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country, as that house had been the by this country to be the Government of cause of much bloodshed to it, and of all France. Mr Pitt then went into a histhe debts under which it now labours. tory of the circumstances that preceded Austria and Prussia entered into a con- the declaration of war by France against vention at Pilnitz, which they could ne. England. He glanced at the death of ver have carried into effect without the Louis XVI, the recall of Lord Gower, aid of this country. This was the pe. and the refusal to acknowledge Chauveriod when this country ought to have lin after the death of Louis. But he ftepped forward and offered her media- afferted a disposition to try if any means tion, instead of countenancing the mea of accomodation were still left, was fures of these two powers, and by this shewn by the British Cabinet, in appointshe would bave preserved the tranquilli- ing the ambassador at the Hague to hear ty of Europe, and her own neutrality, the propostions of General Dumourier, Mr Fox having, in a speech of four hours and a determination in the French to and a half, replete with the most forcible break with England, in declaring war argument, reprobated the intentions and with her while that negociation was acviews of the allies in general, and of tually pending. He then entered into a Prullia and Ruflia in particular, in de. more particularexamination of the charge ftroying the balance of power by the of the injuftice of this war, and infifted, partition of Poland; and having taken a that it was not only barely juft, and or. view of the tyranny of the Emperor of dinarily necessary, but that it included, Germany, and King of Prussia, towards in its obje&s, all that was just and of the Marquis and Marchionefs de la Fay- value to man, as well as the completest ette, which had been worse than the ty- necessity that could be imagined. It was ranny of Robespierre, he concluded by not peace, but stable secure peace, that making a motion of confiderable length, was the object; and viewing the queswhich was an abstract of his ipeech, the tion on that true ground, do man he fubftance of which was as follows, viz. hoped, would regret, that he wa: not “ That an humble address be presented ready to negociate in 1793, before the to his Majesty respecting the conduct of trade of France was annihilated-her his ministers in the present war, repre- capital swallowed up-her foreign dofenting the very flourishing state in which minions loit-before she received an ir, this country was at the commencement reparable blow to her navy-and, above of it, and the deplorable state to which it all, while her principles were unmiti. had been reduced by the bad counseis of gated. It was an ill policy to demand a incapable minifters; and praying that he precise object of the war. The object would give directions to thein to purfue was security; and what would afford a line of conduct diametrically opposite security would depend on the temper of to what they had done, and to retract the French nation rather than on any their former errors, &c.'

precife ftate of the war. He next exaMr Pitt denied, that the declining to mined the question of the reftitution of become mediators between France and monarchy, and said, that was not only the powers who had subjects of complaint a good cause for security, but a good against her, without the invitation of and proper fubftantive cause. But be those powers, was a proof of a hostile denied he had ever refused to treat til determination. Mr Pitt then came to monarchy should be restored. The dethe circumstances which he flated to struction of Jacobin principles, and the have produced the war. He adverted establishment of a regular government, first to the decree of the 19th of Novem- were the only necessary objects to feeuber, which, he faid, was an outrage on rity. He concluded by saying, be hoped the rights of civil society. They had no the business of this day would have no fooner started from the earth, and seized tendency but to divide France and unite on the reins of power, than they threat- England. ered to sweep away all reguiar govern- Mr Fox replied. He infifted, that ments for ever. He then turned to the none of the alleged causes of the war dispute relative to the Scheldt; and said, were valid, because ministers denied Mr Fox's argument went to prove, that France all opportunity of explanation, these aggressions, on the part of France, lvyrefusing to acknowledge a government were to be excused, because they were competent to treat of grievances. He committed by men rot acknowledged svas also convince d by Mr Pitt's argizu




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ments that evening, that the oftensible must be retiited. I wish these great pro-
reasons of war were not real. His plan prietors of masses of land to look into
was said to be humiliating. But to the history of Spain and France, and fee.
whom? To his Majesty's ministers, not what happened there to persons of their
to the country; and there was no way own level, and once as rich as themselves.
of vindicating the honour of the country, Let our great proprietors look' to these
but by feparating it and its causes from examples. The ruin which they suffer
men hy whom it was disgraced. He to be brought on the other orders of the
concluded by saying, there was no fymp- community will not stop there : their
toms of minifters having cordially relin- turn assuredly will come. At present,
quished their designs upon France ; and I know, they are happy and secure.
no justification on the part of the House They think they are in no danger; that
for pluming themselves, on the idea of they have nothing to apprehend for
baving done all in their power towards theinfelves ; and that all they are doing

is only to destroy the liberty of their fel-
After which the question being put on low subjects.
Mr Fox's motion, there appeared, * The motion for the third reading of
Against it 216

the bill being put, the House divided : For it

Ayes 48; Noes 46. Majority 2.

