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pounds would be in the 18th century,)
Various kinds of bread were in use. in a day; but that soldiers or failors, The panis piperatus was a sort of gingerif detected io playing for money, Ihall bread. Wastel cakes and simnel cakes, be fined at will, or whipped, or duck- as they were part of the royal allowance ed.-Brompton. Benedic. Abbas. of the king of Scots, when in England,
Theatrical entertainments were not were, probably, made of the finest meal. wholly unknown. . The miracles of -Rym. Fæd. faints and the sufferings of martyrs were There was great inconsistency in the the subjects of dramatic representations, general and national character of the in London, as Fitz-Stephens writes; Anglo-Normans. They were at the and we find, by M. Paris, that Geoffrey, same time acutely discerning, and grossan abbot of St Albans, was the author ly credulous ; honourably brave and an of a play of St Katharine ; and that he trociously cruel ; respectful to the frir borrowed from the sacristan, the holy fox, even to adoration, yet brutally vestments of the abbey, to adorn the licentious in their conduct to indiviactors.
duals ; effeminate in their dress and The more gross amusements of the manners, yet patient of almost intolerNorman nobility, in the pantomime able farigues. style, have been mentioned in a former During more than an hundred years, note from John of Salisbury, who, the Normans in England shaved their though a severe, was a tolerably candid faces. W. de Percy (who accompanied critic on the times he lived in.
Duke Robert, in 1097, to Palestine,) The common people were not with- was styled, on account of singularity as out their diversions. Bull-baiting, cock to this point, “ William. Allgernons," fighting, and horse-racing, were know or “ William with the whiskers." to the men of London : the sports on The dress of the Anglo-Normans the Thames, the skaiting, and the va- was, in the eleventh century, simple if rious exercises and entertainments of not elegant. The great wore a long the twelfth century, are accurately, and, and close gown, which reached down even elegantly, painted by Fitz-Stephens to their heels, and had its bottom frein his description of London.
quently embroidered with gold. Over The Normans were sober, and rather this hung an equally long cloak which delicate at their meals, when they first was generally buckled over the breaft. invaded England. It was not long, When riding or walking abroad, a hood however, before they equalled their always hung behind the cloak. The predecessors in feasting, and even added close gown was put over the head like costly epicurism to brutal gluttony. Yet a thirt, and fastened round the w. ist two meals each day supplied the place by a girdle, which was often embroidof the Anglo-Saxons' four, and Robert ered and set with precious stones.de Mellent, prime-minister and favou- Strutt from Ant. Paintings. rite of Henry Beauclerc, strove hard They wore breaches and stockings, to reduce these two to one.-W. Mal- made of fine cloth, and sometimes very
costly. The absurd long-toed shoes The dinner was held at nine in the came in with William Rufus. The morning the supper at five in the after- queen and the women of fashion, wore noon. Besides ihe common meats, loose gowns, trailing on the groun!, many dishes were used, with the com- and girt round the waist. The married position of which we are not now ac- women had an additional robe over the quainted. . As to liquors, they had se- gown, hanging down hefore, not unlike veral kinds, compounded of honey, of a facerdotal garment. To the girdle a spices, and of mulberry juice ; such as large purse or pouch was suspended. bypocras, pigment, claret, and morat, The men wore their hair long, except besides wine, cyder, perry, and ale.
the World. sometimes when suddenly wrought on Europe, among other vices, luxury and by fanaticism.
effeminacy in dress to a degree which In the approaching centuries we shall a modern man of fashion would blush find strange variations from this simpli- to imitate: city of habit. The crusades, indeed, The umbrella was in use as early as seem to have introduced to Northern the reign of king Stephen.-Struet.
From Andrew's History of Great Britain.
OBSERVATIONS ON OUR INTERCOURSE WITH THE
WORLD. THE end of our existence was evi- nius was again rekindled under the dently intended, not for the benefit of reigns of Charlemagne, and our renownourselves alone, but that of our fellow- ed Alfred. And although the feudal
More noble employments fyftem tended to the production of ando not engage the mind of man, than other age of darkness, there still remainwhen he is busy in unfolding his latented some whose minds were not wholly powers towards the benefit and instruc- unacquainted with literature, or infention of his fellow creatures.
