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2 dozen of friends. You may pretty ward the altar, he would act in a mannearly guefs the advice I gave to this ner better becoming his profession, he hopeful youth; but I could get nothing interrupts me with a laugh, and a thake from him more satisfactory than-Well, of the hand. Well, well, my old friend, but if every body were to do so! but if every body were to do so.
There is a neighbour of mine, Mr Nay, what gave me very great uneasi. Timothy Scrip, formerly a grocer, and nefs lately, was the conduct of Mrs Araa very sensible kind of nian, comings-in bella Gaylove, reli&tof my worthy friend, very great indeed. It was his misfor. Mr Thomas Gaylove, of Spruce hall, in tune to be appointed attorney to an old the county of Effex, gentleman, a man lady in the country who had some pro- whom I cannot think of without sincere perty in the bank, where he used to go regret. He was one of the few who half-yearly to receive her dividend. It took my advice. Indeed, I have obhappened one day, that during a violent served that all who did fo, are now gone rain he was detained longer that usual to a better' world; as the epitaph says, under the dome. Whether the heat of “God takes the good, too good on earth to the place, and the breaths of so many stay, grasping brokers, gaping for an eight And leaves the bad, too bad to take away." per cent. infected him, or whether he was Well, sir, my honest friend Ton apbit by some mad fpeculator, I know not, pointed me one of his executors ; his but the consequence of something that widow is young, beautiful and will not happened that day was, that he immedi- long be a widow. Thinking myself ately disposed of his shop, stock and fix. privileged to speak in a double charactures at a very great loss, and commen- ter, both as the friend and executor of ced dabbler in the funds, where his pro. her husband, and as an old well-wisher perty is melting away as fast as news, to herself, I could not help humbly hintpaper reports can melt it. These he ing that her situation was a delicate
One, swallows greedily, and buys or sells by that it was not deemed by the world in the firft paper he sees. A thousand general, very consistent with a decent times bave I told him that he is totally respect for the deceased, to give routs unfit for his business, and that intelli- and appear at assemblies within a month gence which all poffefs, can be good for, after her husband's death ; that sending none in the way of speculation, but there the two children to be nursed and eduis no persuading him, for" if every cated in a distant part of the kingdom, body were to do so!"
was something like burying her husband In this manner, fir, are all the benefits a second time; that I saw no reason of my good advice loft upon the deaf why she should leave the family house and insenliblc objects to whom I address in Essex, for a splendid towo resujence i:. In this manoer am I answered, by in London, and that (here I spoke very an if, which, to say the least, is ambigu- plain) I thought the ought to avoid ous, and may as well belong to one part every unnecessary expence, reside in the of my exhortations as another. If I country, superintend the education of tell a young clergyman, that now he is her children, and the management of her in orders, and devoted to the service of estate, and trust to Providence for future religion, it would be as well if he did blellings- I really believe I went too not frequent the playhouse, nor go fo far, for she repeated my last words with frequently to balls and assemblies, that it an air of disdain." Trult to Provigrieves ne to hear people speaking of dence for future blellings ! Lord ! if what an excellent hand he is at whist, every body were to do so! while no man mentions his dexterity at I judge it quite unnecessary, fir, to a kootty text, and that if he paid fewer enlarge my catalogue of instances, beadorations to the ladies, and more to- cause you have already enough to show Voi. LVIII.
how unfortunate I have been in my well. a swinging price to be admitted behind meant endeavours to serve man and wo- the curtain. I have little doubt that men kind; and yet I have no doubt I my friends, who know the secret of the should have in some cases been tolerably above charm, have paid handsomely for successful, had I not been opposed by the it, and calmot confequently be expected magic charms, which seems to be con- to impart it without a valuable conveyed in these few words—if every body fideration. were to do so. I have not the honour Notwithstanding these disappointments, of knowing who composed this charm, which I have met with, in common with nor can I analyze the ingredients so ac- many other good advisers, I do not, for curately as to know in which of them my own part, nor would I wish my the principal virtue lies. Every body, I brethren to despair, or be discouraged. fhould suppose, had very powerful effects, There is an old proverb—If you throw but the break-off in the sentence appears much dirt, some of it will stick ; and I to be the place where the fovereign bal- fay, let us go on giving good advice, sam lies, as we are told that in certain some of it will be taken, if not by those manufactories, such as sugar and snuff, we give it to, perhaps by some byeall the workmen may see the operations stander, to whom it may do more good. until a certain process; there the secret Roger Bacon tried a chemical experibegins, and that is confided only to the ment and failed, but he invented gunmaster proprietor, or a confidential de. powder. I am, sir, &c. puty, who must, as I am informed, give
L. THOUTGHTS ON THE VARIETIES, BOTH IN THE
ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE CREATION*. THÉ only rule hitherto adopted by cidental deviations only from one parent naturalists, to mark the distinction be- animal, which they believe has origitween a fpecies and a variety, is, that nally constituted the whole of each inthough different species of animals of the dividual species; they of course endeasame genus may be brought to breed to- your, in most cases, to fix upon some gether, (as the horse and the ass) yet the one of these varieties as having been animals thus produced, are not prolific; the original from which all the others. whereas the progeny arising from an in- have sprung. In both these last assumptermixture of different varieties of the tions, however, they seem to go farther fame species, are themselves equally pro- than facts hitherto well authenticated lific as the parents from which they can authorize them. They reason, at sprang. Adhering to this rule, Dr best, only from probabilities; from Pallas, very properly, calls all the kinds which no inferences can be admitted as of sheep yet known, only varieties of certain : and as there are probabilities, the same species of animal ; because he perhaps equally strong against the opihas found that the mixed progeny of nion they have adopted, as for it, the the whole are prolific.
