Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

Amelia's. In despite of exertions the me fuch drugs as I thought could not evening paffed heavily away; the morn- be readily procured in thy neighbouring did not rife without cafting alouds on every countenance. The hour, the almost inftant, that was to feparate the cottagers from their preferver, approach

ed.

"Friend," faid the Doctor to his patient, as he heard the wheels of the carriage advancing, "fince I faw thee laft in the great city, I have profpered exceedingly. All thofe families to whom thou tookeft me by the hand, were, more for thy fake than mine, on my lift. Some merit, however, or infinite good fortune I must needs have had, fince from a yearly gain of one hundred, I have increased my income to feveral thousands per annum; and yet I do not take fees for one in forty of my prefcriptions. My houfe is too large for my family. Wilt thou come once again into the bufy world with this mountain blossom, and occupy fome of my apartments? This as thou wilt. At present I must give thee a few words of parting advice, and must rely on this damfel to fee that it is adopted. Thou art fo much thy former self, friend, that I fear not a relapse; but to fortify and ftrengthen thee in my abfence, I have written and made up a prefcription which I am convinced hits thy cafe exactly. Hearing fomething of thy maladies from the friend who conveyed to me thy Amelia's meffage, and forming a judgment foberly thereupon, I brought with

hood. They lie, however, in a fmall compafs, even in this little box; yet being compounds of peculiar ftrength, they will last thee, I judge, for at leaft a year to come, probably more ::—if they fhould not, thou knoweft where to addrefs the prescriber for a fresh fupply. There, friend, take it, but do not open it till thou fhalt seem to wish for fomething of a cordial nature. It will then, I have no doubt, do thee good."

He received their tearful embraces, and departed. You are impatient to lift up the lid of the box. When it was opened by the merchant and his daughter, they discovered two feparate pieces of paper; the one a prefent from a phyfician in London, the other from the ftranger who had given him an account of this little family.

1 muft not deny you the gratification of knowing, that the father recovered, and the child added to his blefings and her own many years; in the fmiling courfe of which, the young lady's virtues attracted the affections of a very wealthy and worthy gentleman, whose power and inclinations not only enabled the merchant to make reftitution of the generofity received from the phyfician, but to make alfo the refidue of that man's life, from whom he derived the beft and loveliest of wives, as happy in profperity as it had been refpectable in misfortune.

TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 336.

EAST LOTHIAN.

HUMBIE parifh borders with Fala in Mid-Lothian. It is nearly 9 miles fquare, and contains 670 inhabitants. Towards Lammermuir the grounds are employed in sheep pafture. The foil of the parish is very various; in fome parts it is a thin clay, in others mofy; other districts are richer, and have been cultivated with more care, attention, and judgment. This parish has of Tate fupplied the Edinburgh market with early lambs; one farmer having fur

nished annually 100 at a guinea each. The farms are in general large, bringing from 300l. to 500l. of rent. There is a confiderable wood here of oak and birch, which woodcocks and pheasants frequent. The arable lands bring from 125. to 30s. per arce. The real rent of the parish is about 2700l. Sterling. From various appearances, there is very probably coal in this parish, though none has been wrought, There is abundance of iron ftone, and other accompanying 3 F 2

ma

in this parifh, which was much reforted to about 60 years ago. The veftiges of a Roman camp are to be traced here, and feveral relics of Roman art have been found.

materials. There is a chalybeate fpring was a fortified building, but is now modernifed. The fine woods and extenfive pleafure ground, make this one of the finest country feats in Scotland. In 1711 the celebrated Bishop Burnet, who was fometime rector of this parish, ORMISTOUN parish. The country here bequeathed confiderable fums for eduis in general flat; the village is pleafantly cating and cloathing 30 indigent childfituated, and from the hedge rows and ren, for purchafing a liberary of books inclosures around it, approaches nearer for the minifter, and other charitabie to an English village than perhaps any purposes which has been attended in Scotland. The extent is about 5 with very beneficial confquences. This miles long, and 3 broad, confifting parish is remarkable for the first introchiefly of a clay foil, which makes it duction of making pot-barley, and wearThe inhabitants are about ing of the cloth called Holland, about 864, between 500 and 600 of whom live the beginning of this century, by the in the village. The country here is patriotic Lady of Henry Fletcher of much beautifyed by the woods belong- Salton. She, for this end, travelled ing to Lord Hopetoun and Sir Andrew into Holland, with two expert meLauder. In Lord Hopetoun's gar- chanics as her fervants, got models of den at Ormiston-hall, there is a yew the machinery, and brought home all tree, whose trunk is feet in circum- the fecrets of the manufacture. In ad

rather wet.

