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hue which has been described, to the the North of England and Lowlands most vivid assemblage of tints; beauti- manner. I have seen a small patch ful to the traveller, but destructive to planted on unploughed ground, in Thalthe occupier, and disgraceful to the low trenches or grooves made with a country. Oats universally hid under a Highland spade;" a rude implement canopy of weeds in blow, the wild with which the balks and interspaces mustard, and the corn marygold predo- between stones, &c. which the plough minant;, the spurrey, the corn scabions, cannot move, are turned over; the and the thistle were next in prevalency; ground, it may be said, is never comwith a numerous tribe of minor weeds. pletely stirred; the foil is rarely free The every year lands (as they are cal. from hidden stones, besides the teams led) of Gloucester, may be said to be are weak, and the ploughmen bad; clean, compared with those of Breadal. leaning the plough too much to the left, bane. Some of the oats, it is true, o. or upploughed ground ; scratching the vercame the weeds, and in their turn surface rather than ploughing. overtopped them, thus gaining the ap- Nothing seems more extraordinary in pearance of a tolerable crop, while o- the Highland practice, to a stranger, thers were chiefly wholly fmothered be than the time of fowing. In a country neath the ripening crop of weeds; and where the climate is spoken of as its the only circumstance which saved the greatest disadvantage, one would reasonbeet from the same disgrace was its ably expect early fowing, to endeavour being sown a month too late. Husban- to counteract this natural defect ; or in - dry perhaps never appeared in a lower other words, to prevent the evils of a sultate, than that in which it is here found: late harvest ; one of the loudest comI mean among the smaller tenantry of plaints of the country. Nevertheless, the Highland estates ; a few of the lar. beer, which might be lown with respect ger farms, even of the ordinary tenants, to climate, the latter end of April or are exceptions from this prevalent dis- the beginning of May, is, in the ordinary grace ; nevertheless, nine-tenths of the practice of the country, fown the latter tenanted lands may be said to be involv. end of May, or in the beginning, or ed in it.
perhaps in the middle, of June ; at least A minute detail of such management a month later than in England. The would be ill placed in this report; it only reason I have ever heard given for belongs rather to the antiquary to record this custom is, that the beer, if sown that such a state of husbandry once ex- early, would, like the oats, be smotheritted; nevertheless, as a ground work ed in weeds; and under the ordinary of improvement, it may be right to ad- management of the smaller tenantry, duce a few leading facts.
under which the land has been cropped The arable croys are chiefly oats, and alternately with pats and beer, for ages. “ beer," or big, namely, the square. without respite, and without an intercared, or four-rowed barley. Wheat vening fallow or fallow crop, the rea
not attempted. Sorae peas, however, foning may be good; there needs nos have, I believe, been always grown ; however a better argument to how, (chiefly as winter fodder for horses,) and that the present system of management of Jate years potatoes and fax.'; is improper, and ought to be changed. 9 The Tillage of the Highlands is in The Summer management of Crops, tolerable: no fallow; the foil ploughed. is chiefly confined to filax and potatoes. once for pats, and twice or thrice for “ Line" is wecded with great care, beer (the first a half ploughing : pro. by women on their knees -or-haunches,
vincially, and properly enough, " rib- picking out every weed. Potatoes, too, obing.") Potatoes are cultivated ia are kept tolerably, clean; and the grai TOWS, and mostly with the plough, in
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crops have sometimes the thistles picked II. Use every means of supplying, out. Nevertheless, taking one year by art, the natural defects of climature. with another, the quantity of weed seeds III. Reclaim the foil from its premust be nearly equal to that of the grain sent state of rudeness, and endeavour produced. In some of the oat crops of to render every part of it productive. 1793, the proportion of produce must IV. Adapt the productions (whehave been greatly on the side of the ther vegetable or animal) to the foil, weeds.
