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midical form. It is supposed to be two lastly, elephants. The mines of gold leagues from the plain to the highest and silver, indeed, are prohibited to fummit; but the way is so bad, that be worked; the precious stones are fetting out early in the morning, it can. all reserved for the king; and fulphur pot be gained till two hours after mid- and saltpetre are not allowed to be ex. diy; and the height is so prodigious, ported, but are refined on the island. that the failors begin to desery it twenty Hence, the commerce of the Dutch legaues at sea. Though the summit of may be said to be confined almost to de rock, when viewed from the bottom cinnamon; and even for this they trade in the plain, appears like a point, it only with the natives adjoining to their forms a terrace 203 paces in diameter, settlements, who are kept under lubjecin the centre of which is a large and tion by the awe of their garrisons. The deap lake of some of the best water in Dutch, however, export a considerable the world. Thence proceed several number of elephants from Ceylon to freams, which fall in torrents down the India, where they are much' valued, fides of the mountain, and, uniting, the smallest selling for upwards of forty form three great rivers in the plain. guineas, and the largest for about sevenNear the lake is a large stone, on which ty pounds sterling. Their teeth are is the print of a man's foot, as perfecily larger, whiter, and of a finer grain than esgraved as if the impreslion had any that come from India or Africa. been made on wax. The Cinglafles Before the Europeans appeared in India, are persuaded, that it is a vestige the Chinese were masters of the trade of the first man, and, therefore, they of Ceylon ; afterward the Persians, tave called the mountain Hammalella, or Arabians, and Ethiopians, came in for Adam's Mount, which the Portuguese a share of it; and since the Portuguese bare tranlated Pice de Adain, that is were expelled from the island, the Adam's Peak. Some tradition, mingl. Dutch have excluded all other nations ed with fable, must have been received from any share in its trade. from the dispersed commercial Jews, In the inland country of Ceylon are concerning the first ancestors of the hu- reckoned five capital cities; namely, man race; for the natives believe that Candy, the metropolis of the island, the first man was created here ; that and the residence of most of the kings, the lake arose from the tears shed by till it was taken and burnt by the PorEve on the death of Abel; and that tuguese; but it being found to be too Ceylon was part of the terrestrial para. much exposed, the royal feat was redile.

moved to Nellembyneur, a city more The principal product of Ceylon is in the heart of the country. The third cinnamon, of which, as it is peculiar city is Alloutneur, which lies to the to this island, we shall give a more par. north east of Candy. The fourth is ticular account in our next. Beside cin- Batoula, which is between fixty and seramon, Ceylon produces many things venty miles to the east of Candy; and with which the inhabitants might carry the fifth is Digligineur, situate between on a great trade; such as long pepper, Candy and Batoula. keveral drugs and roots useful in dying The Dutch East India Company are and in medicine, cardamom, mirabo- pofleffed, not only of the whole coast lans, filk, tobacco, ebony, excellent of Ceylon, but of ten or twelve leagues imber for building, lead ore, betel, within land. Their principal harbours wild honey, mulk, wax, crystal, falt- lie on the eastern coali. Trincomale is petre, sulphur, sugar, rice (of which reckoned the best and finelt harbour in the Dutch carry great quantities to the the East Indies ; that of Batacola, more coast of Coromandel) iion, Iteel, cop- to the southward, is less resorted to, per, gold and filver, all sorts of pre- and little or no trade is carried on thence. ciuus stones, except diamonds, and At the promontory, called Point de

Galle,

45

Galle, on the south-west coast, the that received damage, either in temDutch have the strength of their govern- pests or in action. On the 12th of ment, and here their ships take in their April following (at the very instant cargoes for Europe. Colombo and Ne- that Sir George Brydges Rodney was gambo, lie on the west side of the island, gaining a complete victory in the West in the part called the Cinnamon coast: Indies) a desperate, but indecisive enthe former is the principal ftation in the gagement was fought, near Ceylon, becolony : at the latter the finest cinna- tween the British and French Admirals, mon is procured. The company have Sir Edward Hughes and M. de Sufintroduced the culture of pepper and frein: after which, the harbour of coffee, the chief of which is drawn Trincomale received the British Aeet, from the country about Matara. while the French commander availed The town and forts of Trincomale himself of that of Batacola.

