Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

GLADSMUIR,

bout 4000

that much admired poem, was written eastward of the burgh, that Parliament by Mr Blair, minister of this parish, and was conveened July 7ch 1548, during fáther to R. Blair, Efq; his Majesty's the fiege of the town, which gave conSolicitor General for Scotland. It is sent to Queen Mary's marriage with the well known that the author of the Tra- Dauphin, and to her being educated at gedy of Douglas was several years paf- the court of France. Every Friday tor here. Gilmerton, the property of there is at Haddington one of the best Sir G. Kinloch, is the only seat of note corn-markets in Scotland. There las in this parish.

been no coal discovered in this parith, HADDINGTON, the county town of though there is abundance of fand: East Lothian, lies 17. miles east of E- stone, and both ủime and coal within 4 dinburgh, and is the first ftage on the miles of Haddington. great post road from thence to London.

about twelve miles from It is a neat well built town, situated Edinburgh on the east road to London. on the river Tyne. The greatest extent The ground here forms a sort of ridge, of the parish is nearly 6 miles both ways. gradually sloping towards the Frith of It contains 12,000 acres of land, and 2. Forth on the north, and the river Tyne

inhabitants. The ground is on the south ; the summit of which, is very, muirish toward the western part, a fiff barren, clay, but becomes fertile though the whole parish is arable, ex: as you descend on either side, particug cepting a few particular spots of little larly on the north. This parish coma extent. The greater part of this parish prehends about 6000 acres, one halę is well inclused, and in a high state of of which oniy is in tillage. The create cultivation. The real rent is about is about 45ool. sterling, and it contains, town sets from me ground near the 1380 inhabitants. There is great as

;

to 31. per acre. bundance of coal in this quarter. This The towe is very ancient; the parish parih gave birth to the nated George church is a venerable structure, and Heriot, founder of the hospitals aed appears to have been built in the 12th Dr William Robertson, the historian of or 13th century. It is only in the welt Scotland, and Principal of the Univere end that worship, is performed ; all the fity of Edinburgh, was pastor of it, and relt is a ruin. In a corner of this struc- compoled his History of Scotland while ture there is the burying place of the fa- here. mily of Maitland, who for many ages

TRANENT is about 8 miles from Epossessed Lethington, now the seat of dinburgh, also on the East London road; Lord Blantyre. In this aifle there are the length is about 6, and the breaddi several marble statues of the Dukes of about 3 miles, containing nearly 2,496 Lauderdale, as large as life, lying is inhabitants. The whole of this.

parith beds of state. There are several agree. may be reckoned arable, though part is able seats in this parish ; the most re- ftill lying in a water state. The low markable is Amisfield, belonging to ground towards the sea lets at frumy the Earl of Wemyss ; In the gallery. 405. 10 508. per acre, and the higher there are many fine paintings, by the ground, which is a clayey soil, at from first masters, particularly Vertumnus 155. to 203. the whole producing about and Pomona, by: Kubens, valued at 5,570l. per annum. There are three 800 guincas, The beautiful estates of considerable coalieries in this parichy Adderstone, Lethani, and Clerkington, the largest feam is 9 feet, and lies above are all in the immediate vicioity of the 30 fathoms below the surface. :e Not town. The famous John Knox the Re: far from Tranent staod the ruins of Seformer was a native of this parish; ton-house, the once .princely. relidende the house where he was born in Gife of the Earls of Wintown. dal 29 fordgate, is fill thown. It was at

(To be continued.)bos .410217 the Abbey of Haddington), about a milę

Dr. 2599 MI.

[ocr errors]

FROM

MINUTES OF AGRICULTURE.
SURVEY OF THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS," BY MR MARSHALL.

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 329. MANAGEMENT OF ESTATES. to make room for a greater number of Under the feudal system. The ma. soldiers, and were thus frittered down nagement of estates, as landed property, to the atoms in which they are now could be but little attended to: the pol. found, and the country burdened with feffion itfelf depended too often on force a load of tenantry, which has hitherto of arms, rather than on legal right, and been considered as a bar, even under a it was more necessary to train the tenan- change of circumstances, to the profecutry to war than to rural improvements. tion of any rational plan of management.

