. gr heard bim, he being a good man, less people do, and to worship the Virgin and, above all, an emperor--God bless and keep a good cons ience, and then you and me! we should have perished. one will have the less to feai.” To the norning, a beautiful young inar, By the time he had ended his narradressed in a pealant's habit, Cine up to tive, we were in fight of Innspruck, hin; gave him victuais and wine, and when I annoyed and terrified him adelired him to follow him, which he fresh, by lauging immoderately at the dit, you sway be sure, jo z fuily; but, end of his story ; but atoned in some ol, bleflid virgin ! think what his ur- measure for it, by giving him half a prile must have belli, wren, geeing a

fosin. gain into the plain out of the mountain, On inquiring at Innspruck, I found the young man difappeared and ranish- that Maximilian had actually lost his ed all of a sudden, just at the foot way in the mountain, and had been of rhat steep rock which I shewed you, conducted out of it by a peafant, who and which ever since goes by the name left him suddenly; the rest was an exof the Emperor's Rock.--You fee what aggerated traditionary tale, arising from a dangerous place it is, and what dange- the superstitious fears of the country Icus ipirits they must be that would not people. spare even the holy Roman Emperor. From Campbell's Journey over land te

mind, the best way is to say no- India. thing against those things, as some faithOF SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF RESPIRATION UPON THE

ANIMAL BODY. IT is not here intended, to describe The knowledge of this, leads us to the manner in which an animal performs suppose, that some important change is respiration ; nor what muscles are con- made upon the blood in the lungs, more cerned in performing it: these being especially, when we also know, that the Sully done in the different books on a- blood in the pulmonary veins is much natomy.

more flacid than that in the pulmonary If we consider the heart of an animal arteries. 25 the great moving power, propelling All animals are nourished by vegetathe blood through all parts of the body, bks, either directly or indirectly, by the we shall find too circles described from medium of other animals they may prey it, the one through the lungs, and the upon: and it is well known, that vegeother through all the other parts of the tables are composed of the basis of hydrobody; and in moít animals the heart is gone gas, (ir Hammable air) as they can double, one half being alloted to each be raised from the feed to maturity by circle, only, that the blood driven out distilled water alone; during which time, of the one fide, returns to the other : they disengage oxygen gas, (vital air) fo, initead of faying that the blood def. the other component part of water. cribes two circles, we ought to say that This vegetable, or vegito-animal mati describes the figure of 6, the heart be- ter, is at forbed by the lacteals, from the ing in the middle.

aliment in the intestines ; after it has As boil files of the heart contain undergone various changes, and receivtiearly the fame quantity of blood, and ed various additions, in the intestines, wth act at the fame inltant, it is evident besides the gastric and other juices in that is much blood pafies through the the slonach. It is poured from the Jungs, as through all other parts of the thoracic duct, into the left fubclavean lcd in any given time; although there vein, where it joins the internal jugular. is not nearly fo much thood cortained in vein"; from thence it falls into the right them, which may readily be supposed, side of the heart with the blood in es in the rest of the body.


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the descending vena cava.

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All the chyle, however, does notunderthrown into the lungs by the pulmonary go this change, as part of it is deposited arteries, from the right lide of the heart, in form of fat, in the cellular membrane, and by the great velocity, and friction and of marrow, in the cavities of the of the biood in them, asisted by the free bones : the chief use of which, the foraccess of oxygen, it undergoes a similar mer especially, is to serve as a store change to combustion, that is, it gives against the attack of diseases, when the oat its more volatile and in Hammable stomach is not able to receive or digest parts ; but, as the blood, and conse. the proper quantity of food. It is then quenily the chyle, with which it is now absorbed by the lymphatics, and is mixmixed, does not remain long enough in ed with the blood, and created as above the lungs to undergo this change, the described : and it is probable, that there above matter is carried along with the is a continual absorption and new deblood, which, as well as the chyle, has position of fat in the healthy body, as absorbed, some oxygen, to the left side there is of the bones and other parts ; of the heart, which throws it into the and this absorbed fat, is perhaps fupplyaorta ; as from thence it is distributed to ed to some purposes in the system for every part of the body, where, by the which the fresh chyle is not so well afriction it undergoes, it absorbs more of 'dapted, as forming the red particles of the oxygen from the surrounding blood, the blood. and gives out hydrogen and azotic gases; It is well known that oxygen is a these, uniting, form volatile alkali, which powerful fiimu!ınt to the muscular is found in such abundance in the animal fibre, and the heart being a hollow musa body. It is now brought back to the cle, the blood lodged in it, may be a right side of the heart by the two venæ more powerful stimulant to the hearty, cavæ, from thence it is again thrown' than it otherwise would be. into the lungs, in form af charcoal, where The great friction of the animal fluids it is completely oxygenated ; giving out in circulation, would, if not counteractcarbonic and azotic gases, which are ed, soon prove fatal by the degree of found fo abundant in the air we ex. heat which they would produce; this [pire.

