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which very few husbands ought them. whether, notwithstanding this gross abuse selves to be allowed to decide. of the practice of dedication, it may not

But Colley Cibber is not behind- yet be used in a manner highly hooourhand :

able both to the dedicator and the pa“ I assure your grace, this dedication tron? This question, I humbly think, is the result of a profound acknowledg. may be answered in the affirmative, and ment, an artless inclination, proudly glad, so much more wife are our authors in and grateful : and if ever the influence this respect, that a fulsome dedication is of your grace's more thining qualities but rarely seen from the pen of a nian should perfuade me to attempt a tragedy, of genius, and when feen, is universally 1 shall then borrow all the ornanientál fcouted, as a perversion of talents, and a virtues from your greatness of birth, criminal milapplication of praise. It is sweetness of temper, Howing from the perhaps a misfortune that there is but fixed and native principles of courage one language for all men, for the hyand honour, beauties, that I reserve for pocrite as well as the sincere ; but an a further opportunity of expressing my author, honestly impressed with the conzeal and gratitude.

templation of virtue, will seldom be Mrs Centlivre, who, knowing herself, tempted to go beyond the bounds fet thought she knew that flattery, ever so to the praise of human beings, or go clumsily laid on, may yet be pleasing, such lengths as to incur the suspicion of addresses her patron as follows: being actuated more by the hope of in-'

“ The protection of the most distin- terest than the love of truth. A wellguished, produces a kind of inspiration written dedication is an elegant tellimuch superior to that which the hea mony of respect. It is a graceful bow thenish poets pretended to derive from at entering into literary life, and no man their fictitious Apollo : my ambition is can be blamed for wilhing to be seen in to address one of my weak perform- good company. ances to your Lordship, who are justly The most elegant dedicator of our allowed, by universal consent, to be the times was, I think, beyond all comparibrff judge of all kinds of writing. I was, son, the late Dr Samuel Johnson. "No indeed, at first deterred from my design, man disdained servility to the great, by a thought, that it might be account- more than he; yet when he pleases to ed unpardonable rudeness to obtrude a compliment, there is a graceful dignity trifle of this nature to a person, whose reflected and reflecting mutually, which fublime svisdom moderates the council, has been rarely imitated, and probably which, at this critical juncture, over- cannot be excelled. He wrote a great rules the fate of all Europe."

many dedications to different works One more specimen of the fulsome, which were not his own, but he always and we have done.

shews that he knew the patron. I shall Nature and fortune were certainly select a very few specimens, which, in in league, when your grace were born;, my opinion, are matchless. The first and as the first took care to give you shall be the dedication he wrote for Dr beauty enough to enllave to hearts of all James' Medicinal Diátionary, addressed the world, so the other resolved to do its to Dr Mead. merit justice, that none but a monarch, “ Sir, That the Medicinal Dictio. fit to rule the world, should ever possess nary is dedicated to you, is to be imit, and in it, he had an empire.” puted only to your reputation for supe

This production is from the pen of rior skill in those sciences, which I have Orway, and was addressed to the Du- endeavoured to explain and facilitate chess of Portsmouth, a notorious prosti- and you are, therefore, to .conlider this 'tute. To these examples, many more address, if it be agreeable to you, as one might be added. But the question is, of the rewards of merit ; and, if other



wise, as one of the inconveniencies of eminence. However you shall receive “ Sire, I presume to lay before your it, my design cannot be disappointed; Majesty, the last labours of a learned because this public appeal to your judg. bishop, who died in the toils and duties ment will show that I do not found my of his calling. He is now beyond the hopes of approbation upon the ignorance reach of all carthly honours and reof my readers, and that I fear his cen- wards; and only the hope of inciting sure least, whose knowledge is most ex. Others to imitate himn, makes it now fit tenlive."

