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in 1792, that upon Sunday morning, it the bottom of their baskets,” was their was the constant practice to make a usual expression. They brewed their double portion of porridge, one half of own ale, and were proud to bring a cup which was set by for the lupper meal, to cheer the heart of a friend, and to and, to keep warın during to long a hear their ale praised. Spiritous liquors Space, was put within side of a bed, and were unknown in their mansion. A carefully covered up with the clothes ; couple of swine, fed and flaughtered by and this was for the general accommo- themselves, supplied the family the whole cation of the three brothers, who each year with felh-meat, except occalionalwent to a separate religious meeting. ly fome neighbour might kill a beast for house, and the female domestic to a fale. Constant attenders upon divine fourth ; so that, when any one of the service, they brought home the texts of family came home, they might find im- the different preachers, and the news of mediate accommodation, by the meat the foregoing week. The eldest brother already dreffed.

would take an excursion, generally to These three brothers were men of the fair at Manchester, held upon Whitlanded property, had little society with Monday. He fauntered through the miankind, and lived chiefly upon the market for cattle, looked through the produce of their own land: they very stands erected for the display of toys for much depreciated the custom of selling fale, purchased a pennyworth of gingerbutter, to accommodate folks who in- bread, and regaled himself with a pint dulged in tea, an article which probably of ale, then returned home, and related pone of the three brothers ever tasted. the adventures of the day. « I wish the buttér may run through From Reports laid before the Board of

Agriculture.

COPY OF A LETTER FROM SIR JOHN LESSLY TO SIR

THOMAS RIDDLE. IT was written during the siege of Newcastle by the Scots, in the reign

of Charles I. Taken from the original in the posseshon of the Rid

dle family. SIR THAMAS,

kirk can weel witness, for these aught BETWEEN me and Gad it maks hundred years and mair bygaine, nought my heart bleed bleud to see fic wark shall skaith (i) your house within or withgae thro sae trim a gairden as yours. out, to the validome of a twapenny checI hae been twa times

we my cusin the kin. general, and sae fall I sax times mare I am your humble servant, afore the wark gae that gate. But (a)

John LESSLY, gine awe this be done, Sir Thamas, ye Major-general and captain over faxscore maun mak the twanty purds thretty, and ewa men, and some mare, crownand I maun hae the tagg'd tail trooper er of Cumberland, Northumberland, that stans in the staw (b), and the wee Marryland and Niddisdale, the Merce, trim gaeing thing (c) that ftans in the Tivioidale and Fife, bailie of Kirkanewk (d) of the hawe (e), chirping and die, governor of Brur.t Fland and the chirming at the newn tide o' the day, Bass, laird of Liberton, Tilly, and and forty bows (f) of bier to faw (8) Whooley, filer-tacker of Sterling, the mons with awe.

constable of Leith, and Sir John And as I am a chevalier of fortin, Lessly, Knight, to the bute (k) of and a lim of the house of Rothes, as the

awe that. nuckle (5) main kist in Edinburgh auld

(8) To strike the bargain. (b)' The great (a) Before. (6) Stable.

chest of records in Edinburgh old church. c) A chime clock. (d) Corner.

(i) Hurt or damage. (6) Into the bargain. 1e) Hall.

(8) Bolls of Barley.

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OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILITY OF DEFINING SYNONY

MOUS TERMS;
WITH SOME ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE LATIN,

BY JOHN HILL, L. L. D. F. R. S. ED.
From an Ejay in the Third Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society

of Edinburgh. WORDS that are precisely equiva. Latin fynonymous terms. As this kz, are rarely, if at all, to be met with is a subject to which, in the line of his s any language. Those properly called profeflion, he was led to give particular kronymous, exhibit one leading cir- attention, and as he confiders it to be cscistance in which they all agree, and of no fmall importance, to those who oce or more accessory circumstances, in wish to discriminate the slightest violawhich they differ. When the point tion of purity in the Roman language, of their general coincidence, and the he has made a very large collection of grounds of their particular diversities, its synonymous words, with remarks upare clearly ascertained, it is then in the on them. The following spscimen, of power of the writer to use them with the instances he has collected, he subpropriety. By the assistance of the gram- mits, with much diffidence, to this barian, he knows which to adopt and learned Society : which to reject, and can reconcile em Rogare, petere, poftulare, pofcere, ftabewichment with accuracy and preci- gitare, agree in denoting the expression Gon.