the climature, and the present number The business of Harvest is well con- of the inhabitants, taken jointly. ducted, the women in this, as in other And V. Let the subordinate branchemployments, are attentive and labo- es of improvement grow out of thosc rious." Oats and beer are universally leading principles, which I shall con« fhorn" with fickles, and mostly by sider as the ground-work of these prowomen, who cut low, level, and clean, posals. to a degree I have never before obfery Inhabitants. The argument which ed. These crops are harvested either has been held, about whether the Highin sheaves or stocks of twelve, two of lands should be inhabited by the human them being used as hoods, in the ordi- species or by sheep, can have no sufficient nary manner; or in "gaits," namely, ground until the country be rendered fingle fheaves tied near the top, and set fully productive, and fit for the support / upon their buts, spread abroad for the of either. At present it may be said to purpose of giving them the requisite lie in a state of wildness, not unfimilar: irmness, agreeably to the practice of to that of the wilds of America ; tand: 1: the North of England.
certainly the proper time for retrieving In the harvesting of Lint, one par- it from a state lo disgraceful to a civis? ticular is observable; the capsules-- lized nation, is, while there are people provincially bolls, or " bows,”-are in it. For, should the Highlands of pulled off in the field, previously to the Scotland be once depopulated, it might Items being carried to the steeping-pit. be found difficult to re-people iben,
The operation is performed by incans The present race of inhabitants, it is", of a large wooden comb fixed in a box, true, have an extraordinary attachment; the upper parts of the lint being drawn to their native foil ; but this is a species through the teeth, as through a flax- of attachment which cannot be formed dresser's tool, the bolls dropping into the by a stranger; whom it might be found box.' These bolls are dried, and laid difficult to induce hereafter to take, up up'as Winter provender for cows; or his abode in a depopulated, neglected, if the feeds be sufficiently matured, they mountainous country, unless he tvere are sold to the oil mills,
led into it by excessive encouragement. Lint is now universally dreffed with Hence, to depopulate the cocptry in its mills, which have been several years in- present state, would not only be cruel, troduced into the Highlands. Indeed, but impolitic. in the management of the flax crop, Climature. The patural defects of throughout, the Highlands may be said the Climature of the Highlands, are, to excel. Its culture is altogether mo The severity of Winter. dern, the best mode of management
The backwardness of Springvingen was therefore the more easily introduced, The lateness of the Harvestindo as there were no prejudices to be got Soften the severities of Winter, byl rid of.
fheltering the lower farms with freeno PRINCIPLES OF IMPROVEMENT, plantations, and by dividing them intari
1. Permit the present inhabitants to small inclosures, with well-trained hedgesoril remain in the country, and to endea- Protect the wintering grounds of the your to make it the interest of every one theep farms, by Limilar plantations et 19 Gift in its improvement.
raise furze, broom, juniper, or other him there by suitable inducements. Wiatevergreen thrubs, within the shelter of ever example required to be introduced, those plantations; and keep the more and whatever new to be tried, furnish exposed párt
of the wintering ground in him with the means of executing his a full bite of herbage, previous to the design. If an improvement in the approach of winter.
breeds of stock be required, furnith him The great difficulty of introducing im- with a male, and perhaps females, of provements in agriculture, among men the best quality. If a new fpecies or prejudiced in favour of ancient prace variety of crop, a new implement or otices, is that of setting them examples, peration, be thought fit to be tried, in such a way as to convince them, that conside the trial to him, and if it fuccertain profit accrues to men of their ceed, let him fhow the result to his owth class, from the alteration. The neighbours, and instruct them, if reimprovements of men of fortune, though qucited, in the due culture, performance,
great and evident, are paried as or use of it. Thus, from the centre of. matters in which they have no concern. each officiary, the rays of improvement
Upon the Highland estates, and upon would expand; while, by furnishing estates dirided into officiaries, an eligi, the several officers with the same means ble mode of introduction feems evident. of improvement, an emulation among Make choice of a ground officer, who then would give each attempt a fair opis capable and willing to fet the requisite portunity of fuccefs; and by their joint examples; no matter where he is found, efforts, even the largelt dilate night be nob what encouragement within realon rapidly improved. is given him. Set out a fuitable farm
(To be Continued.) Dear the centre of his officiary, and fix
A NEW VIEW OF THE CITY OF COPENHAGEN ; WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHARACTER AND MANNERS OF THE DANES.