to be remembered, that he enjoyed in The doctor told his biographer, that his life the favour of your Majelty. " he believed he had dedicated to all “ The tumultuary life of princes felthe royal family round," and it was in- dom pesmits them to survey the wide different to him what was the subject of extent of national intereft, without losing the work dedicated, provided it were fight of private merit ; to exhibit quali. innocent. Some of these are printed in lies which may be imitated by the highbis life, or in his works. The following est and the humbleft of mankind; and has escaped the notice of all his biogra- to be at once amiable and great. phers. I fix it upon him from internal " Such characters, if oow and then evidence : the turn of thought will be they appear in hiftory, are contemplatfound exactly corresponding with that ed with admiration. May it be the ani. with which this paper concludes. This bition of all your subjects, to make halte is addressed to the King, and is perfis- with their tribute of reverence: and as ed to Gwynn's London and Westmin- pofterity may learn from your Majesty ster Improved, 1766.

how kings should live, may they learn, “Sire, The patronage of works, which likewise, from your people, how they have a tendency toward advancing the should be honoured.--I am, &c." happiness of mankind, naturally belongs To this selection, it would be imto great princes ; and public good, in proper not to add the model and elewhich public elegance is comprized, has gant dedications to the first five volumes ever been the object of your majesty's of the Biographia Britannica, written regard, &c."

by the late Dr Kippis, but the length to But the following is equal, if not which this article has already extended, superior to any of his dedications ; it is leaves me room only to point them out. prefixed to the Works of Dr Zachary

Pearce, Bishop of Rochelter.

-And Troy's proud walls lie level with the ground.
May Jove restore you, when your toils are o’er,
Safe to the pleasures of your native thore!

Pope. EVERY age has its peculiar ideas violations, however, of humanity seena of excellence; and as the progress of to be committed not solely from a view refinement is promo:ed or impeded, so of immediate satisfaction, but from a do we find the wilhes of men calculated desire of being distinguished as one of to obtain happiness in their respective extensive influence, rigid authority, and conditions. When we trace hur:an ac- peculiar fame. tions to their remotest source, when we Considering man to be a creature of perceive the rational mind immerged in so'noble a nature, and endowed with fo the deepest barbarism, we must expect many excellent qualities, how must it to fee laws dictated by ignorance, and be lamented, that in the pursuit of bis punishment fuogelted by revenge. These principal objects he has deviated fo


wretchedly from the calls of honour, accounted for, that peace of mind and and turned so cold an ear to the cries fafety of person should be the result of of humanity ; that he has facrificed so shedding blood and razing habitations. many accomplithments for the gratifica. Yet fuch is the lanentable fact that the tion of his darling passion, and spurned Greeks were to enjoy “ the pleasures of both the dictates of common justice and their native shore” in a more ample and common propriety, from the impulse of satisfactory manner after they had razed fordid appetite, and inordinate desire. Troy, flaughtered thousands, and ex. We may perhaps be almost inclined to tirpared both race, family, and name. pity the effects from the cause ; but in There is undoubtedly, in ambition, fo an age where refinement boasts her pro- many objects that dazzle, and so many gress, and humanity has her votaries, qualities which infatuate, that man not to point out the pernicious effects thinks himself fupremely bleft when he of past times for the improvement of rides upon the waves of power, and the present, and for the welfare of the riors in the accumulation of that luxury future, must eternally degrade the man, which he has extorted, perhaps by fe. and consign the philosopher to oblivion. verity or by force, from the maintenance Every period, then, as I mentioned be- of individuals. It seems astonishing that fore, has its peculiar views for the at. conscientious reflections have not oftentainment of happiness—which happiness er intruded, and for a while damped is by many called celebrity; that is, the more ardent prospects of the soul. purchasing a prostituted fame from the One would imagine that the “ work of dubious and inhuman business of war, killing” should at some time or other The Greeks, as well as all other early satiate the ferocity of the soldier, and nations, were ardent in the pursuit of war, the wealth of booty fatisfy the ambition and never perfevered more to serve and of the conqueror. Yet, alas ! fuch is adorn their country than by the death or the depravity of our nature, and such the expulsion of a meditated foe. They frequent instances of human weakness, imagined that no laurel could deck their that an Alexander flushed with the laurel brow with more honour, or reflect of victory, and clated with the spoils and greater excellence upon lits wearer, t: an profusion of countries, such, I say, is that which was gathered in the iron the wretched picture, that this celebrated fields of war, or obtained by the des. hero, surrounded by luxury and steeped truction of towns, and depopulation of in debauchery, should, in the giddy imsociety:-such was the leading thought pulse of momentary voluptuousness, be in their mind, and fuch the object of swept from the society of his captains their actions. 'Tis true, the ingenuity and courtezans, and be hurried from of their countrymen might be great, and every earthly scene of cultivation and the abilities of their statesmen and ora. felicity, by the unforeseen summons of tors be held much in admiration ; yet death, unprepared as he was, and unthey, as well as all other turbulert re- profitable as his victories were. To publics, looked up to their legislators what a degrading view does this confor order, but to their heroes for pro. templation of warlike fame, subject the tection ; and the subject from whence I votaries of such a cause, the supporters have chosen my motto may be a con- of such a system! Surely the recollecvincing proof to every impartial thinker, tion of past triumphs ought to have inthat devaftation and self-aggrandizement fluenced him to retire “ safe to the pleaproved a paflion too predominant to be sures of his native shore." curbed, and an object too universal not In tracing the progressive refinement to be followed.

