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in 1792, that upon Sunday morning, it the bottom of their baskets," was their was the constant practice to make a usual expression. They brewed their double portion of porridge, one half of own ale, and were proud to bring a cup which was set by for the fupper meal, to cheer the heart of a friend, and to and, to keep warm during to long a hear their ale praised. Spiritous liquors Space, was put within side of a bed, and were unknown in their mansion. A carefully covered up with the clothes ; couple of swine, fed and flaughtered by and this was for the general accommo- themselves, supplied the family the whole cation of the three brothers, who each year with felh-meat, except occasionalwent to a separate religious meeting. ly some neighbour might kill a beast for house, and the female domestic to a fale. Constant attenders upon divine fourth; so that, when any one of the service, they brought home the texts of family came home, they might find im- the different preachers, and the news of mediate accommodation, by the meat the foregoing week. The eldest brother already dreffed.

would take an excursion, generally to These three brothers were men of the fair at Manchester, held upon Whitlanded property, had little society with Monday. He fauntered through the miankind, and lived chiefly upon the market for cattle, looked through the produce of their own land: they very stands erected for the display of toy3

for much depreciated the custom of selling sale, purchased a pennyworth of gingerbutter, to accommodate folks who in- bread, and regaled himself with a pint dulged in tea, an article which probably of ale, then returned home, and related pone of the three brothers ever tasted. the adventures of the day. “ I wish the buttér may run through From Reports laid before the Board of

Agriculture.
COPY OF A LETTER FROM SIR JOHN LESSLY TO SIR

THOMAS RIDDLE.
IT was written during the siege of Newcastle by the Scots, in the reign

of Charles I. Taken fron the original in the posseslion of the Rid

dle family. SIR THAMAS,

kirk can weel witness, for these aught BETWEEN me and Gad it maks hundred years and mair bygaine, nought my heart bleed bleud to see fic wark hall skaith (i) your house within or withgae thro sae trim a gairden as yours. out, to the validome of a twapenny checI hae been twa times we my culin the kin. general, and fae fall I sax times mare I am your humble servant, afore the wark

gae
that
gate.

John LESSLY, gine awe this be dane, Sir Thamas, ye Major-general and captain over faxscore maun mak the twanty purds thretty,

and iwa men, and some mare, crownand I maun hae the tagg'd tail trooper er of Cumberland, Northumberland, that stans in the staw (b), and the wee Marryland and Niddisdale, the Merce, trim gaeing thing (c) that stans in the Tivioidale and Fife, bailie of Kirkanewk (d) of the hawe (e), chirping and die, governor of Brur.t Eland and the chirming at the newn tide o' the day, Bafs, laird of Liberton, Tilly, and and forty bows (f) of bier to faw (8) Whooley, filer-tacker of Sterling, the mons with awe.

constable of Leith, and Sir John And as I am a chevalier of fortin, Lessly, Koight, to the bute (1) of and a lim of the house of Rothes, as the

awe that. nuckle (5) main kist in Edinburgh auld

(g) To strike the bargain. (b) The great (a) Before. (6) Stable.

chest of records in Edinburgh old church. c) A chime clock. (d) Corner,

(i) Hurt or damage. (6) Into the bargain. 1e) Hall.

(f) Bolls of Barley.

But (a)

her

WITH SOME

OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILITY OF DEFINING SYNONY

MOUS TERMS;

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE LATIN.

BY JOHN HILL, L. L. D. F. R. S. ED.
From an Ejay in the Third Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society

of Edinburgh.
WORDS that are precisely equiva- Latin fynonymous terms.