Mr Sheridan then moved, that it be 12. The order of the day was read for read a third time on this day three the third reading of the real estate fuc- months; when the Houfe again divided : ceflion bill.

Noés 54; Ayes 53. Majority 1. Mr Francis faid, Mr Speaker, I should The Chancellor of the Exchequer then indeed be forry that this pernicious bill moved, that it be read a third time tomhould finih its progress through the morrow, when a third division took House, without my having had an op place :-Ayes 54; Noes 54. portanity of expreffing my opinion of it The Speaker accordingly being called more explicitly and distinctly than by a upon for his vote, gave it for the third silent vote. My objections are on princi- reading to-morrow. ple, and they are fundamental ; they are The Chancellor of the Exchequer then the result of the moft careful attention said, that, finding the bill was liable to and consideration which I am capable of so many objections, he would decline giving to any fubject. It appears in a pressing the third reading to-morrow, form which never was assumed, and acts and discharge the order for that day two on principles which never were avowed months. The bill was of courfe within this House before. The effential qua- drawn. lities of the bill are these, first, That it 19. The House met at half past two does not operate immediately, nor with o'clock, and at half past three a meffage all its force, but applies to cates and was fent down by Sir P. Molyneux, Genlituations, which do not instantly exist, tleman Uther of the Black Rod, comand which, therefore, individuals may manding the attendance of the Commons hope are remote from themselves, and at the Bar of the House of Lords. They may never reach them. Of course it forthwith attended, and the Speaker, on annihilates that juft and rational check, his return, read to the House a copy of which the conflitution relies on, in fai his Majesty's speech to both Houses. vour of the fubje&t ; namely, that the The Houle then dispersed without representative will not impofe exorbi- any question of adjournment. tant taxes, without clear neceflity, on his conftituents, as long as he shares inn. mediately and alike with those who are

HOUSE OF LORDS. to pay. But the most dreadful of all NATIONAL EXPENDITURE. confiderations is, that the tax is to ope- May 2: The Marquis of Lansdowne rofe ráte, not now, but hereafter, What to make his promised motion for an inguard, then, have we left againft the quiry on this subject. He prefaced it moft profligate extravagance and waste with a long harangue, in which he went of the public fortune, if no part of the very much at length into a great variety burthen, whatever it may be, is to be of futjects. He fet out with alluding to borne by ourselves? This tax touches the commillion of public accounts, which property in great maffes, and this tax was appointed in the year 1980, to inVOL. LVO




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quire into, and suggest remedies for, the any object or end!! such objects only abuses existing in public offices and de- excepted as had arisen from the mifcon. partments. He complained that the duct of ministers. That such an Inquimeasures recommended by these com- ry was unavoidable from the exhausted missioners, 14 years fince, had not yet state of our finances; which compelled been adopted. He infanced particular the government to refort to taxes which ly in the case of five revenue boards, had been formerly repealed. He truftwhich the commissioners had recom- ed, that minifters would not refufe an mended to be consolidated into one, but inquiry into these topics, which had forwhich still remained distinct. He allud- merly been granted as a matter of course. ed to the mode of keeping the army ac. If they did, he left to them the confecounts, as purposely indistinct and con- quences. fused. He next passed to the state of the Lord Grenville opposed the motion. unfunded debt-to the patent officers in Ministers, he observed, were called upthe customs—the mode of transacting on to answer for not having followed business at the mint--the state of the up the propofitions for reform of the crown lands--the erection of barracks, commissioners of accounts. For himself which he stiled inland fortresses the ex- he would observe, that he was not even traordinary expences of the army, and in parliament at the period when their their uncontrouled appropriation--the report was made. He would, notwithrenewal of the office of third secretary ftanding, remark upon the feveral proof state-the newly created board of positions: the firft complaint was, that paval architecture, (which, however, he the five revenue boards were not confoapproved)--and the board of transports. lidated into one, by which fifteen places All these he' considered as blameable, out of twenty-five would be saved. This and requiring reform--the increase of he would ever resist as a moft pernicious places having made the red book a cheft measure. The detail of those boards of corruption. The Noble Marquis next was so various, and the labour of them expressed his disapprobation of the new fo very great, that it would be an un. police act, and thought that an elective wise sacrifice to ceconomy to resolve police would be as sufficient for Weft. them into one. The second was, the inminster as London; and that such a man troducing fimplicity into the army acas Alderman Skinner was more likely to counts. This had been adopted. Mr keep the peace, than any briefless barri. Burke and Colonel Barre fucceffively in. fter. He then proceeded to animadvert troduced reforms into the paymaster's on the connection between the minister office. The propofition was made in and the Bank; which he considered as 1780, and the reform made in 1782. The unconftitutional. The late check on dif. third article of complaint was the uncount had, he observed, induced some funded debt. But on this ground, the to suppose that the well had a bottom; present ministers might challenge all for. and, among other inconveniencies result- mer ministers. There were two more ing from it, he alluded to one which he subjects of complaint--the mint and the had learnt from a letter sent him by crown lands. Great progress was made fome persons wilo had half of one of the in a plan to reform the former. But it 20,000). prizes, which they had discountwould be attended with an enormous ed for 9000l. while the office-keeper, on expenditure in the firft inftance; and it the extension of the discounts by the was a question whether, even in time of Bank, had afterwards cashed it for 200l. peace, it would be expedient to incur The Noble Marquis moved a very long the expence. As to the crown lands, it resolution, purporting" That an In- would be impertinent to ftate, that meaquiry mould be made into the conduct fures had been taken to turn them to na of minifters in not reforming the abuses tional profit. So that if the objects of ftated by the commissioners of accounts. complaint, which were five in number,