however is effectually done by the evaIt may be objected, that there is no poration from them, both in the lungs, air found in the blood-vessels of animals ; by respiration, and in other parts of the true there is not, but, we have many body, by insensible perfpiration : both cases very similar indeed, as in every of which are encreased, by the encreascase of electric attraction ; where the ed action of the beart and arteries : acid is disengaged from one alkali, and Then the sympathy betwen the pulse, joins the other, in an ærial form; yet skin, and breathing is formed, which that ærial acid does not appear, if the for the most part is so evident. alkali is able to take it up, except by making the liquor a little turbid; and Edinr. March 23d even if the blood do grow turbid, how 1796. is it to be observed ?



CURSORY REMARKS ON DEDICATIONS. WITH the revival of letters, and tion, which is of very distant origin. the invention of printing, were revived It is almost needless, however, to remany of the customs of writing, pecu- mark that the word dedicate is here unliar to the ancients. Among these may derstood in a very different sense from be reckoned the practice of dedicating that act of folenn appropriation which books to forme person of rank or distinc. it originally implied." But it has, like Vol. LVIII.



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many other words, undergone different parposely composed for his entertain--
meanings at different periods. To de- ment, he suffered himself publicly, and
dicate a church to a particular faint, all in his presence, to be styled the greatest
that was neceffary, was to place the image king ever the earth produced ? These it
of that faint in the most distinguished is true are strong facts ; but luckily they
part of it, and to call the church by his, do not prove the sense of propriety to be
or her name. To dedicate a church in artificial ; they only prove, that the
another sense, is to appropriate or fet it fenfe of propriety is at all times over-
apart for the use of public worship, and powered by pride and vanity ; which is
that act by which it acquires a kind of no fingular case, for that sometimes is
protecting fanctity is called confecration. the fate even of the sense of justice.
It is not, however, necessary to follow It would be, perhaps, not very dif-
the word dedication in all its meanings ; ficult to excuse Lewis XIV, for listen-
let it fuffice that it is now chiefly used ing to this fulsome panegyric, without
to signify a prefatory address to some fuppofing, as Lord Kaimes seems to do,
great personage, or elseemed friend; and that he was devoid of a sense of

proits object is, either to procure patron- priety; for it might appear to that moage and emolument, or to express fin- narch, very consistent with propriety, that cere regard, or gratitude.

his subjects should be on ery opportu. It has been deemed the highest com- nity told, and made to believe that he was pliment an author can pay, and corse. the greatest king in the world. But this quently the highest a patron can expect would lead us into a digression, and the from men of that description. In our purpose of this paper might be diverted language, as well as in most others, both too far. Flattery certainly, whether of the dead and living languages, we agreeable or not to the object, has been have abundance of specimens of the more or less the foundation of all dedidedicating art, but the majority, it mult catory addresses, and must continue to be confessed, are merely different modes be so, as long as the practice of dedicaof flattery conveyed in the way fuppof. tion remains. ed to be most pleasing to the object. Nor is the vanity altogether on the

From many things, says Lord Kaimes, side of the party thus addressed. Many that passed current in the world with- authors come in for an ample share, out being generally condeni ned, one at when they fancy that they are bestowfirst view would imagine, that the sense, ing immortality on their patrons.