safest course, in this case, would seem Naturalists, however, have not stop- to be, at least, to suspend our opinion
In their desire for fimplig for the present, and to decline drawing cation they have gone a step farther, any certain conclusion, till the facts neand are now, in general, disposed to cessary for giving authenticity to any maintain, that all the varieties proper- opinion shall have been fully ascertained. ly fo called, have been produced by ac Buffon, who is the least fcrupulous
of all modern naturalists, has been the Appendix to Dr Pallas' account of the different kinds of sheep found in the Russian most forward to decide in this, as in dominions, and among the Tartar of Hordes many other cases. He does not fo of Alia, by Dr Anderson.
much as condescend to admit that there
can be a doubt in this case ; but on all that exceeds even some of the human occasions affumes it as a certainty, that race t. Somę varieties of dogs take all the varieties of oni species have been to the water easily, while others avoid. derived from one parent ; and boldly it with much care. Some only howl, raises, upon that supposition, many prac- like the hound; others bark almost intical inferences, which, if his theory cessantly, as the lap dog ; , others, like should prove to be unfounded, might the greyhound, seldom let their voice lead to very important errors ; so that it be heard ; and others are entirely mute. is not a matter of idle curiosity to in. This slight sketch ought to be sufficient vestigate this question.
to make one hesitate in admitting, withAmong the varieties of the fame out proof, that such prodigious diversispecies of animals, we find very great ties should all have been the progeny of and striking diversities in respect to lize, one common parent. qualities, appearance, natural instincts, Were these diversities only casual and and faculties. Between the largest fiz- apt to vary, it might be more ealy for ed mastiff dog, for example, and the us to give faith to the hypothesis ; but smallest lap dog, when both are well this is not the case. Experience has fed, and at full growth, the difference fully proved, that any one breed may is not, I should supposé, less than as be kept perfectly uncontaminated for ten to one of absolute weight. The length of time, with all its distinctive hound, properly so called, poffeffes the peculiarities entire, merely by preventing sense of smelling in the highest perfec- an intermixture by copulation. Nor is tion, so that he pursues his game inva- this all : it is also known, that if such riably by the scent. The gaze hound, intermixture be permitted, the descendon the other hand, is perfectly destitute ants will undoubtedly be a mixed breed, of that sense in regard to the discrimi- evidently participating of the qualities nation of game *, and pursues it inva- and appearances of both its parents. riably by the eye only; whence his Between a hound and a grey-hound, a name. The pointer and the spaniel, mongrel breed is obtained which possesthough both possessing the sense of smel ses the sense of smelling, though in a ling, in great perfection, as well as the
+ Of the fagacity of dogs many instances hound, are endowed with instincts very might be adduced: but none that I have different ; and exercise the sense of ever met with can equal the following insmell each in a way peculiar to its kind. the owner himself having been hanged some
stances of the fagacity of a shepherd's dog ; The pointer and the shepherd's dog can years ago for sheep (tealing, the following be each taught their lesson in their own facts, among others respecting the dog, were style with equal facility ; but the one anthenticated by evidence on his trial."can never be brought farther than to act When the man intended to steal any sheep, by a sort of mechanical impulse, steadily dog to perform the business. With this view,
be did not do it himself, but detached his to one point; while the other can be under pretext of looking at the sheep, with taught to act, in some measure, like a an intention to purchase them, he went reasoning animal, who is authorized to through the fluck with his dog at his foot, vary his conduct as circumstances. re
to whom he secretly gave a signal so as to let
him know the individuals he wanted, to the quire ; and does so, accordingly, in fume cases, with a cautious discretion, Hock of some hundreds ; he then went away,
number of perhaps ten or twelve, out of a Here a distinction takes place, somewhat and from a distance of several miles fent back analogous to what is observed to take place the dog by himself, in the night time, who among men, with respect to the discrimina. picked out the individual sheep that had been tion of musical sounds. A man may have pointed out to him, separated them from the the sense of hearing fufficiently acute, yet be flock, and drove them before him by himfelf. totally destitute of an ear for music. The for the distance of ten or twelve, miles, greyhound too possesses, I believe, the sense of till he came up with his master, to whoni fuelling in some cases fufficienly firong, yet he he delivered up his charge. is not able, by that micans, co trace his game.