That an account should be furnished three were actually done away; and one of the new offices with salaries created of the other two, the mint, waited onin the last ten years ; of salaries prolong- ly till it should be prudent to incur the ed beyond the services; of monies iQued expence, attending the reform. Lord by warrants, &c. That this inquiry was Grenville then entered into a defence of moft necessary, when we were engaged the barracks. He contended the fyftem in a bloody and expensive war, without was fanctioned by precedent, and that


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there were old barracks for holding made a motion for the removal of his
20,000 men, and the new would con- Majesty's ministers, if they merited the
tain no more than 15,000. He repro- epithets bettowed on them.
bated the argument of Lord Lansdowne, Lords Hawkesbury and Grenville defend-
in contemning precedents. He admircà ed their conduct, which was also attacke
an observation which he had often heard ed by Earl Lauderdale, Marquis Lans-
from Mr Fox, “ that the constitution downe, and others. When the House
was a practical one, and there were ma- divided, there were for the motion,
ny things to blame in it in theory. It

was not a constitution made by a nation-

Non Contents al assembly, but growing, out of practice

Majority-90. to its present perfection." He next ad- Earl Lauderdale called the attention verted to the revival of the office of of their Lord'hips to the subject upon third fecretary of state, and said it was which he had moved, that the House more beneficial to the country than any should be fum noned-the. Itate of the other he could name. He vindicated the finances of the country. Upon no occacreation of the new transport broad, on fion had he entered upon any discussion the very statement of Lord Lansdowne, with so much awe as on the present ocas to the difficulty of procuring trans- casion, nor had he any difficulty in dilports. He also vindicated the Wettinin- covering the source of his feelings, lince Iter police bill, and the act empowering the magnitude of the undertaking, the the Bank of England to lend money to alarming aspect which it presented to Government. In a word, he combated him, the want of habit which he conthe multifarious propositions of Lord feffed he had in the discussion of quesLansdowne one by one.

tions of finance, and standing opposed The Earl of Lauderdale supported the in his ideas on the subject to noble lords motion, in a speech of considerable whose lives had been spent in such inveslength; in the course of which, he de. tigations, it was natural that he should clared he could not, in his conscience, say approach the fubject with seriousness and the country was at this moment free.

In his mind, it was the most imThe Lord Chancellor. faid, that the portant discussion upon which he ever words of the motion called on the House presented himself to their Lordships. He to assert the very thing that was to be explained how this task fell to his lot, made out, by the inquiry which the and paid a high and most merited comNoble Marquis demanded. It called up- pliment to Lord Lansdowne, for the part on them to affert this, in contradiction of the subject which he had so ably taken to the uniform language and resolutions up. The noble Marquis had difcuffed they had held on the subject. --The the abuses which had taken place in the House then divided :--Contents 9 administration, and had developed the


foundations of expence. The noble Non-Contents 72

Lord had traced and exposed the causes; Proxies

32--104 it fell to his lot to display the effects :