THE distance from Ellineur to Co- ments had reached this city ; but I foon peahagen is 22 miles; the road is very discovered that they were the asylum of good over a flat country diversified with many of the poor families who had wood, mostly beech, and decent man- been driven out of their habitations by fiohs There appeared to be a great the late fire. quantity of corn land ; and the soil Entering iyon after, I passed among looked mach mórc fertile than it is in the dust and rubbish it had left, affrightgeneral so near the sea. The rising ed by viewing the extent of the devaitagrounds indeed were very few; and a- . tion; for at least a quarter of the city round Copenhagen it is a perfect plain, bad been destroyed. There was little of course has nothing to recommend it, in the appearance of fallen bricks and but cultivation, not decorations. If I' ftacks of chimneys to allure the imasay that the houses did not disguft me, gination into focthing melancholy reI tell you all I remember of them ; for veries ; nothing to attract the eye of I cannot recollc& any pleasurable fenfa- taste; but much to afflict the benevolent tions they excited's or that any object, heart. The depredations of tine bave produced by nature or art, took me out always something in then to employ the of myself
. The view of the city, as we fancy, or lead to musing on subjects drew near, was rather grand, but wit!- which, withdrawing the mind from obout any Atriking feature to interest the jects of fense seem to give it new digni. imaginatior, excepting the trees which iy: but here I was treading on live shade the foot paths.
ashcs. The sufferers were fill under furt before I reached Copenhagen, 1 the pressure of the mifery occafioned by saw a number of, tents on a wide plain, this dreadful conflagration. I could not 29d fuppcfed that the rage for encamp- take refuge in the thought; they suffer
ed—but they are no more! a reflection them. To this the inhabitants would 1 frequently summon to calm my mind, not consent; and the Prince Royal not when Sympathy rises to anguish: I having fufficient energy of character to therefore desired the driver to haften to know when he ought to be absolute, the hotel recommended to me, that I calmly let them pursue their own course, might avert my eyes, and snap the train till the whole city seemed to be threaof thinking which had sent me into all tened with destruction. Adhering, with the corners of the city, in search of puerile serupulosity, to the law, which houreless heads. 1
he has imposed on himself, of acting This morning I have been walking exactly right, he did wrong by idly la. round the town, till. I am weary of ob- menting, while he marked the progress serving the ravages. I had often heard of a mischief that one decided step would the Danes, even those who had seen have stopt. He was afterwards obliged Paris and London, speak of Copenhagea to resort to violent measures ; but then
Certainly I have seen it who could blame him? And, to in a very disadvantageous light, some of avoid censure, what facrifices are not the best freets having been burnt and made by weak minds ! the whole place thrown into confusion. A gentleman, who was a witness of Suill the utmost that can, or could ever, the scene, assured me, likewise, that if I believe, have been said in its praise, the people of property had taken half as might be comprised in a few words. much pains to extinguish the fire, as to The streets are open, and many of the preserve their valuables and furniture, it houses large; but I saw nothing to would soon have been got under. But rouse the idea of elegance or grandeur, they who were not immediately in danif I except the circus where the King ger did not exert themselves fufficiently, and Prince Royal refide.