As this
lent, are rarely, if at all, to be met with is a subject to which, in the line of his
in any language. Those properly called profession, he was led to give particular
fynonymous, exhibit one leading cir- attention, and as he conliders it to be
cumstance in which they all agree, and of no fmall importance, to those who
one or more accessory circumstances, in wish to discriminate the flightest viola-
which they differ. When the point tion of purity in the Roman language,
of their general coincidence, and the he has made a very large collection of
grounds of their particular diversities, its synonymous words, with remarks up-
are clearly ascertained, it is then in the on them. The following fpecimen, of
power of the writer to use them with the instances he has collected, he sub-
propriety. By the assistance of the gram- mits, with much diffidence, to this
marian, he knows which to adopt and learned Society :
which to reject, and can reconcile em- Rogare, petere, poftulare, pofcere, flu-
bellishment with accuracy and preci gitare, agree in denoting the expression
fion.

of a desire to obtain something not pofThe excellence of any language may, fessed, but differ in respect to the ur. in a great measure, be judged of, by the gency with which this desire is announnumber of synonymous terms that be- ced.' They are all distinguished from long to it. A multiplicity of them, the verbs cupere, and optare, which, under skilful management, creates no though not equivalent, suppose, like hartful redundancy. On the contrary, them, therexistence of desire, but not it enables every author of taste to ex- the expression of it, with a view to its hibit his thoughts with energy and luf being fulfilled, tre. For the most delicate variety of The power of the verb rogare exshades in thought, he is furnished with tends no farther than to the simple ina corresponding variety in expression ; timation of desire. By means of it, a and the language in which he conveys want is suggested to the perfon addresshis idea, becomes a complete picture of ed, of which he was before ignorant, the idea itself.

and both he and his petitioner are fupThe author of this essay is abundant- posed confcious, that compliance with ly sensible, that though the Latin tongue the requeft must be voluntary, and the presents many classes of synonymous effect of good will.“ Moleftum verterms, yet to catch the circumstance on bum eft, et onerosum, et demisso vultu which their differences reft, is no easy dicendum, rogo.". matter, and may often leave room for rogare." diverfity of opinion. After a careful He who proposed a law in the Roexamination of the classical writers, he man comitia, and was then said

rogare suspects it will be found, that in the legem, presented his request refpectfully, glow of composition, the strict distinc- and left it to the allembly to judge as tions between such words have not been to the expediency of granting it. always attended to, and that the prest Petere differs from rogare, in supporwriters have, occafionally, deviated from ing a certain difficulty in coming at the the standard which their general prac. object defired, and a greater degree of tice had established. Still, however, keenness, upon the part of the petitioner. he apprehends, that there is room for a “ Ad te confugimus, a te opem felicritical and scientific difentlion of the mus."'--"Cum à me peteret et fumme Vol. LVIII.

F

7

56 Malo emere quam

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contenderet, ut propinquum fuum de- obtaining the object, they were keen in fenderem."-" Id sibi ut donaret, ro- the pursuit of it. gare et vehementer petere coepit.” In From a passage in Horace, it should the last example, the verbs rogare and seem, that any means for the acquisipetere are evidently contrasted. The tion of an object, that are less than con latter denotes a degree of zeal upon the ercive, may be expressed by the verb part of the person who asks, which the petere. former does not.

-Cæsar, qui cogere posset, The definition now given of petere Si peteret per amicitiam patris atque suam, does not correspond with that given by Servius. Petere,” says he, “ est Quidquam proficerct. cum aliquid humiliter, et cum precibus, Nothing more is suggested here by postulamus.” With all the respect due petere, than Cæsar's keenness to hear to fo great a critic, it may be urged, this musician perform. It were absurd that this power of petere is not to be to suppose, that the Emperor, who pofdiscerned in the verb when taķen by it. sessed the power of compulsion, would felf, though it may be expressed by ever stoop to beg the favour, accord'words with which it is occasionally ac. ing to Servius, “ humiliter et cum precompanied. Thus Cæsar, De Bello cibus." Gallico, fays, “ Suppliciterque locuti, Poftulare differs from petere, in as flentes pacem petiffent.—“ Pueri mu- far as it suggests neither keenness nor lieresque, paflis manibus, pacem ab Ro- difficulty in the acquisition of the obmanis petierunt.Nothing in either of jeet. Belides the fentiment of desire, those instances ferves to prove, that the which is common to all the five verbs keenness of the petitioner, which marks compared, the idea of claim, which is the verb, may not exist, independently manifestly not inherent in either of the of the manner in which the request is two former, is effential to poftulare, presented. The manner is, in fact, Upon a proper limitation of this claim, expressed by those terms that happen to however, a due apprehenfion of the be adjuncts to the verb.