Another are situate on the east Gide of the island, indecisive engagement took place on the in 819 52" of east longitude, and 80 6th of July; but a strong reinforcement

of north latitude, on a narrow strip of ships and soldiers having joined the of land, running between the sea and a French fleet, the commander proceeded gulf which forms the harbour, and to attack Trincomale, August 16, which, which is entered within land from a together with fort Ottenburgh, was revery spacious bay. On the 5th of Ja- duced in five days. Two days after, nuary 1782, the British fleet, command- Sir Edward Hughes appeared off the ed by "Sir Edward Hughes, appeared place with his fleet. This brought on before Trincomale, which being defend- another engagement, which was braveed only by three officers and forty fol. ly sustained by the Englith against a diers, was soon taken. The governor great superiority of force, bue produced with the chief of his force, retired to no advantages on either side. During fort Ostenburg, which stands on a hill the continuance of the war, the posielcommanding the harbour ; but the place fion of the harbour of Trincomale gave was taken by storm six days after. The the French a great ascendency in the harbour, in which the most numerous Indian feas. Trincomale is once more Aeets may anchor with the greatest fafe- in the poffesfion of the Britiih ; and, for ty, was highly ferviceable to the Bri- the particálar account of this important tish fleet, on account of its vicinity to conquest, we refer to the London Gathe coast of Coromandel, and the op- zettes in this number. portunity it afforded of refitting the ships

TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.
TILL

very

lately, there was no con a curiosity, and a spirit of inquiry after nected account to be found of the agri- these hidden sources of amusement and culture, population, antiquities, curio. wealth. In the following account of fities, and natural productions of Scot- Scotland, it is intended to give a deJand; and although most of these very scription of the various minerals, hitherimportant articles are particularly no to discovered, and to point out the ticed in that very valuable and patriotic, places where they have been found. But, but voluminous work, the Statistical Ac. in doing this, great minutenefs regard. count of Scotland, yet the mineralogy of ing the properties and proportions of the country is there but slightly touched every mineral or fosil cannot be ex

may be partly owing to that pected, as most of them have never been branch of science being but little, till of analysed, and many of the mines found late, attended to, and partly to the diffi- in Scotland, have never been wrought, culty of procuring information on the sub- nor the metals affayed. Besides, such ject. Scotland, however, is pregnant with descriptions could only be of service to a mineral treasure; and one chief object few who are advanced in that science ; of the prefent undertaking is, to excite a more general account will, therefore,

fully

upon. This

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fully answer the purpose of this under extent. Of late, a very rich mine of taking.

antimony has been fet a-going, richer, The plan intended is, to give, in it is believed, than any that is at prea short compass, a description of the fent known in the world. Besides, it external appearance of each county or may be observed, that the discovery of dištrict

. To point out the scenes of mines has been, in most instances, very any memorable events, or the birth- accidental. Very few of the metals are place or residence of apy patriot, man found in a pure state ; they are, in geof letters, or remarkable character to neral, like earth in their appearance, describe the state of society, and of without any degree of metallic lustre ; agriculture; and finally, to take notice hence they do not readily attract notice. of the folls and minerals, that have An early opportunity shall be taken, of hitherto been found in each district. giving a short account of the materials In this way, the traveller will be made that commonly accompany metals, of acquainted with fuch objects as may the ufual indication of their presence, appear worthy of his notice or inquiry; and of the effect which metallic mix. and the inhabitant and landlord may te tures have upon the soil. furnished with some hints to promote As the plan is comprehensive, and investigation and researci, which may the materials, for many articles of it, be the means of enriching themselves only to be got from persons interested and benefiting their country:

in these inquiries, we solicit the aid and It has been often observed, that peo. aslistance of such of our readers as can ple are, in general, better acquainted furnish any materials for rendering this, with other countries than their own. account accurate and complete. The Ambition, curiosity, and a sort of pride following is a list of some of the mineof seeing what only the rich few can ac- rals, and precious stones found in complish, drives many to foreign lands. Scotland, of all which more particular They satisfy themselves in thinking, notice will be taken in the fequel of this that their own country will, at all times, account be within their reach. Hence it happens,