On the large estates of the Chieftains, The larger estates are divided into an officer under the name of Chamber. Officiaries, each consisting of an ancient lain, was at once minister, general, and barony, cr of an arbitrary modern dimanager of the estate.

vision, better suited to the present ciro Under these circumstances, and par- cumstances of the estate. licularly in the times of disturbance, On the banks of Loch Tay, these the tenants might be said to be in full officiaries contain from one to three poffeffion of their respective holdings; square miles of valley lands each, with neither their chieftain nor his chamber- their proportion of hill, comprising lain dared to remove them, nor even from teo to twenty “towns” or farms; to check their evil practices ;-such as each farm, or petty town-fhip, being cutting down timber and other wood; subdivided into farmlets ; generally from tot only for building and implements, two to fix or eight in nunber; or in but for its bark, (it being recently the fome few instances the farms remain enpractice for every man to tan leather for tire, or have been brought back to their his own consumption,) leaving the dif- original entirely. barked wood perhaps to rot in the place In each of these officiaries resides a of its growth; circumstances in them- Ground Officer, generally a principal selves fufficient to account for the dee' tenant, whose office is somewhat similar cay of forests, and the present naked to that of the bailiff of an English maness of the country, in places remote nor, but more extensive and more usefrom the residences of chieftains ; where ful: he not only distributes orders or respect, if not fear, might check such notices, from the lord or factor to the baneful depredations..

tenants, but fees the services performed Nor, under these circumstances, could (from which he is himself cxempt.) any plan of improvement-be profecuted, the roads kept in repair, the removal even during times of greater tranquillity, of tenants, the settling of disputes, the for the length of the day of peace was forwarding of dispatches, &c. uncertain ; and a good foldier, or a Also, in each officiary are Birley fool-hardy desperado, was of more va- men, sworn appraisers or valuers ; who lue than a good husbandman. Indeed are called in by the ground officer (at the works of agriculture in those war- the request of the manager) to settle like times, were neceffarily carried on disputes between the landlord and the in a great measure by the women: a tenants, or between tenant and tenant. circumstance which accounts for their These petty inquests are extremely prefent habits of labour and industry. convenient upon an extensive estate, and

And aaother neceffery consequence might be well introduced (in their preef those extraordinary circumstances fent, or in an improved form) upon the was ftill more subversive of improve- larger estates of the island in general, menis, and niore lasting in its effects. The feveral officers being resident withThe farms were divided and subdivided in their respective officiaries, know the VOL. LVIIL

3 G

parties

[ocr errors]

parties and the matters in dispute more State of Husbandry.-After the curintimately than any large proprietor, or fory view which I took of the Highlands any agent of a large estate possibly can : in the summer of 1792, I left it with iand if a manager distinguish properly be- deas rather favourable to its state of cultween the useful information they are tivation. The corn, before I reached capable of giving him, and the partia. this part of the Highlands, had grown lities which they must neceffarily form tall enough to hide weeds; the braes among the tenantry, he may, on many were green, and through the moistness occasions, render them highly beneficial of the season full of grass; the sheep were to the due performance of his charge, upon the hills ; and the cattle which I which, where the happiness of thoufands saw were full of condition. depends more or less on his conduct, But in the more deliberate survey is a thing of no light importance. of last year, fresh facts arose, especially

Tenancy. The nature of the hold, in the spring season. In the latter end or occupancy of the Highland tenants, of April, and the early part of May, is principally that of tenant at will, the country exhibited the most defolate holding from year to year. If Jeases and distressing picture. Not the faintest or tacks, as they are called, be granted appearance of greenness, nor even blade

f years, the term is generally of pasturable herbage to be detected, exone or more nineteen years, a number cepe in the parks and paddocks of men which one would think nothing but ca- of fortune, or the farms of the few fuprice would have rendered customary. perior managers; and here the clover Life leases, too, are granted, or have and rye:grafs were already in full bite (a been granted, in Scotland ; perhaps for most interesting fact !) while the counthree lives and a nineteen years, or three try at farge, under the old fyftem of nineteen

years
and a life.