power of the verb depends. Petere, from the Greek verb TETW, The distinctive character of poflulare, ferri, volare, shews its native force in seems to rest on the acknowledged luch derivatives as impetus and prepes. reasonableness of that which is demandIt seems to have originally expressed an ed. " Geometræ folent non omnia effort to come at objects not within docere, fed potulare ut quædam fibi reach, and to have been transferred from concedantur, quo facilius quæ velint material objets to intellectual concep. explicent." When geoneters require tions. Its primitive power appears in any concession of those they are about such instances as the two following : to instruct, they appeal to their reason, “ Sciebam Catiliram non latus aut ven- and tacitly bind themselves to allow the trem, sed caput et collum petere folere.” validity of that which they require.

“ Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva The axiom again, which is an undenipuella."

able principle, carrying with itself its The power of petere, thus limited, own proof, is not to be confounded with appears to have been afterwards ex. the postulate or entreated maxim. Other tended, so as to express a desire, ac- philosophers, as well as mathematicians, companied with an effort to obtain any establish postulates, though often in obječt whatever; and thus the original terms less definite, and, of course, more idea of bodily exertion, was lost in that readily mistaken. “ M. Dafne igitur of the eagerness of any pursuit. Can- hoc, Pomponi, deorum immortalium didates for offices at Rome were said vi, natura, ratione, naturam eam regi? petere magiftratus ; and from a sense of A. Do fane fi poftulas.the value, as well as of the difficulty of Cicero ules the expresion, “Impu

den

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denter rogare, impudentissime poftulare ;? A sentiment of courage is supposed and thus intimates, that the indecency needful, when a petition, implying the which was calpable in the bare sugges- violation of fome private right, was to tion of a desire, as implied in the form- be presented. A matter of favour er verb, rose in a saperlative degree, would, with an unbecoming boldness, when to this was fuperadded the idea have been held forth as a matter of right, of a claim, as implied in the latter. so that the person requested might re

It appears from Quintus Curtius, ject the petition, as being an insult to that the infolence of Darius, after a himself. severe defeat, provoked Alexander. The definition given by Varro, of He not only took to himself the ap- pofcere, seems perfectly juft, except pellation of king, without giving it to only in as far as a compound is preposhis conqueror, but presented his re- terously taken to state the power of the quests in terms that became not his fic verb itself. Poscere," says he, “elt tuation. The historian of Alexander quoties aliquid pro merito nostro deaccordingly fays, Poftulabat autem pofcimus." Had the critic taken the magis quam petebat."

trouble, previously, to define “ depofPoscere agrees with poftulare, in fup- cere,” we should have been at no loss posing, that the petitioner has a claim to understand his account of the fimple to have his request granted; but it be- verb. His definition appears to be, ia fides denotes, that he himself is entitled other respects, complete, as he fupto judge as to the validity of that claim, poses the petitioner possessed of the without regard to the opinion of the power of measuring the extent of what perfon requefted, or to the acknow. he styles, “ meritum.” ledged equity of the demand. Thus The different uses of the verb pofcere,

“ Nemo tam audax qui may be all reconciled with the definiposceret, nemo tam impudens qui pof- tion now given, when it is applied to the tularet." The pointed opposition made intercourse that takes place between man here, by the orator, between the two and man. In its application, however, verbs, shews clearly the meaning affix- to those petitions that were presented by ed by him to each. Impudence, he the ancients to their gods, its power tells us in the last clause, or a contempt becomes more mysterious. The idea for the opinion of the world, who would of right is not easily reconciled with judge as to the propriety of the demand, that of fupplication ; so that, according is all that would be needful for enabling to the definition given of the verb, those the petitioner to present it in the form who were said poscere deos veniam, might denoted by populare. With regard to well be accused of profaneness. pofcere, however, the case is different. (To be concluded in our next.)