Majority. -92. and this he should do in as short and pera 10. Earl Guilford rose to make his pro- fpicuous a way as poffible. Here his mised motion, regarding the state of the Lordship had recourse to his figures, nation. In his speech he took a review of which he pursued in minute detail, but the war from its commencement, and ex- which are greatly too long for insertion, patiated on its ruinous consequences. He Lord Hawkesbury rose to controyert arraigned the conduct of ministers in its the principles of the noble Lord, in his management, and pointed against them reference to the customs, and alleged his the most severe reprehenfions for their at- mode of calculation was disguised. The tempt at negotiations for peace lately at way in which he proposed to controvert Balle. He concluded by a motion, (in these principles, was by looking at the length 13 pages) for addressing his Ma- taxes, and taking the average of the perjeity to declare, that minifters had for- manent revenue. First, the distilleries, feited their confidence, and praying his although they were not then restrained Majesty to bring about a radical reform by act of Parliament from working, had in his councils.

a great meafure ceased to do so, on The Lord Chancellor remarked, that it account of the high price of grain. Som wow have been more confiftent to have condly, the malt-breweries were check.d

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by the same cause, and thirdly, the im- prived of these resources, ftill our com-, menfe distress of the community, oco merce had encreased, and by the won. cafioned by the excessive high price of derful activity and energy of our mer. provisions in general, had a bad effe&t chants, although it was ihut out of one on the revenues, though at the same time fource, it had forced a paisage to another, he bestowed his commendation on the Instead of being blamed, he thought that people, for the temper and the spirit with ministers Mould be commended for exwhich they struggled through these un posing to view the whole of our burderis forefien 'inevitable difficulties. These as they did, and for providing the capi. were the reasons, he observed, why the tal of one per cent. They had morerevenues of last year ought not to be over anticipated a provilion for functcompared with those of 1791. To these ing 4,000,000l. more of navy debt, and the draw-backs upon sugars, being a con- had adopted such measures, that the fiderable fum, might be added, and of all 27,000,000l. of the unfunded debt for the new taxes in 1794 and 1795, few, peace was now provided for. This apexcept the duty upon wine, were subject peared to him to be the real state of our to pay duties." He now came to the in- finances. If he deceived their Lord. tcres of the debt, and the i per cent ca- ships, he was deceived bimself. It appital. The amount of the taxes and the peared to him also, that so far from being estimate, in the first year of the war, depressed, the country was likely to conwere nearly equal. In the second year tinue in this prosperous situation, and of the war the taxes were more than the on that account he moved the previous estimate, though some did not begin till question. March, till April, and July, and what 18. Lord Lauderdale prefented a bill for the produce of the taxes of the present the purpose of suspending the personal year might be, could not be yet precisely estate collarerai fucceflion bill, till the told, though he had every reafon to be. Ist of January 1797. His Lordship prolieve they would be both competent and posed it, on the grounds that the real productive. As to the estimate of the and perfonal eftate fucceffion bills being peace establish::ent in 1791, he remark- founded on the same principle, and it ed that it was not the declaration of a having been intended that they should committee in the usual way, but of a go together. It therefore appeared to committee fitting in judgment upon one him, that the one should not be allowed that bad preceded it-What the peace to have effect, sin the ot! had been establishment after the present war would given up. His Lordfhip then recapitu. be, it was idle to prognosticate, because lated several of his former arguments ait depended on the fecurity and perma. gainst the perfonal fucceffion bill, and nency of the treaty; but whatever it moved, “ That the act for suipending it might be, the finking fund would conti- for a limited time be received." nue to be paid, together with the interest The question was put and negatived of 39200,000l. at 4 per cent. amounting without a division. to 140,000l. more. He had great plea- 19. At three o'clock the King arrived at Turc in observing the strength and nerve the House of Lords ; when the Commons of our resources. One per cent. was were commanded to attend his Majesty As paid less for intereft last year than during soon as the Speaker, with the Commons, had former wars. All public works conti- entered, his Majesty delivered the following nued and increased their vigour. In 1792, Speech from the Throne :the year before the war, no more than

“ My Lords and Gentlemen, nine and twenty navigation bills were “ The public business being now concluded passed, and last year there were forty. I think it proper to close this Session, and at feven, and but one hundred and nine in the same time to acquaint you with my inclosure bills were passed in 1792, and last tention of giving immediate directions for year there were 217. Our commerce, calling a new Parliament. contrary to experience, had encreased, The objects which have engaged your atalthough we had no commerce with 'tention during the present Seffion, have been France, which formerly amounted to of peculiar importance; and the measures *800,000l. although our commerce with which you have adopted have manifested Flanders was impeded, which formerly your continued regard to the safety and welamounted to 1,100,000l. and although fare of

my people. our commerce was destroyed with Hol- “ The happiest effe as have been experie land, amounting to 1,600,000l. De enced from the provilions you have made for


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