fible to its utility. In this state of ignoAs we are not all endowed with an
rance we might have remained to this equal share of reason, as we do not all day, had these expositors of literature, poffefs the same forelight, or the same these projectors of art and science, suffeelings, the love of our friends, the fered their different improvements to love of our country, the love of fame, have been buried in their own breasts, or naturally cali aloud for a communication confined to the knowledge of a few; of the superior knowledge we may en- but we happily find the bright fun of lijoy. It is not to my purpose to enter terature set in our western hemisphere, into the various methods each man will but to shine in redoubled splendour. take to diffuse his knowledge, or the Let us pursue it farther, by considerreasons which may induce him to coun- ing the information we derive from the terfeit the real language of his heart, intercourse there exists between one naand mislead his fellow-creatures. It is tion and another. Not satisfied with enough to shew, that we are all cager knowledge of the various productions to convey instruction, and unwilling to his own country afford, the enterprizing let our intellectual faculties lie dormant. fpirit will dare to explore the customs Froin this it evidently appears, that the and manners, the arts and inventions use of our reason, as well as the fine e- other countries enjoy. Engaged in motions of the heart, were intended for such an undertaking, an honest enthuthe benefit of others, as well as our- fiasm infuses a spirit of discovery within selves.
him, supports him in the midst of danLet us next consider the advantages gers, buoys him up with the advantages of tħus communicating ourselves to the his fellow-citizens will receive; and world. The tyranny and despotism when his resolutions begin to fail, when Ronie experienced under its last Empe- his spirits begin to droop, a greater name rors, promoted the total extinction of than patriots can boast, or conquerors every spark of literature, art, and science, aspire to, will again inspire him with which it originally boasted ; and, at fresh vigour in his undertaking, and in length, plunged the whole of Europe the end will crown him with laurels, fuch into a state of Gothic barbarity. The as the lovers of mankind richly deserve. fpirit of improvement being thus ex- Nor can I believe that Columbus, in tinguished, and its benefits deftroyed, profecuting his discovery of America, there remained no incentive to awake was actuated by any other motive than the mind, till that happy change in li- the benefits of his country, or that any berty took place, and the frame of ge- thing short of this laudable and noble
spirit of enthusiasm could have supported and satisfaction his own breast may image
feeling mind cannot contemplate without culations, if they proceed no further TE
the most lively emotions of pity and dis- than his closet, tend no more to public
and approbation; that the most perfect
to the public good of our own day, and stances of the partial and biassed opinion E, OP result more nearly to ourselves as indi. of the world. But this surely is not
viduals. Was every man to make known the doctrine the liberal and enlightened
then shine. The noblest discoveries no person is to be found, whom jealousy the hare originated from the most trivial in- has left untainted, and whose opinion is
cidents, and the greatest genius' have immaculate. There is not a fingle Mæ_} a not disdained to attend to the lessons of vius who does not blame the public for
their progenitors. Newton projected their blindness to the beauties of his
their unbounded and gigantic forms? nection with each other, what are the 1 This of itself is pleasure fufficient to comforts of life? and by the ordeal of
compensate for the many folitary hours the public opinion, the usefulness of our
ACCOUNT OF A NEW CHURN;
INVENTED BY MR WILLIAM BOWLER *. “ THIS churn," says Mr Berwick, passage for any air discharged from the in his letter to the Secretary of the So- cream at the beginning of the operation. ciety for the encouragement of Arts, An axle passes through the churn, ter&c. “ is, upon trial, much fuperior to minating in two gudgeons on which it any thing that I know of now in use. hangs, its lower part being immersed in My servant has been, for the two last a trough, to hold occasionally hot or times of churning with the butter-churn, cold water according to the season of ten or twelve hours: I have known the year, and on the inside of the rim many farmers who have been two days are four projecting pieces of wood, with before they have got butter ; and, upon holes in them, serving to beat the creamı a fair trial with this new invented churn, by the motion of the churn. This moit produced good butter within the hour.” tion is caused by a pendulum, three feet
DESCRIPTION OF THE CHURN. fix inches long, having an iron bob, The churn itself is of che barrel kind, weighing ten pounds, and its upper end being a cylinder, eighteen inches dia- turning a pulley, ten inches diameter, meter, and nine inches wide ; the sides from which goes a rope twice round awood, and the rim tin-place, having two nother pulley, about three inches diaopenings; the one, eight inches and a meter, fixed on the axis of the churn, half long, by four inches wide, through and causing it to make a partial revoluwhich the cream is put into the churn, tion by each vibration of the pendulum. and the hand introduced for cleaning There are sliding covers to the machi. it; the other, a short pipe, one inch nery, and also a cover to the waterdiameter, by which the butter- milk runs trough, in order, when the hot water out of the churn when the operation is is used, to secure the steam, and keep finished. The first of these openings the cream in a due and necessary dehas a wooden cover, fastened down by gree of warmth. The motion of the two screws, and the other a cork fitted pendulum is given and kept up by a io it, while the butter is churning. wooden rod, about three feet nine inches There is also, near the larger opening, long, turning on a pin about three inches a small vent-hole with a peg, to allow a above the bob of the pendulum. STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF LANCASHIRE.