of a desire to obtain something not posThe excellence of any language may, sessed, but differ in respect to the ur. in a great measure, be judged of, by the gency with which this desire is announnumber of synonymous terms that be- ced. They are all diftinguished from Hong to it. A multiplicity of them, the verbs cupere, and optare, which, boder skilful management, creates no though not equivalent, suppose, like turtful redundancy. On the contrary, them, the existence of desire, but not i: enables every author of taste to ex. the expression of it, with a view to its Lois his thoughts with energy and luf. being fulfilled, tre. For the most delicate variety of The power of the verb rogare exhades in thought, he is furnished with tends no farther than to the simple ina corresponding variety in expression ; timation of desire. By means of it, a ad the language in which he conveys want is suggested to the person addressbis idea, becomes a complete picture of ed, of which he was before ignorant, the idea itself.

and both he and his petitioner are supThe author of this essay is abundant- posed conscious, that compliance with ke sensible, that though the Latin tongue the requeft must be voluntary, and the greens many clasies of synonymous effect of good will. “ Molestum verEers, yet to catch the circumstance on bum est, et onerosum, et demisso vultu which their differences relt, is no easy dicendum, rogo.

5. Malo emere quam matter, and may often leave room for rogare." diverfity of opinion. After a careful He who proposed a law in the Roexamination of the classical writers, he man comitia, and was then said rogare fufpects it will be found, that in the legem, presented his request respectfully, glow of composition, the strict distinc- and left it to the assembly to judge as tions between such words have not been to the expediency of granting it. always attended to, and that the prrest Petere differs from rogare, in supporwriters have, occasionally, deviated from ing a certain difficulty in coming at the the standard which their general prac- 'object defired, and a greater degree of tice had established. Still, however, keennefs, upon the part of the peritioner. be apprehends, that there is room for a “ Ad te confugimus, a te opem pelicritical and scientisic diseassion of the mus."--"Cum à me peteret et fumme VOL. LVIII.

F

con

non

contenderet, ut propinquum fuum de- obtaining the object, they were keen in fenderem.” _" Id sibi ut donaret, ro- the pursuit of it. gare et vehementer petere cæpit." In From a passage in Horace, it should the last example, the verbs rogare and seem, that any means for the acquisipetere are evidently contrasted. The tion of an object, that are less than colatter denotes a degree of zeal upon the ercive, may be expressed by the verb part of the person who asks, which the petere. former does not.

-Cæsar, qui cogere posset, The definition now given of petere Si peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam, does not correspond with that given by Servius. Petere," says he, “ eft Quidquam proficerct. cum aliquid humiliter, et cum precibus, Nothing more is suggested here by postulamus.” With all the respect due petere, than Cæsar's keenness to hear to so great a critic, it may be urged, this musician perform. It were absurd that this power of petere is not to be to suppose, that the Emperor, who pofdiscerned in the verb when taķen by it. sessed the power of compulsion, would self, though it may be expressed by ever stoop to beg the favour, accordwords with which it is occasionally ac. ing to Servius, “ humiliter et cum precompanied. Thus Cæsar, De Bello cibus.” Gallico, says, “ Suppliciterque locuti, Poftulare differs from petere, in as flentes pacem petiffent.—“ Pueri mu- far as it suggests neither keenness nor lieresque, paslis manibus, pacem ab Ro- difficulty in the acquisition of the obmanis petierunt.Nothing in either of jeet. Belides the sentiment of desire, those instances ferves to prove, that the which is common to all the five verbs keepness of the petitioner, which marks compared, the idea of claim, which is the verb, may not exist, independently manifestly not inherent in either of the of the manner in which the request is two former, is essential to poftulare, presented. The manner is, in fact, Upon a proper limitation of this claim, expressed by those terms that happen to however, a due apprehension of the be adjuncts to the verb.