of early nations, it might be supposed It is something astonishing, it seems that war was its sole criterion ; but this a depravity almost too inconsistent to be is a poor excuse, and an assertion to

which refinement herself can have no ed upon so serious a subject as that of conidea of affenting, and consequently no fidering war as beneficial to our happiinclination to support; for how tew ness;- let me not, I say, be deemed have returned home and found a re- inconsistent, if, in indulging my obserquiem from all their toils ! Io the Ro- vations upon palt times, I direct them mas age, we find equal examples of to the nature of the present :-lf, in wretchedness as in that of the Grecian. cerisuring war as a pernicious system in Pumpcy, the vanquisher of the East, earlier ages, I did not, in contemplating returned but to quell internal commo- it at the present moment, still continue tions; and the piains of Pharfalia hur. to consider it in the same light, I should ried iom to the completion of his fate! conceive myself the moit fantastic of Cætar conquered but tu enter Rome, all logicians, and the most inconsistent and there find an unfarfeen end by the of all writers; for what claim has the poignard of a Roman foc ! while Brupresent national warfare to extort our tus himself bled at last, from a convic- approb..tion, or to demand our applause? tion that virtue only existed in imagina. Has not the bayonet still continued 10 tion, and that the turns of war had, reach the heart, and the only subjected him to the mercy of waste cities? Has war been rendered bis antagonist, and to a privation of less exceptionable from the justness of that national gratitude, which a con- the cause, or less formidable from the sciousness of his merits juftly led him multiplicity of preparations? Have not to expe&! Hannibal prosecuted and plans refined upon plans, in order to carried on war to extend his native do- bring about the speedier flaughter of mains, and fix his country's reputation; thousands, and the quicker position of but was ultimately himself a wretched territories? Those counıries where harexample of finding that peace at home, vest glittered in the field, and content. of which he had but too falaciously an- ment dwelt in the hamlet, have they ticipated. Where then are domestic not been despoiled from the rapacity of joys to abound, and how is refinement the soldier, and the injunctions of the to be promoted in a pation ?

general? The rocks of Toulon, the · Let him who wishes to be ranked shores of Dunkirk, the sands of Quiamong the rotaries of refinement, and beron, and the banks of the Rhine, the suppor:ers of national excellence, will not transmit a memorial to posterity look backwards to past periods, and to that war was rendered less dreadful from fiod the means for the promotion of the ambition of England and the strugboth in his present and future conduct ; gles and barbarities of the French ! I he will find that the fplendour of war, am above declaring these opinions from the riots of the victor, and bloodshed of the confideration of party.