ference, and 25 feet in length, and growing in full vigour. About 2 miles South of the Church, the remains of a Danish camp are to be feen. The river Tyne runs through this parish; there is abundance of limeftone in this quarter, and one coal mine of excellent quality a-working. This parish gave birth to the Cockburns of Ormiftoun, one of whom was Lord Juftice Clerk; his for John was one of the reprefentatives of his county in the union parliament, and afterwards one of the Lords of the Admiralty. He retired with much honour, about the year 1740, to his paternal estate, and contributed to erect the firft Bleachfield in Scotland.

dition to this, about the year 1750, the British Linen Company established their first bleachfield here, under the patronage of Lord Milton. Dunbar, author of the "Golden Terge," and the "Thiftle and the Rofe," was born in this parish in 1465. He was in the early part of life a friar, but his poems having attracted the Royal attention, he became a favourite at court, and relinquished the profeflion of a monk. This parish too gave birth to that celebrated statesman Fletcher of Salton, who was fome years the pupil of Bishop Burnet; alfo to his nephew, the patriotic Lord Milton, to whom Scotland was fo inuch indebted, during the tur SALTON parifh, about 4 miles S. bulent crifis 1745. Befides fituation, W. from Haddington, lies adjoining to Salton has other fingular advantages, a Ormistoun. It contains about 830 in- a dry and temperate climate, being off habitants. The foil is, upon the whole, the fea breeze, fo chilling in the lower fertile, confifting of loam, or a rich part of this country, and plenty of coal. clay, though in many places this varies and lime, with abundance of freestone. to a fandy or thin clayey bottom, but In the pleasure grounds of Salton there it is all, in general, well cultivated. is a mineral fpring, refembling a good Salton-hall, the feat of Gen. Fletcher, deal the Bristol waters.-Adjoining to Salton on the north, lies

* The common way of distinguishing a Danish or English camp from a Roman one is, that the former are round or oval, the latter fquare.

PENCAITLAND, being nearly 4 miles in length and 3 in breadth, having a branch of the Tyne running through it.

t

It contains about 1030 inhabitants, and half of the parish is moorifh, the foil produces of real rent fomething more being a thin clay, but the reft is good than 3000l. Sterling. The foil is, in and fertile. There is freeftone in the general, clayey and wet, and farming parith, but no other mineral has hitherbut indifferently performed; the high- to been difcovered.-S. East from Moreft rent is 36s. per acre. Coal and lime ham, the parish of abound in this diftrict. There is alfo abundance of free ftone, and in many places mineral fprings, but which have never been properly analyzed.-In going eastward, we meet with

BOLTON parish, ftretching near 6 miles, but whofe breadth is only 1: It contains only about 235 inhabitants, and yields nearly 1400l. of rent yearly. The grofs number of acres may be 2300, of which 170 are plantation. The ground is not naturally fertile, except on the banks of the Tyne; the greater part is clayey and late. There have been no minerals discovered here; some attempts were made to find coal, but in vain. Almost the whole of the parish is the property of Lord Blantyre.-Next to Bolton, lies

YESTER parish, being about 3 miles long and 2 broad, and containing nearly 800 fouls. The real rent of this parish amounts to about 2000l. per annum. The foil of this parith is, in general, poor and unproductive, and what is fomewhat remarkable, the beft land lies at the foot of the Lamermuir hills, but is by no means a deep foil. There is a good deal of fine wood belonging to the Marquis of Tweeddale in this parish, and the water of Gifford, a branch of the Tyne, runs through it. There is abundance of freeftone in this parish, a great part of which is of a deep red colour. Dr John Witherspoon, Prefident of the College of New Jerfey, and Dr Charles Nifbet, Prefident of the College of Carlisle, in America, are both natives of this parifh. Yefter houfe, the refidence of the Tweeddale family, is a handfome manfion.-A little to the north of Yefter lies

MORHAM parish, the smallest, perhaps, both in point of extent and population in Scotland. It contains about 140 acres, rented at about 8ool. Sterling, and 190 inhabitants. Nearly one

GARVALD ftretches along the foot of the Lammermuir hills for nearly 9 miles; the breadth is from 3 to 4, containing about you inhabitants. Towards the hills the ground is a thin gravel covered with heather. The low grounds are either a light arable foil, or a deep and fertile clayey bottom, yielding fine It rents at from 10s. to 25s. per acre. There is great abundance of red fandftone here, but no other mineral has been discovered. The face of the country is very rugged and uneven in this quarter.-Eaftward from Garvald lies

crops.