SCOTLAND. that we are, in general, indebted to fo

* Most of the gems and precious stones reigners for the topography and natural have been found in Scotland, the diamond history of our own country. It would excepted. surely be a better as well as a more na

Pearls are found in the long-shaped freh tural way of proceeding, to make our

water muscle, called the horse-muscle, (inyfelres fiít acquainted with the laws, discovered in the estuaries of most of the ri

tilus, cygnius, and anatinus.) They have been government, agriculture, natural pro- vers of the north. Pearls are also found in duđions, &c. of our own country, and common oysters, and in the common thus lay a foundation for judging of muscle, though of a small size. those of others, and making the pro- places, of different shades, from a deep, red

The Sapphire has been found in several per comparison between them.

to' a transparent white, and of equal hardness Scotland cannot, at present, show with the oriental. many of the precious metals, but con The topaz is found in many places of the

liderable quantities, both of gold and Highlands, of various colours; the most Buig

filver

, have, at different periods, been beautiful are those that go by the name of obtained from her bowels; and it is mountain where they are found ; they are in

Cairngoram, or Caringarom ftones, from the more than . probable, that the time is crystals of fix fides. not far distant, when, in many counties, The ruby and hyacinth are found near Ely these treasures will again be laid open. in Fife. They are found mixed with the We have been long famous for our lead fand of the fea, but the rock which runs

under the sand is full of them ; few, howmines. Iron-stone and iron-ores we

ever, are of any fize or very pure. have in abundance. Copper has been Emeralds are found in several different

discovered in various places, though, places. ace; at present, it is no where wrought to any

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SCOTLAND comprehends that part of fer the origin of its population. In the the island of Great Britain, lying to Gaelic, Scot or Scode signifies a corner, the north of the river Tweed, and is or small division of a country. Others situated between 54 and 59 degrees of observe, that, in the same language, north latitude. It extends 278 miles the word Scuit signifies a wanderer, and in length ; the breadth is variable, be.. suppose that this may have been the ing in some places 180 miles. Scot- origin of Scot. land contains an area of 27,794 miles. The origin of the people has been

The surface of the country is very warmly disputed by many antiquaries. irregular, being on the whole moun. The most probable conjecture is, either tainous : from the report lately made that they are descended from the Caleto the Agricultural Board, there are donians, on the west; or from the South 12,151,471 acres of cultivated ground, Britions, who being preffed northwards and 14,218,224 uncultivated. It a- by the Gauls, gradually occupied this bounds with rivers and lakes. These part of the island. are, for the most part, skirted with The territory of the ancient Scots, wood, which gives a very picturesque before the annexation of Pictavia, comappearance to the scenery.

prehends all that side of Caledonia, We cannot give any satisfactory ac- which lies along the North and Wefa count of the origin of the name, as tern Ocean, from the Frith of Clyde writers differ so much on this point. to the Orkneys. Towards the east, Some antiquaries make Scot a corruption their dominions were divided from the of Scuyth, or Sythian; hence they in- Pi&tish territories, by those high moun

tains which run from Dumbarton to Amethysts are found of a large size and the Frith of Tain. In process of time good colour, some of an inch over, and have brought 30 and 40 guineas each.

the Scots entirely subdued their neighGarnets are found in great quantity in the bours, the Picts, and gave their own Highlands, fome as large as a walnut. denomination to all Caledonia, Pic

The Cornelians, or Scotch pebbles, are well tavia, and Valentia ; all which are now known, and are no where equalled either in comprehended under the general name variety or beauty.

of Scotland. Fuspers are to be met almost every where. The ipotted jasper, found on Arthur's Seat,

Scotland was divided into thirtyis fingular and beautiful. It used to be wrought three counties or thires, viz. Edininco buttons, which were sold at a high price. burgh, Haddington, Berwick, RoxSimilar specimens have no where else been burgh, Selkirk, Peebles, Lanark, Dumfound. The green jasper, or blood-stone, as it is generally called, from the island of Icoln- fries, Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Ayr, kiln, is a beautiful stone, and answers well Dumbarton, Renfrew, Stirling, