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land and water spaniel; and when these metrically opposite, remains to be explainare again brought back to Britain," in- ed. When this little Danish dog, howstead of returning to their former state of ever, is sent back to milder climates, he a hound, «
they become the thagged does not recover his former size, or dog."- But who does not know, that grow larger, like the mastiff, but, by pariels continue to be bred in Britain another metamorphosis, altogether as exfor ages, without degenerating in the traordinary, becomes the naked Turkish fmallest degree?
dog. The hound, the full brother of We have seen above, that the mastiff, this mastiff, we saw, on a former ocbull.dog, beagle, and hound, to which cafion, when carried to the warm coast may
be added the terrier and small set- of Barbary, got a coat of longer hair, ting-dog, are all produced in Britain and become a spaniel: this one loses his from the shepherd's dog transported hair entirely. from cold climates." But this mastiff Can any thing be more contrary to dog,” he observes,“ when carried to the reason, experience, and facts that every north,” deserts his original family, and man has before his eyes every day in his “ becomes the large Danish dog; and life, than the above hypothesis ? when transported to the south, becomes It is humiliating for the pride of man, a greyhound. The same transported into who plumes himself on the superiority Ireland, the Ukraine, Tartary, Epirus, of reason to remark this. And it is and Albania, becomes the great wolf- mortifying for modern philofophy, which dog, known by the name of the Irish affects to be founded on experience and dog, which is the largest of all dogs." accurate observation of facts alone, to Thus he makes the shepherd's dog, when point out such things : but truth ought transported from the north to Britain, in all cases to be adhered to. become a mastiff; and that again, when On the other hand. Is there any ramanded back to the north, instead of thing inconsistent with that wisdom and returning to its original state of a fhep- beneficence, so universally conspicuous herd's dog, becomes a large Danish dog; in the system of this universe, or any which again brought back to Britain, its thing that contradicts the general exoriginal country, instead of a mastiff, perience of man, and the facts that fall becomes a greyhound; which by an - under his observation, in adopting the other change of climate, scarce precep- 'hypothesis, that a diversity of animals tible, is metamorphosed into the large may have been originally formed, with Irith dog.-Theie surprising transfor- discriminative faculties and propensities mations might figure very well in Ovid, fitted for the various purposes required but do not tally quite so well with the of them in the general system, and fe. character of a philofophic natural his- parated from each other, though not by torian.
unsurmountable barriers, yet by such “ The bull-dog,” he further goes on, peculiar propensities as might serve to " when transported into Dermark, be- preserve the kinds sufficiently distinct comes the litile Danish dog; and this to answer all the purposes required of little Davih dog, sent into warm cli- them? The different breeds of dogs, mates, becomes the Turkish dog with- for example, though not prevented by out hair.”- In the lalt paragraph, we any physical barrier from intermingling, faw the mastiff in a northern climate in- are yet so distinctly separated from each crease in size, and become the large other by certain peculiarities, as naturalDanish dog: here his brother, the bull. ly to induce one class to associate todog, by a like change of place, dwindles gether, in a state of freedom, in preinto the small Danish dog. How it ference to others. The hound, for exfhould happen, that the same change of ample, would naturally affociate with climate should produce changes fo dia- other hounds who pursued the game, at a
llow pace, by the sense of smelling, in ties of the fame species of animals might preference to any other class of dogs. be preserved distinct perhaps for ever. Should a greyhound encroach upon this In short we do actually know of two inipack, he would so often destroy the stances where the breeds of two pure game, and eat it before their approach, varieties of animals have been preservthat they would find it necessary for ed in a wild state, since the creation of their own preservation to drive him a- the world till the present hour, distinct way, or tear him in pieces. Grey- from all others of the same kind, and hounds would as naturally associate with uncontaminated, merely by the peculiar other greyhounds for the same reason of instincts with which they are naturally mutual convenience ; and so of other endowed. These are the wolf and the varieties. Thus would a distinction be fox, which though ranked by Buffon, formed, which in a state of nature would and most other naturalists, as distinct tend to preserve the several breeds an- fpecies, are now proved, by the most contaminated. This purpose would be decisive experiments, conducted under still strengthened by the acquaintance the eye of the ingenious Mr John Hunter formed by the young of each tribe, with of London, to be only varieties of the the mother and others of the same kind, dog kind, which may be brought to inwith whom they were accustomed to tercopulate with others of the same fpeassociate from their infancy, and with cics, and by that means produce a monwhom we know they preserve habits of grel breed, participating as usual of the intimacy and kindness through life. qualities of both parents, and equally These few particulars, without taking prolific as others of the fame kind. notice of many others, (as the size, which alone would effectually prevent
* Vide Philosophical Transactions, Anno many of the breeds from every enter- 1792, and Miscellaneous Essays by Mr John
Hunter, 4to. 1793, London. The same able mingling) are sufficient to show, that, naturalist has obtained a prolific breed between in a state of nature, the different varie. the common cow and buffalo.