till fear, like an electrical fhock, roused The palace, which was consumed a- all the inhabitants to a sense of general bout two years ago, must have been a evil. Even the fire engines were out handsome spacious building : the stone- of order, though the burning of the work is still standing; and a great num- palace ought to have admonished them ber of the poor, during the late fire, of the neceslity of keeping them in contook refuge in its ruins, till they could stant repair. But this kind of indolence, find some other abode. Beds were respecting what does not immediately thrown on the landing places of the concern them, seems to characterize the grand staircase, where whole families Danes. A fluggish concentration in crept from the cold, and every little nook themselves makes them so careful to preis boarded up as a retreat for some poor ferve their property, that they will not creatures.deprived of their home. At venture on any enterprise to increase it, present a roof may be fu ficient to shelter in which there is a shadow of hazard. them from the night air ; but as the Considering Copenhagen as the capifeafon advances, the extent of the cala- tal of Denmark and Norway, I was furmity will be more severely felt, I fear, prised not to see so much industry or though the exertions on the part of go- taste as in Chriftiania. Indeed, from Fernment are very considerable. Private every thing I have bad an opportunity charity, bas also, no doubt, done much of observing, the Danes are the people to alleviate the misery which obtrudos who have made the fewest facrifices to itself at eserý turn ; ftill public spirit the graces. appears to me to be hardly alive' here. The men of business are domestic Had it existed, the conílagration might, tyrants, coldly immersed in theit own have been smothered in the beginning, affairs, and fo ignorant of tlietate of as it was at laft, by tearing down feve- other countries, they dogmatically affert Tal houses before the flames had reached that Denmark is the happiest country
in the world ; the Prince Royal the best before the people, ripe for the change, of all possible princes ; and Count Bern- had sufficient spirit to support him when storff the wiseft of ministers.
struggling in their behalf. Such indeed was As for the women, they are simply the asperity sharpened against her, that notable housewives ; without accom- I have heard her, even after so many plishments, or any of the charms that years have elapsed, charged with licenadorn more advanced social life. This tiousness, not only for endeavouring to total ignorance may enable them to save render the public'amusements more elesomething in their kitchens ; but it is gant, but for her very charities, because far from rendering thein better parents. the erected, among other institutions, an On the contrary, the children are spoilt ; hospital to receive foundlings. Difas they usually are, when left to the care gusted with many customs which pass of weak, indulgent mothers, who hav- for virtues, though they are nothing ing no principle of action to regulate more than observances of forms, often their feelings, become the flaves of in- at the expence of truth, she probably fants, enfeebliog both body and mind by ran into an error common to innovators, falle tenderness.
in wishing to do immediately what can I am perhaps a little prejudiced, as I only be done by time. write from the impression of the moment; Many very cogent reasons have been for I have been tormented to-day by the urged by her friends to prove, that her prefence of unruly children, and made affection for Struensee was never carried angry by some invectives thrown out a- to the length alledged againt her, by gainst the maternal character of the un. those who feared her influence.
Be fortunate Matilda. She was censured, that as it may, she certainly was not a with the most cruel insinuation, for her woman of gallantry; and if she had an management of her son ; though, froma attachment for him, it did not disgrace what I could gather, she gave proofs of her heart or understanding, the King good fense, as well as tenderness, in her being a notorious debauchee, and an attention to him. She used to bathe idiot into the bargain. As the King's bim herself every morning ; insisted on conduct had always been dire&ted by his being loosely clad; and would not some favourite, they also endeavoured permit his attendants to injure his dis to govern him, from a principle of selfgestion, by humouring his appetite. She preservation, as well as laudable ambiwas equally careful to prevent his ac. tion; but, not aware of the prejudices quiring haughty airs, and playing the they had to encounter, the system they tyrant in leading-strings. The Queen' adopted displayed more benevolence of Dowager would not permit her to fuckle heart than soundness of judgment; as him; but the next child being a daugh-' to the charge, still believed, of their ter, and not the heir apparent of the giving the King drugs to jojure his facrown, less opposition was made to her culties, it is too absurd to be refusted. discharging the duty of a mother.. Their opprcförs had better have accus
Poor Matilda! thou hast haunted me ed them of dabbling in the black art ; ever since my arrival ;' and the view I for the potent fpell stil keeps his wits have had of ihe manners of the country, in bondage. exciting my fympathy, has increased my I cannot describe to you the effect it respect for thy memory!
had on me to see this puppet of a mo13 sam now fully convinced that the narch moved by the strings which Count was the victim of the party the displa- Bernstorff holds falt; fit, with vacant
dedo/who would have overlooked, or en- eye, ereći, receiving the homage of q couraged, her attachment; had her lover courtiers, who mock him with a their enots aiming at being useful, attempted of refpeét. He is, in fact, merely a to crerthrow come established abuses machine of late, to subscribe the name