A of congruity or propriety has scarce any thousand examples of this might be taken four dation in nature ; and that it is ra- from modern times. Let us take one ther an artificial refinement of those, from more diftant ages, A pion, a gram. who affect to distinguish themselves from marian of some celebrity in his day, others. The fulsome panegyrics be. which was in the reign of Tiberius, deftowed upon the great and opulent, in dicated all his writings to different perepistles dedicatory, and other such com- fons, upon whom he imagined he conpositions, would incline us to think so. ferred immortality ; but his works were Did there prevail in the world, it will unfortunately not able to survive the be faià, or did nature fuggeft, a taste of wreck of time, and he himself is only what is suitable, decent, or proper, known to have existed, by being menwould any good writer deal in such com; tioned, and that not very respectfully, by positions, or any man of sense receive Aulus Gellius, and a few other authors. them without difguft? Can it be fuppof. The learned Isaac Causabon was a ed that Lewis XIV. of France, was writer of a very different mould. He endued by nature with any fenfe of pro: had a great talent at dedications and priety, when, in a dramatic performance prefaces. In his dedications, he praises



without any low servility, and in a man- specimens of oddities. Wodrow, a voner which appears very remote from flat- luminous historian, who wrote the Hiftery ; and in his prefaces, he shows the tory of the Church of Scotland from the design of his work and its advantages Restoration to the Revolution, a period without ostentation, and with an air of of great calamity there, in his dedicamodesty. His dedication of Polybius, tion to George' I, uses these words : to Henry IV, is esteemed a master- “ We know not which most to admire, piece of the kind.

your extensive and paternal goodness to Farnaby, the critic, wrote many de- your subjects, or your mildness to your dicacions, but he observes that they were enemies, which, to their lasting shame, not in much repute in his time. As it is not able to reclaim them : but niy happened, says he, to the ancients, who mean pen is, at best, every way below used to undertake nothing without con- this noble subject, and of late is so bluntsulting the flight of birds, that though ed with th: melancholy matter of the fol this custom went out of fashion at wed. lowing history, and our miseries under dings, yet, according to Valerius Maxi- preceding reigns, that it is perfeâly unfit mus, they invited the auspices to their to enter upon the blessings of your ivaweddings, keeping up, at least in name, jesty's government.” This is certainly some remains of the ancient custom ; fo meant for a compliment ; but to what it is with us, who labour under this in- class of compliments it belongs, is not curable itch of writing ; though the au- easy to ascertain. thority and generosity of patrons be out It is with regret we observe the exof date, yet we are ambitious to put our cessive adulation of the greater part of works, which will soon perish, under dedications, in the end of the last and the patronage of fome noble person. beginning of the present century, and

There is a whimsical story of one that in works, which in every other reRangouze, a French author in the reign speet are entitled to the greatest respect. of Lewis XIV, who was a nored dedi. The dedications to the several volumes cator, and gained fixteen handred pif- of the Spectators are models of coarse toles within eight months by that trade. Alattery, and yet one, at least, of the He made a collection of letters, which authors of that excellent work, had a he printed without numbering or paging proper idea of the value of this species them. The bookbinder, by this means, of writing, as appears by No 188, to put that which the author thought pro. which the reader is referred. Dramatic per first, and by this manœuvre, all the writers were, of all others, molt abfurdpersons to whom the author presented ly addicted to the grossest and most fulhis book, seeing their names at the fome flattery. One regrets to consider head, thought themselves highly honour. Dryden' as an abominable offender in ed. Mademoiselle de Scuderi, obferves this way. on this story, that Rangouze must have To a nobleman, whom he never faw, been as fond of dedicating, as a certain he says: Italian physician was, who having writ- “ I could not answer it to the world, ten upon Hippocrates' Aphorisms, de- nor to my conscience, if I gave not your dicated each book of his Commentaries Lordship my testimony of your being to one of his friends, and the Index to the best husband now living. You, my another. Rangouze's letters were brief Lord, though it is not my happiness to elogiums of the persons to whom they know you, may stand aside with the small were addressed ; specifying their most remainders of the English Nobility, valuable qualities and memorable ac: truly such," &c. &c. It might have tions, and a profusion of compliments, been thought that Dryderi's conscience which he varied with considerable art. would have been somewhat more scruBut to come nearer home, in giving pulous in determining upon a point, on


X X 2

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