MINUTES OF AGRICULTURE. FROM SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS," BY MR MARSHALL. THIS district, by situation, occu The soil of the vallies is pretty unipies the central and northern parts of formly a brown loam, of great patural Perthshire, and may be said to be fitu- fertility, as appears most evidently in ated in the centre of the kingdom at the flax it produces, a species of soit large. Its elevation above the sea is which is frequently found on the fides great. The vallies that wind among of the hills to a great height ; eren on the mountains form the habitable parts the tops of the lower stages of the hills of the district, which bear a small pro- we frequently find some depth of fimiportion to the surface of the whole. Jar foil, under the black moory earth These vallies are narrow, feldom more of the heath. But on so varied a furthan the sides and the roots of the hills, face, uniformity either of quality or with perhaps a narrow chain of haughs, depth must not be expected. In the or river-formed lands in the bottoms. Highland vallies, unless on the river
The foil of a country, whose surface formed haughs, the foil may be said is greatly diversified, is generally found to be lodged in the pits and hollows to be various. In this case, however, formed by the irregular surface of the the limits of variety are narrower than subjacent rock, or among large loose they are in most other hilly countries. stones, thrown confusedly upon the surThere is no clay (strictly speaking) and face. On what may be termed the navery little light sandy foil found in the tural surface of the Highland vallies, Highlands.
there are no large areas of free culture
able foil, like those found in the more of frost and thaw, than those of the southern parts of the island. It is, in contrary aspect, which frequently regeneral, rugged in the extreme ; and main locked fast and secure from walte, even the scanty plots of free surface, while the other is loosened by the fun, which now are observable, have many and carried off by showers falling in the of them been evidently cleared by the intervals of thaw. At all times, foils industry of man; for even some of the which face the south are more liable to haughs are ftill found strewed with be carried away by heavy rains, which large fragments of rock, and other large are generally impelled from the south or stones, torn from the mountain fides fouth-west: the exhaustion, too, of south by torrents, or thrown from them in the aspect foils, stimulated by a more gegeneral formation.
nial climature, may have been greater The foil of the hills of the High- during ages past than those which have lands of Scotland, compared with that lain with a northern aspect. But these, of the moorlands of Yorkshire, has a by the way; others might be adduced, decided preference: unless upon the were this a proper place for physical resummits of the higber mountains, and searches. where the rock breaks out at the fure Subfoil. Where the depth of foil is face; or where this is encumbered with altogether uncertain, and where there loose stones, or fragments of rocks, the is no regularity of trata near the furhills of the Highlands generally enjoy. face, the fubroil cannot be spoken of ing fome portion of soil, or earthy itra with precision. The river-formed lands, tum, beneath a thin coat of moor, while in the bottoms of
of the vallies, are the on. on the Yorkshire hills, the moory earth, ly parts of the Highlands, in which a generally of greater thickness, lies on a regularity of soil and subsoil is obserydead fand, or an infertile rubble, with able. Here the top soil is gravelly out any intervening foil.