WHITTINGHAM par ifh, which runs alfo into the Lammermuir hills. Its length is between 10 and 11 miles, and greateft breadth from E. to W. about 4, and contains 655 inhabitants. The moor here is bleak and barren, but the low ground is fertile and well cultivated. Traprane law rifing in the middle of an extenfive plain, commands a noble profpect.

Near the foot of it stands Hailes Caftle, noted for the refidence of Mary and Bothwell. The remains of a Danish camp are shown here, and may be diftinctly traced. Free stone is the only mineral met with. Whit tingham is the family feat of Hay of Drummelzier. Adjoining is

STENTON parifh, nearly 3 miles in length, and 3 in breadth, independent of a wing which ftretches into the Lanmermuir hills. It contains 624 perfons. The foil is, in general, good, part being clayey, and part light and fandy, moftly all covering gravel or fand-ftone, of which there is great abundance here. The country is open and beautiful.-Going in a fouth-eaft direction, we find the parish of

SPOTT, extending into the Lammermuir hills; it is about 10 miles long and 5 in breadth, containing about 620 inhabitants. The lower part of this pa

rith

that much admired poem, was written eastward of the burgh, that Parliament
by Mr Blair, minifter of this parish, and was conveened July 7th 1548, during
father to R. Blair, Efq; his Majefty's the fiege of the town, which gave con-
Solicitor General for Scotland. It is fent to Queen Mary's marriage with the
well known that the author of the Tra- Dauphin, and to her being educated at
gedy of Douglas was feveral years paf- the court of France. Every Friday
tor here. Gilmerton, the property of there is at Haddington one of the beit
Sir G. Kinloch, is the only feat of note corn-markets in Scotland. There has
in this parish.
been no coal difcovered in this parith,
though there is abundance of fand-
ftone, and both lime and coal within 4
miles of Haddington.

HADDINGTON, the county town of
Eaft Lothian, lies 17 miles east of E-
dinburgh, and is the firft ftage on the
great poft road from thence to London. GLADSMUIR, about twelve miles from
It is a neat well built town, fituated Edinburgh on the east road to London.
on the river Tyne. The greatest extent The ground here forms a fort of ridge,
of the parish is nearly 6 miles both ways. gradually floping towards the Frith of
It contains 12,000 acres of land, and a- Forth on the north, and the river Tyne
bout 4000 inhabitants. The ground is on the fouth; the fummit of which, is
very muirish toward the western part, a ftiff barren clay, but becomes fertile
though the whole parish is arable, ex- as you defcend on either fide, particu
cepting a few particular fpots of little larly on the north. This parish, com
extent. The greater part of this parish prehends about 6000 acres, one half
is well inclufed, and in a high state of of which only is in tillage. The rent
cultivation. The real rent is about is about 4500l. fterling, and it contains
8oool. Sterling; the ground near the 1380 inhabitants. There is great a
town fets from 50s, to 31. per acre. bundance of coal in this quarter. This
The town is very ancient; the parish parish gave birth to the noted George
church is a venerable ftructure, and Heriot, founder of the hofpital and
appears to have been built in the 12th
or 13th century. It is only in the weft
end that worship is performed; all the
rest is a ruin. In a corner of this ftruc-
ture there is the burying place of the fa-
mily of Maitland, who for many ages
TRANENT is about 8 miles from E-
poffeffed Lethington, now the feat of dinburgh, alfo on the East London road;
Lord Blantyre. In this aifle there are the length is about 6, and the breadth
feveral marble ftatues of the Dukes of about 3 miles, containing nearly 2,496
Lauderdale, as large as life, lying in inhabitants. The whole of this parith
beds of ftate. There are feveral agree may be reckoned arable, though part is
able feats in this parish; the most re- ftill lying in a wasted state. The low
markable is Amisfield, belonging to ground towards the fea lets. at from
the Earl of Wemyfs: In the gallery 40s. to 50s. per acre, and the higher
there are many fine paintings, by the ground, which is a clayey foil, at from
first masters, particularly Vertumnus 15s. to 20s. the whole producing about
and Pomona, by Rubens, valued at 5,570l. per annum. There are three
800 guineas, The beautiful eftates of confiderable coalieries in this sparishe
Adderstone, Letham, and Clerkington, the largest feam is 9 feet, and lies about
are all in the immediate vicinity of the
town. The famous John Knox the Re-
former was a native of this parish
the house where he was born in Gif