at court, June 4. 1793, but was preManufactures have been carried vented by a change of dress occasioned on to a very great extent in Lanca- by the loss of a relation. Thire. The cotton manufactory through To what a degree of perfection the all its branches, which includes a num- muslin manufactory is arrived, the folber of leading trades, bleachers, dyers, lowing may serve to convey fome idea : printers, &c. has become of astoniihing in the year 1791, a Single pound of cotextent and importance. The first piece ton was spun to a fineness of ninety-seof cotton, manufactured from British ven post miles in length; the muslin, growth, was at Manchester, from cot- after being spun, was sent to Glasgow ton grown in the grounds of J. Black. to be wrought, and after that was prebourne, Esq; M. P. of Orford, in Lan- sented to her Majesty. Three pound cashire, seven yards and a half, yard of cotton, which, in its raw itate, cost wide mullin, from four ounces of raw gs. 6d. coit the sum of 2 21. in this stage, materials. It was a most beautiful piece when it was wrought into yarn only. It of cloth, proposed to have been made was spun by one Lomat, at Manchester, up into a dress for Mrs Blackbourne, upon the machinery called mules. in which she intended to have appeared The other manufactures are the filk
* The Society for the Enconragement of Arts voted bim a premium of Thirty guineas.
trade, from the raw silk, through its either argument or proofs to support
ware, English porcelain, clock and importation of grain and flour, used ce for
watch-makers, tool-makers for both chiefly in this country, is almost incre. these branches for all the world, sugar- dible. The advance of wages, and the refiners, long bow, &c. makers. A large preference given to the manufacturing manufactory, for the fabrication of fancy employment, by labourers in general, goods, has lately been established at where they may work by the piece,
Tildesley, by Thomas Johnson, Esq; and under cover; have induced many
where a village has been built since the to forsake the spade for the shuttle, and Erla
year 1780, which had then only two have embarassed the farmers, by the farm hourses, and nine cottages, and scarcity of workmen, and, of courfe, has, in 1793, 162 houses, and a new advanced the price of labour. The chapel erected. The village contains poor rates, with equal burden, fall up970 inhabitants, which employ 325 on the farmer, as' upon the master malooms,
nufacturer. The water is sometimes fo Manchester being the principal repo- damaged by dye-houses, and other works sitory for these manufactures, has be. erected upon rivers, as to be rendered come the great center, to which not not wholesome to the cattle, and des. only the couptry retailers, but mer. tructive to fish. On the other hand, chants from all quarters of the kingdom, the advantages that have been held forth, and foreigners refort; and this has in- have been an increase of population ; duced several capital woollen houses to as that which constitutes the riches and Iittle at the town; and this mart is strength of a country. chiefly confined to one street, (PeeleStreet,) in which a single room frequent- The grain principally cultivated is ly lets from fifty to eighty guineas per Oats, which, when ground into meal, annum. Two cellars were let in Ołto- is the food of the labouring class, parber 1793, one fixty three yards fquare, ticularly in the northern and eastern and the other feventy.eight yards square, borders of the county, made up in bread for eighty guineas per annum.
cakes, of which there are varieties preThe trades and different occupations, pared, by fermentation with four leaupon which the maritime state depends, ven ; others without leaven, and rolled have not on this occasion been noticed ; very thin ; also water, boiled and thickbecause they are the fame in all counties ened with meal into porridge ; and this where navigation is carried on. With eaten with suet, or buttermilk, small respect to the good or bad effects that beer sweetened with treacle, or treacle
may have had upon agri- only, was in many families, about forculture, this important question merits ty years ago, boin the breakfast and much attention, the answers to which, supper meal. in some letters, have been concise, and This custom was so rigorously obserdischarged by one single word ; ex. gr. ved by a certain family, (three brothers, one answer has been advantageous ; an- batchelors,) the last of whom died only ether answer injurious; but without
tages T. 1: cik,