02

Cicero, fays,

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AN ACCOUNT OF THE ISLAND OF CEYLON,

AND OF THE TOWN AND HARBOUR OF TRINCOMALE.
CEYLON, one of the most delight- bè the Taprobane of the ancients, men-
fal islands in the Indian Ocean, is tioned by Strabo and Ovid ; and by
fituated between 79 and 82° of east lon- others it has been supposed to be the
gitude, and 6 and 10° of north latitude. Ophir of Holy Writ. Thus Dyer :
Its northern extremity, Point Pedro, is Ceylon's gray peaks, from whose volcanos
separated from Point Calymere, on the rise,
continent of India, by a strait called Dark smoke and ruddy flame, and glaring
Palk's Passage, which is not more than

rock3
freen leagues acrofs. It is about 250 Blue cliffs afcend, and aromatic groves;

Darting in air aloft ; around whose feet
miles in length from north to fouth, and in various profpeat ; Ceylon alío deem'd
ncar 100 broad from east to west. The ancient Ophir.
This fine iland is said, by fome, to

The F LEGE, BOOL IV.
F 2

Ceylo

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Ceylon was discovered, in the year poffeffion was acknowledged by the 1506, by the Portuguese, who, when king of Candy, who had before recogthey landed here, found it a very popu- nized them only by the title of “ Guarlous island, inhabited by two distinct na- dians of his Coast."

The Dutch comtions, widely differing from each other missaries, moreover, were authorized to in their manners, government, and re- extend their trade to all parts of the ligion. The northern part is now thin- island, without restriction; and it was ly inhabited by a nation called the Bedas stipulated, that the natives should carry or Weddas, and is much less fertile than on no foreign commerce with any other the country southward, which is poffeff- nation. In return for all these effential ed by a numerous and powerful people advantages, the Dutch agreed to pay called the Cinglasses. In the middle annually to the king the value of the part of the island is the kingdom of produce of the ceded coasts, and to Candy, whose late capital is of the same fupply the Cinglasses, gratis, with a name, and whose sovereign has absolute quantity of falt fufficient for their own power over the lives and properties of consumption. The famous M. de Bouhis subjects.

gainville, who visited Ceylon in 1768, : In 1602, Ceylon began to be visited has stated these particulars ; and from ... by the Dutch, who, encouraged and him Abbe Raynal has derived his inforallifted by the natives, successively seized mation. all the forts possessed by the Portuguese, The monsoons and seasons are the whom they expelled from the island in same in Ceylon as on the adjacent con1657, by the reduction of Colombo, the tinent; for the rains begin to fall much handsomest and strongest town of Ceylon, sooner on the coast of Malabar than on on the west side of which it is situated. that of Coromandel; which probably In 1672, the French attempted to set- proceeds from the fame cause, Ceylon, tle on this island, and the king of Candy, as well as the great peninsula of Hindodesirous of employing them against the stan, being divided by exceedingly high Dutch, as he had formerly employed mountains. The northern part of the the Dutch against the Portuguese, ceded island is subject to great droughts, of to them by treaty the part of Gotriar, very long continuance ; an affiction, situate at the bottom of the bay of Trin- which is the more fenfibly felt, as there comale, on the east of the island ; but are scarce any rivers or springs in that the enterprise failing, the Dutch remain- part of the island, and the inhabitants ed fole masters of the coast, and of the are obliged to be fupplied with water, cinnamon trade: they were still, how- as well as food, from the south.—There ever, on bad terms with the natives, who are, however, several rivers on the island continually reproached them with their which fall down from the mountains, knavery, and would place no confidence but are generally fo rapid and full of in them. The Dutch, on their Gde, rocks, as not to be navigable. The were incessantly bent on oppressing and largest is that of Mavillagonga, which enslaving the natives. At last, in 1761, has its source in a mountain called their repeated cruelties caused the na- Adam's Peak, and, running north-east, tives to rise, a great Naughter of the falls into the Indian Ocean. Dutch ensued; and most of their plan- The country, for the most

is tations were destroyed. The latter, how- covered with fragrant woods and groves; ever, have since regained the ascendency, and between the mountains are little and a war, which had proved equally fertile vallies watered by fine springs. destructive on both sides, was terminat- In the southern part, about twenty ed, in 1766, by a formal peace, from leagues from the sea, is a vast plain, in which great advantages were derived by the middle of which is the abovementhe Dutch colonists. Their sovereignty tioned mountain, covered with a fine over the districts of the island in their turf. It rises a rugged rock, of a pyra

part,

midical

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