1

fordgate, is Aill fhown. It was at the Abbey of Haddington, about a mile

Dr William Robertson, the hiftorian of
Scotland, and Principal of the Univer
fity of Edinburgh, was paftor of it, and
compoled his Hiftory of Scotland while
here.

30 fathoms below the furface. Not
far from Tranent ftand the ruins of Se-
ton-houfe, the once princely residence
of the Earls of Wintown.com i zru
(To be continued.)bas keinser

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

MINUTES OF AGRICULTURE.

FROM SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS," BY MR MARSHALL. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 329.

[ocr errors]

MANAGEMENT OF ESTATES.

Under the feudal fyftem.-The ma nagement of eftates, as landed property, could be but little attended to the poffeffion itself depended too often on force of arms, rather than on legal right, and it was more neceffary to train the tenantry to war than to rural improvements. On the large eftates of the Chieftains, an officer under the name of Chamberlain, was at once minister, general, and manager of the estate.

[ocr errors]

Under thefe circumftances, and particularly in the times of difturbance," the tenants might be faid to be in full poffeffion of their respective holdings; neither their chieftain nor his chamberlain dared to remove them, nor even to check their evil practices ;-fuch as cutting down timber and other wood; not only for building and implements, but for its bark, (it being recently the practice for every man to tan leather for his own confumption,) leaving the difbarked wood perhaps to rot in the place. of its growth; circumstances in themfelves fufficient to account for the decay of forefts, and the prefent naked nefs of the country, in places remote from the refidences of chieftains; where respect, if not fear, might check fuch baneful depredations.

Nor, under thefe circumftances, could any plan of improvement be profecuted, even during times of greater tranquillity, for the length of the day of peace was uncertain; and a good foldier, or a fool-hardy defperado, was of more value than a good hufbandman. Indeed the works of agriculture in those warEke times, were neceffarily carried on in a great measure by the women: a circumftance which accounts for their prefent habits of labour and industry.

And another neceffary confequence ef those extraordinary circumftances was ftill more fubverfive of improvements, and more lafting in its effects. The farms were divided and fubdivided VOL. LVIIL

to make room for a greater number of foldiers, and were thus frittered down to the atoms in which they are now found, and the country burdened with a load of tenantry, which has hitherto been confidered as a bar, even under a change of circumstances, to the profecution of any rational plan of management.

The larger eftates are divided into Officiaries, each confifting of an ancient barony, er of an arbitrary modern divifion, better fuited to the prefent circumftances of the estate.

On the banks of Loch Tay, these officiaries contain from one to three fquare miles of valley lands each, with their proportion of hill, comprising from ten to twenty "towns" or farms; each farm, or petty town-fhip, being fubdivided into farmlets; generally from two to fix or eight in number; or in fome few inftances the farms remain entire, or have been brought back to their original entirely.

In each of thefe officiaries refides a Ground Officer, generally a principal tenant, whofe office is fomewhat fimilar to that of the bailiff of an English manor, but more extenfive and more ufeful: he not only diftributes orders or notices, from the lord or factor to the tenants, but fees the fervices performed (from which he is himself exempt,) the roads kept in repair, the removal of tenants, the fettling of difputes, the forwarding of difpatches, &c.

Alfo, in each officiary are Birley men, fworn appraisers or valuers; who are called in by the ground officer (at the requeft of the manager) to settle difputes between the landlord and the tenants, or between tenant and tenant.

Thefe petty inquefts are extremely convenient upon an extensive estate, and might be well introduced (in their prefent, or in an improved form) upon the larger eftates of the ifland in general. The feveral officers being refident within their refpective officiaries, know the 3 G

parties

« ZurückWeiter »