Y y 2
ible ; just
Jess degree than one, and the facul- are called varieties, very great diverfi.
to separate them, so as to ob- that if that stock be not propagated o.
an equal mixture of milk white pea from a gray, or a gray from and water might, by frequent additions a white. If white peas perfectly unof pure water, have the milk fo much mixed with gray are fown, it is well diluted as to be totally imperceptible. known the whole of the produce will
Now, in this last case, wheiher is it be white, and so of gray. Many plants more natural for me to fuppose, when I also belong to this class. see two fluids, milk and water, perfectly A third class, like that of animals, distinct, that these fluids were original. may be raised by seeds, either pure
and lý sepárate and distinct things; or fo unadulterated, or mixed and of a mon. believe that both the milk and the wa- grel breed, at pleasure. Cabbages after had been the same thing original. ford à noted inftance of this kind. ly, and by some wonderful proces, of white or red cabbages may be reared which we had seen no example, but from feeds without degenerating, for much the reverfe, bad fpontaneoufly fe- any length of time, if the two kinds parated, and in ¡ime become two dif- be kept at a great distance from each Itinét fluids, both of which we are sure other ; but should a white cabbage be inevitably to lose, if ever they fhall be allowed to perfect its feeds in the neighsuffered to mix together again? The bourhood of red cabbages producing production of distinct breeds of animals feeds at the fame time, a mongrel kind is equally contradictory to the whole of would rife from these feeds, which: the experience we have had in the would not be pure white, nor distinct breeding of domestic animals. It is red, but a pale red compounded of the easy for us, when we pleafe, to adulte- two. Early and late cabbages, which raté any breed ; but it totally exceeds are very diffinguilhable from each other our power, after such adulteration, to in several refpe&s, beside earliness, are recover the puré breed again.
adulterated in the same manner. SaIf, with a view to enlarge cur ideas yoys in like manner may be blended on this head, we go to vegetables ; in thus-also with cabbages of other greens. regard to the varieties of which, philo- In short, the peculiarities affecting this sophiers entertain nearly the famc opi. class of plants, are precisely similar to nions, we shall find among those that
affe&ting different breeds of dogs, and naturalists, without one symptom of heother animals ; fo that when once a fication. mongrel breed' has been obtained, there The shepherd's dog Buffon considers is no recovering the true fort, but by. a as the parent stock from which all the freth importation of uncontaminated different varieties have been produced, feeds, though the mongrel fort may be by a change of climate,, education, food, preserved as long as you please by pro- and other circumstances. “This anipagating it by itself.
mall," he observes, “ still continues The inference I would draw from pretty nearly in its original state among these facts, (and other classes of plants the poor in temperate climates. Being might be named) is, that since we find transported into colder regions, he bea naturalists have overlooked fome very comes smaller, as among the Laplanobvious peculiarities of plants, which ders; but becomes more perfect in Iceaffect those diversities that have been land, Russia, and Siberia, where the called varieties, they may have, in like climate is less rigorous, and the people manner, overlooked other peculiarities more civilized."-But if there is a difthat may occasion striking diverfities ference in the dogs of these countries, among animals, which have been called it can scarcely be owing to the cause ala varieties : and as this subject has never figned, as the climate of Lapland, is as yet been thoroughly investigated, it be- mild as that of a great part of Siberia, hores us to be cautious in admitting ge- and the inhabitants, perhaps, more cineral conclusions.
vilized. With regard to dogs, which as be “ The Shepherd's dog," he farther Cing well known to every one, are a fit obferves, “if transported to temperate object for illustration, we fee, that let climates, and among people entirely cia small lap dog, and a largé mastiff be vilized, such as England, France, or fed with the same food, and tended with Germany; becomes divested of his fathe fame care, the one discovers no vage air, his pricked ears, his long thick fymptoms of increasing in size or di- hair, and froń the influence of climate minishing it more than the other. Let and education will become a bull-dog, them be carried from one country to a mastiff, a beagle, or a hound.”-But another, they equally preserve their ori- if this were the case, whence should it ginal distinctive qualities, without any happen that we in Britain have the race farther change than the climate may of thepherds' dogs in as great perfection perhaps produce ; which equally seems as any where else, and the maltif, to affect all the varieties of this animal; bull.dog, hound, &c. in equal perfecnever was there adopted an hypothesis tion; and can preserve the breeds of more truly abfurd than that of Buffon each of thefe kinds as distinct from one in this relpect : nor was there ever made another, as if they had been bred in the such a barefaceci attempt to try how far moft dittant corners of the earth? the credulity of mankind could lead The hound, the terrier, and small them astray in deference to a great name, spotted setting dog, he considers as of in direct contradiction to facts which the fame family, and asserts, that they fall immediately under the cognizance are often all produced at the fame litter, of every man who pleafes but to open although the bitch should tave been his eyes, and look right before him, as covered with only one kind of dog.-I in those bold and unfounded assertions ask the reader, if ever he knew a single which he has been pleased to make, instance where this happened? with regard to the transformation of “ The hound," he farther observes, dogs, from one variety into another. “if transported into Spain or Barbary, Yet these opinions have been inadvert- where the hair of all animals becomes ently transcribed many times by learned soft and long, will be converted into the