loam of various qualities, and the fubFrom that sort of general knowledge soil gravel, or fand and gravel, some which I must neceffarily have of both times of great depth, and of a fertile districts, I am opinion, that the High- nature, if we may judge from the rapid land hills, (apart from the summits of growth and the unusual fize of trees the higher mountains), are of three or rooted in these river-formed lands. All fourfold the value of the eastern moor. that requires to be faid of the substrata lands of Yorkshire ; more especially of of the native foils is, that, in general, the central and southern swells ; the they are of a sound, dry, absorbent na. narrow tract which hangs to the north ture, with a considerable proportion of between Guisborough and Whitby of a cold bottomed land, scattered in patches better quality ; very similar, in foil, tp on the slopes, and here and there bloatthe lower hills of the Highlands. ed plots of boggy tendency, bearing
From this and various other instances little more than aquatic plants ; yet it which I have observed, in different parts is observable, that quicklands and rotof the island, and most particularly in ten grounds, excepting the peat-mosles the district I am now describing, it ap- of the hills, are less prevalent here, than pears to be a fact, that the slopes of hills in mol hilly districts. There are no whose inclination or aspect is toward hidden beds of clay to check the dethe north, are, at this time, more fer- scent of internal waters; the surfaces tile than those which lie with a south- of folid rock alone, it is probable, re-: ern aspect.
turn them to the surface, Several conjectures miglit be formed Quarries. The useful fosils of the to account for this phænomenon. Soils Highlands are: 11, Limestone, which lying with a southern aspect are more is found in sufficient quantity, and of a liable to be acted upon by an alternacy tolerable quality, in many parts of them.
2d, Slates, raised on the southern skirts nants, are exécrable. The peat roads of this district. 3d, A blue building are mere guihes, which, however, preftone, of a nature sufficiently free to be vious to the season of use, are filled up, casily dressed, is dug out of the southern fɔ as to be rendered paffable to High· heights ; the surface, in most cases, af- land horses, with soil taken from the fording a fufficiency of rough stones for adjacent braes, which is thus ingenioufordinary buildings.
ly diverted of the scanty portion with But, in the extent and magnitude of which nature has furnished it. *these mountains, no productive mines It is observable, that the public roads have yet been discovered, at least with of the Highlands, considering the nain the limits of the district under notice, ture of the country, are remarkably leexcepring one of lead, on its western vel, beyond comparison more fo than verges. Coals have recently been fought than those of Devonshire, and other for, by men of the first experience, wich- districts, whose hills are comparably out a probability of success.
lower. The Highland roads seldom Roads. There are no toll roads in cross the hills. Nature, as it were, the Highlaods. The great public roads with intention, has in most cases rent across the district are chiefly military; the general ridge of hill between the formed and supported by Government, glens or vallies, so as to give an eafy for the purpose of conveying artillery, paffage to the road. ftores, &c. with greater readiness be Another observation equally applitween the different forts and garrisons. cable to the roads of the Highlands, These roads have been conducted ori. and those of the kingdom at large, is, ginally, in a most injudicious manner, that they are much more easily kept in in straight lines across hills and vallies. repair than the roads of England, where They are now, however, under judicious long teams are in use; for, in Scotland, management, and have already received feldom more than one horfe is feen in great improvement with respect to line, a carriage of burden ; the load, of course, and are mostly well kept. The road is proportionably light. between Blair of Athol and Dunkeld Inclosuru.--Speaking generally of the is equal to the best roads about the Highlands, they may be said to lie in fouthern metropolis.