power of the verb depends. Petere, from the Greek verb Tetw,

The distinctive character of poftulare, ferri, volare, shews its native force in seems to rest on the acknowledged

such derivatives as impetus and prepes. reasonableness of that which is demandIt seems to have originally expressed an ed. “ Geometræ solent non omnia effort to come at objects not within docere, fed polulare ut quædam fibi reach, and to have been transferred from concedantur, quo facilius quæ velint material objects to intellectual concep- explicent." When geometers require tions. Its primitive power appears in any concession of those they are about such instances as the two following : to instruct, they appeal to their reason, 66 Sciebam Catilinam non latus aut ven- and tacitly bind themselves to allow the trem, sed caput et collum petere folere.” validity of that which they require.

" Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva The axiom again, which is an undenipuella.”

able principle, carrying with itself its The power of petere, thus limited, own proof, is not to be confounded with appears to have been afterwards ex- the postulate or entreated maxim. Other tended, so as to express a desire, ac- philosophers, as well as mathematicians, companied with an effort to obtain any establish postulates, though often in obječt whatever; and thus the original terms less definite, and, of course, more idea of bodily exertion, was lost in that readily mistaken. “ M. Dafne igitur of the eagerness of any pursuit. Can- hoc, Pomponi, deorum immortalium didates for offices at Rome were said vi, natura, ratione, naturam eam regi? petere magistratus ; and from a sense of A. Do sane fi poftulas.the value, as well as of the difficulty of Cicero ulės the expression, “Impu

den

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Cicero, fays,

denter rogare, impudentisfime poftulare;" A sentiment of courage is supposed and thus intimates, that the indecency needful, when a petition, implying the which was culpable in the bare sugges. violation of fome private right, was to tion of a desire, as implied in the form- be presented. A matter of favour er verb, rose in a superlative degree, would, with an unbecoming boldness, when to this was superadded the idea have been held forth as a matter of right, of a claim, as implied in the latter. so that the person requested might re

It appears from Quintus Curtius, ject the petition, as being an insult to that the infolence of Darius, after a himself. severe defeat, provoked Alexander. The definition given by Varro, of He not only took to himself the ap- poscere, seems perfectly juft, except pellation of king, without giving it to only in as far as a compound is preposhis conqueror, but presented his re- terously taken to state the power of the quests in terms that became not his fic verb itself. Pofcere," says he, “ est tuation. The historian of Alexander quoties aliquid pro merito nostro deaccordingly says, “ Poftulabat autem pofcimus." Had the critic taken the magis quam petebat.

trouble, previously, to define “ depofPoscere agrees with poftulare, in fup- cere,” we should have been at no lofs posing, that the petitioner has a claim to understand his account of the simple to have his request granted; but it be- verb. His definition appears to be, in fides denotes, that he himself is entitled other respects, complete, as he fupto judge as to the validity of that claim, poses the petitioner possessed of the without regard to the opinion of the power of measuring the extent of what perfon requested, or to the acknowhe styles, « meritum.” ledged equity of the demand. Thus The different uses of the verb pofcerè,

" Nemo tam audax qui may be all reconciled with the definiposceret

, nemo tam impudens qui poftion now given, when it is applied to the tularet.” The pointed opposition made intercourse that takes place between man here, by the orator, between the two and man. In its application, however, verbs, shews clearly the meaning affix- to those petitions that were presented by ed by him to each. Impudence, he the ancients to their gods, its power tells us in the last clause, or a contempt becomes more mysterious. The ideá for the opinion of the world, who would of right is not easily reconciled with judge as to the propriety of the demand, that of fupplication ; fo that, according is all that would be needful for enabling to the definition given of the verb, those the petitioner to present it in the form who were said pofcere deos veniam, might denoted by poflulare. With regard to well be accused of profaneness. pofcere, however, the case is different. (To be concluded in our next.)