management, lay a mere waste; nothing Rent. The rate of rent varies much to be seen but stones and dry blades of on different estates. The smaller estates couch grass, or other pallid remains may have been raised to fomething near of unpalturable herbage ; the pasture and their real value : but the farger, I be- meadow lands gnawed to the quick, and lieve, remain at rents much below the strewed with the dead carcases of theep, real value of their respective foils ; even lying a disgrace and nuisance to the when the difadvantages of situation and country: their wool wasting away with climate are taken into the estimate. their carcases, as if their owners were Nevertheless, it appears equally evident; ashamed to claim it. The cattle, too, that while the present state of things were in a starving state: fome actually remains, while the holdings remain so starved; others barely able to crawl out fimall, so inconvenient, fo exposed and of the way of the passenger : calves, and fo uncertain as to poffefsion as they are perhaps a few young sheep, nibbling off at present, estates in general may be said the feedling blades of oats ; and the to be at rack rent. No man could wish most active of the cattle running after to see the occupiers of lands in a lower the plough and 'harrow, striving for the state than are at present the fmaller te- roots of the weeds turned up, their alvants of the Highlands ; indeed, were most only means of fubfi:fence. But their holdings free they could not the season had been more than afually through their means enjoy the common severe, and the deaths and distresses comforts of life equally with the day la somewhát" more than is usuallysesåpebourers of other diftricts.

rienced. ribor 2017 itt rymoniy Formerly the rents' were paid in In the beginning of July, the face of kind, as grain, poultry, &c.; and still the country was not lels striking than it what are called " victual or rents in had been in the early part of May. The grain;" are paid, but “ money rents” colour of it had changed from the fickly are becoming yearly more prevalent.

hue

hue which has been described, to the the North of England and Lowlands most vivid assemblage of tints; beauti. manner. I have seen a small patch ful to the traveller, but destructive to planted on unploughed ground, in (halthe occupier, and disgraceful to the low trenches or grooves made with a country. Oats universally hid under a Highland spade;" a rude implement canopy of weeds in blow, the wild with which the balks and interspaces mustard, and the corn marygold predo- between stones, &c. which the plough minant; the spurrey, the corn scabions, cannot move, are turned over; the and the thistle were next in prevalency; ground, it may be faid, is never comwith a numerous tribe of minor weeds. pletely stirred; the foil is rarely free The

every year lands (as they are cal- from hidden stones, besides the teams led) of Gloucester, may be said to be are weak, and the ploughmen bad; clean, compared with those of Breadal. leaning the plough too much to the left, bane. Some of the oats, it is true, o- or unploughed ground ; scratching the vercame the weeds, and in their turn surface rather than ploughing. overtopped them, thus gaining the ap- Nothing seems more extraordinary in pearance of a tolerable crop, while on the Highland practice, to a straoger, thers were chiefly wholly (mothered be than the time of fowing. In a country neath the ripening crop of weeds; and where the climate is spoken of as its the only circumstance which saved the greatest disadvantage, one would reasonbeet from the fame disgrace was its ably expect early fowing, to endeavour i being sown a month too late. Husban- to counteract this natural defe&t ; or in dry perhaps never appeared in a lower other words, to prevent the evils of a state, than that in which it is here found: late harvest ; one of the loudest comI mean among the smaller tenantry of plaints of the country. Nevertheless, the Highland estates ; a few of the lar- beer, which might be Town with respect ger farms, even of the ordinary tenants, to climate, the latter end of April or are exceptions from this prevalent dif- the beginning of May, is, in the ordinary grace ; nevertheless, nine-tenths of the pra&ice of the country, fown the latter tenanted lands may be said to be involv. end of May, or in the beginning, or ed in it.

perhaps in the middle, of June ; at least A minute detail of such management a month later than in England. The would be ill placed in this report ; it only reason I have ever heard given for belongs rather to the antiquary to record this custom is, that the beer, if sown that such a state of husbandry once ex. early, would, like the oats, be smotheritted; nevertheless, as a ground work ed in weeds; and under the ordinary of improvement, it may be right to ad- management of the smaller tenantry, duee a few leading facts.