an open state. The lands of different Even the Highland roads which are proprietors are frequently, but not alrepaired by the country, are tolerable ways, divided by “ march dykes," carriage roads. Indeed the substratum namely, stone walls. And farms being almost uniformly gravel or stone, the fame property are sometimes sepait would be difficult to render them im- rated, that the groups of renants may passable. The most effectual way to do interfere the less with each other. Al. it, however, is practised. The mate. so about residences now or recently ocrial of repair is earth ģrubbed out of the cupied, inclosures are sometimes seen; banks, or taken from the adjoining but we rarely meet with farms, of regrounds; while stones lie an incum- gularly inclosed fields, as in the southbrance on every side, and gravel per- ero provinces ; nor are the separations haps at no great distance. But, in the which occur, (those of plantations and Highland practice, neither hammer nör other kept grounds excepted,) confcart is used in the repair of roads. It dered or intended as fences against need not be added, that the first fall of theep, which still over-run the country rain walhes away the loose earth, leav- during the fix months of winter, when ing the stones it contains as stumbling. the entire district may be faid to lie in blocks to travellers.
the most perfect state of common. The peat roads, the bye roads of the Produce. The natural produce of glens, and the private roads of the te- the Highlands, wild as they now apVol. LVIII,
pear, would be difficult to ascertain. since the suppression of the feudal authoriTradition speaks of the woodlands of the ties. Most happy circumstances to the hill, in former times, and probably with Highlands ! and fortunate for the united fome foundation. Timber is sometimes kingdom at large. found in the peat-bogs; but the pieces The established language of the Highwhich I have seen have been of the lands is Erse, a dialect of the Gaelic, smaller woods ; as the birch, the alder, which is probably among the most an. and the hawthorn.
cient of the living languages of Europe. In a general view the present pro- From the names of most places in the duce of the central Highlands, may Highlands, being accurately defined by be said to be a small proportion of ar- the circumstances of situation, the Erfe able crops ; a greater proportion of may seem to have been the language of green pasturage and meadow; a vast its first settlers; but rather, perbaps of extent of heath, intermixed with her. a colony from an enlightened country, bage, and scattered with rocks and suppressing the language of former posstones;
with some extensive tracts of na- sesfors, and establishing their own; there tural and planted woods ; whilst, how. being some few names of places which evet, much of the country is in a man- cannot, I understand, be derived from per destitute of woodlands ; several of the Gaelic. the smaller glens may be said to be The English language, however, is without timber, and without a hedge, now working its way into the most inor a tree to break the upiform and de- ward recesses of the Highlands, and sert like nakedness of the country. will, in a few years, probably supersede
Inhabitants.---The Highland charac- the use of the Erfe ; a circumstance, ter is ftrongly marked ; yousual cir- which, whenever it may take place, cumstances having concurred in form. will be fortunate for the country, as it ing it. It might be wrong however will affimilate it more intimately with to attempt its history here. It may the neighbouring districts. It is now be sufficiera to say, that out of the ag. taught in the schools of the central gregate of those circumstances, grew Highlands, and spoken in greater pua Itrongly-featured character, inquisi- rity here than in the Lowland districts. tive to gain information, cautious to From the intercourse, however, which retain it, and artful and active in ap- the Highlanders have with those displying it to advantage ; features, which tries, and from the teachers having the though somewhat altered by a change Lowland accent, the tone and many of of circumstances, Itill mark to this day the provincialisms of the Lowlands are the Highland character,
in use. I must not, however, omit in this Habitations. - Formerly.fod huts were placi, to do justice to the moral cha- the common habitations of the tenantry racter of the modern Highlander. Mure of the central Highlands, and they are der, cruelty, or even theft is rarely still in use in the more northern distriâs. heard of, nor are riotings, drunkenness, Those huts were built with sods, or or any kind of debaucheries at present thick turf, taken from the pasture lands, prevalent among them, comparatively, and having remained a few years in the at least with other districts of the idand capacity of walls, were pulled down, This, in my mind, is a proof, that and spread over the arable fields as mawhatever irregularities they may have nure, another square of rock being laid been led to, by the nature of their bare, and another set of fods piled up former government and pursuits, they for the same purpose. The materials did not proceed from a natural deprayity of the roof were used and still are used, of moral character, which could not in the same intention, and perhaps the have been completely corrected in so roof itself, in places where wood was. thort a time, 'as that which has elapsed plentiful and peats difficult to procure,