AN ACCOUNT OF THE ISLAND OF CEYLON,

AND OF THE TOWN AND HARBOUR OF TRINCOMALE. CEYLON, one of the most delight- be the Taprobane of the ancients, menful islands in the Indian Ocean, is tioned by Strabo and Ovid; and by fituated between 79 and 82° of east lon- others it has been supposed to be the gitude, and 6 and 10° of north latitude. Ophir of Holy Writ. Thus Dyer : Its northern extremity, Point Pedro, is Ceylon's gray. peaks, from whose volcanos separated from Point Calymere, on the rise, continent of India, by a strait catfed Dark smoke and ruddy fame, and glaring Palk's Passage, which is not more than

rocks fifteen leagues across. It is about 250 Blue cliffs afcend, and aromatic groves,

Darting in air aloft ; around whose feet miles in length from north to fouth, and in various prospect ; Ceylon also deem'd ncar 100 broad from east to west. The ancient Ophir. This fine iland is faid, by fome, to

THE FEECE, BOOL IV.

Cey!

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Ceylon was discovered, in the year possession was acknowledged by the 1506, by the Portuguese, who, when king of Candy, who had before recogthey landed here, found it a very popu- nized them only by the title of “ Guarlous island, inhabited by two distinct na

dians of his Coast.” The Dutch comtions, widely differing from each other missaries, moreover, were authorized to in their manners, government, and re extend their trade to all parts of the ligion. The northern part is now thin- island, without restriction ; and it was ly inhabited by a nation called the Bedas stipulated, that the natives should carry or Weddas, and is much less fertile than on no foreign commerce with any other the

country fouthward, which is poffeff nation. In return for all these essential ed by a numerous and powerful people advantages, the Dutch agreed to pay called the Cinglasses. In the middle annually to the king the value of the part of the island is the kingdom of produce of the ceded coasts, and to Candy, whose late capital is of the fame fupply the Cinglasses, gratis, with a .name, and whose sovereign has absolute quantity of salt sufficient for their own power over the lives and properties of consumption. The famous M. de Bouhis subjects.

gainville, who visited Ceylon in 1768, In 1602, Ceylon began to be visited has stated these particulars ; and from by the Dutch, who, encouraged and him Abbe Raynal has derived his inforalisted by the natives, successively seized mation. all the forts pofleffed by the Portuguese,

The monsoons and seasons are the whom they expelled from the island in fame in Ceylon as on the adjacent con- : 1657, by the reduction of Colombo, the tinent; for the rains begin to fall much handsomest and strongest town of Ceylon, sooner on the coast of Malabar than on on the west side of which it is situated. that of Coromandel; which probably In 1672, the French attempted to set- proceeds from the fame cause, Ceylon, tle on this island, and the king of Candy, as well as the great peninsula of Hindodesirous of employing them against the stan, being divided by exceedingly high Dutch, as he had formerly employed mountains. The northern part of the the Dutch against the Portuguese, ceded island is subject to great droughts, of to them by treaty the part of Gottiar, very long continuance ; an affliction, situate at the bottom of the bay of Trin- which is the more fenfibly felt, as there comale, on the east of the island ; but are scarce any rivers or springs in that the enterprise failing, the Dutch remain- part of the island, and the inhabitants ed fole masters of the coast, and of the are obliged to be supplied with water, cinnamon trade : they were still, how as well as food, from the south. There ever, on bad terms with the natives, who are, however, several rivers on the island continually reproached them with their which fall down from the mountains, knavery, and would place no confidence but are generally so rapid and full of in them. The Dutch, on their side, rocks, as not to be navigable. The were incessantly bent on oppressing and largest is that of Mavillagonga, which enslaving the natives. At last, in 1761, has its source in a mountain called their repeated cruelties caused the na Adam's Peak, and, running north-east, tives to rise, a great Naughter of the falls into the Indian Ocean. Dutch ensued; and most of their plan The country, for the most part, is tations were destroyed. The latter, how- covered with fragrant woods and groves; ever, have since regained the ascendency, and between the mountains are little and a war, which had proved equally fertile vallies watered by fine springs. destructive on both sides, was terminat- In the southern part, about twenty ed, in 1766, by a formal peace, from leagues from the sea, is a vast plain, in which great advantages were derived by the middle of which is the abovementhe Dutch colonists. Their sovereignty tioned mountain, covered with a fine over the districts of the island in their turf. It rises a rugged rock, of a pyra

midical

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