under which the land has been cropped The arable crops are chiefly oats, and alternately with pats and beer, for ages. “ beer,” or big, namely, the square without respite, and without an intercared, or four-rowed barley. Wheat vening fallow or fallow crop, the reais not attempted, Sorae peas, however, soning may be good; there needs nos have, I believe, been always grown ; however, a better argument to Mow, (chiefly as winter fodder for horses,) and that the present system of management of late years potatoes and flax. is improper, and ought to be changed. 4 The Tillage of the Highlands is in- The Summer management of Crops, v. tolerable: no fallows the foil ploughed is chiefly confined to flax and potatoes.

fonce for pats, and twice or thrice for “ Lint” is wecded with great care, beer (the first a half ploughing ; pro- by women on their knees or haunches,

vincially, and properly enough, "rib- picking out every weed. Potatoes, too, obing.") Potatocs are cultivated in are kept tolerably, clean; and the grai TOWS, and mostly with the plough, .in

crops

1

3 G 2

crops have sometimes the thistles picked II. Use every means of supplying, out. Nevertheless, taking one year by art, the natural defects of climature. with another, the quantity of weed seeds III. Reclaim the foil from its premust be nearly equal to that of the grain sent state of rudeness, and endeavour produced. In some of the oat crops of to render every part of it productive. 1793, the proportion of produce must IV. Adapt the productions (whehave been greatly on the side of the ther vegetable or animal) to the foil, weeds.

the climature, and the present number The business of Harvest is well con- of the inhabitants, taken jointly. ducted, the women in this, as in other And V. Let the subordinate branch. employments, are attentive and labo- es of improvement grow out of those rious.' Oats and beer are universally leading principles, which I shall con« 'shorn” with sickles, and mostly by sider as the ground-work of these prowomen, who cut low, level, and clean, posals. to a degree I have never before observe Inhabitants. The argument which ed. These crops are harvested either has been held, about whether the Highin sheaves or stocks of twelve, two of lands should be inhabited by the human them being used as hoods, in the ordi- species or by sheep, can have no fufficient nary manner ; or in " gaits," namely, ground until the country be rendered fingle sheaves tied near the top, and set fully productive, and fit for the supporti? upon their buts, spread abroad for the of either. At present it may be faid to purpose of giving them the requisite lie in a state of wildness, not unfimilar firmness, agreeably to the practice of to that of the wilds of America ;rtand: the North of England,

certainly the proper time for retrieving 2 In the harvesting of Lint, one par- it from a state so disgraceful to a civis ? ticulár is observable; the capfales-- lized nation, is, while there are people provincially bolls, or " bows,”-are in it. For, should the Highlands of pulled off in the field, previously to the Scotland be once depopulated, it might Items being carried to the steeping-pit. be found difficult to re-people then,

The operation is performed by ineans The present race of inhabitants, it is of a large wooden comb fixed in a box, true, have an extraordinary attachment the upper parts of the lint being drawn to their native foil ; but this is a species through the teeth, as through a flax- of attachment which cannot be formed dreffer's tool, the bolls dropping into the by a stranger; whom it might be found box. These bolls are dried, and laid difficult to induce hereafter to take up up'as Winter provender for cows ; or his abode in a depopulated, neglected, if the feeds be sufficiently matured, they mountainous country, unless he tvere are sold to the oil mills.

led into it by excessive encouragement. Lint is now universally dreffed with Hence, to depopulate the coopery in its mills, which have been several years in present state, would not only be cruel, troduced into the Highlands. Indeed, but impolitic. in the management of the flax crop, Climature. The natural defects of throughout, the Highlands may be said the Climature of the Highlands, are, to excel. Its culture is altogether mo- The severity of Winter.

it the dern, the best mode of management

The backwardness of Spring. was therefore the more easily introduced, The lateness of the Harveft. 1119 diena as there were no prejudices to be got Soften the severities of Winter, byl rid of.

fheltering the lower farms with Isreenuo PRINCIPLES OF IMPROVEMENT. plantations, and by dividing them intori

I. Permit the present inhabitants to small inclosures, with well-trained hedgesel Temain in the country, and to endea- Protect the wintering grounds of the your to make it the interest of every one sheep farms, by limilar plantations och galift in its improvement.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« ZurückWeiter »