What the individuals, exhibit a picture where re: end of this national warfare will be, finement and felicity find tbemselves Omniscience can alone determine :--falsely pourtrayed, and where each at the merits of each cause will be judged tempt of illustration is an abuse of their before a higher tribunal than either ihe qualities.

Convention of France or the Cabinet of Let nie not be censured here as wan, England in-both will hope, for their dering from the nature of mv effay, if own fakes, that when they are weighed I make observations less abstract, and in the balances, not much wanting may conclusions lofs general ;-let me not be be found. Heavy indeed will be the thought cowardly in declaring my senti- weight of guilt upon that'side which is, if I bring them forward as the found deficient. latter part of an essay, which bas touch



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ance, and to which consequently I have
EVERY person, who has such an been induced to direct my principal at-
opinion of his own wisdom, as to dictate tention, I am sorry to add, to very lit-
to others, will more often feel a kind of tle purpose. And this, sir, is want of
gratification in the conscioufacfs of hav. æcor.omy. You would scarcely believe
ing discharged what he conceives to be how many unanswerable arguments I
his duty, than any degree of pleasure in have advareed upon this subject, and how
the success of his advice. Giving good often I have rolled conviction like thun-
counsel, indeed, is so easy a matter, der over the heads of my opponents,
whether it proceed from a sense of duty, while, strange to tell, they remained
or only of luperiority, that I have often inmoveable and unshaken. And all
thought we ought to take away the praise the answer I can get is-Well; but if
we usually bellow on those who recom- every body were to do so!
mend a better life, and give it to those I Jately called a nephew of mine to a
who have the wisdom to follow it. This, very fevere account, for what I thought,
indeed, might seem a little hard upon from my years and experience, I was
authors, but as the only purpose of writ- entitled to call a moft inexcusable piece
ing must be to make mankind wiser and of extravagance. This young dog has
berter, if this purpose should be attain- a place in a public office, which brings
ed, the reward would be infinitely great- him in nearly an hundred pounds a-year,
er than the cold cmpty praise bestowed with certain perquisites, the amount of
upon the mere display of genius. which I never could learn, for he said,

Such are the reflections with which what I believe to lie, true enough, he I have chosen to introduce this letter to kept no account of them. He, foryou, Mr Editor, as the purport of it is sooth, took it into his head to keep a to fhcw, perhaps what is not very new, horse. In vain it was that I representthat a man who devotes his attention to ed to him that walking was the most the giving of good advice to others, may natural, and consequently the most sometimes himself stand in need of con- healthy exercise ; that I could not confolation, and that no person ought to set çeive what business he had out of Lonout opon the reforming plan, without a donon a Sunday, farther off than he might very considerable stock of patience, and reach by gentle walking ; that horses as small a quantity of anxious hopes and were very expensive, and that as he expectations as possible.

could use his beast only once a week, It would be a great saving of time he was paying a whole year's keeping for and trouble to us advisers, if the laws fifty-two days use; and that, in short, of the country were a little more ex. I was certain he could not afford it. tensive, if they had more clauses in fa- His answer wasWell; but if every vour of good morals and wisdom, and body were to do so! Jess about other matters, which aie not another young man, partly committed likely to occur in genteel life, such as to my care, and whose fortune, when robbery, murder, smuggling, and so forth. he comes of age, will barely fuffice to It is to supply this defect, that so many place him out in some decent Daily adworthy and well-meaning gentlemen spin vertiser.kind of business, has taken up out from their brains, those admirable the hopeful fashion of giving dinners precepts of human conduct, which man, and fuppers to every idle fellow he kind are so ungrateful as seldom to prac- meets in his walks, and as there are rice, even if they read them.-Lut to plenty of that description, he boasts how come to the point.

on such a day, be had sıx or eight There is it sin that easily besets,friends to dine with him, and on fuch a very great proportion of my acquaint a night he gave cards and a supper to


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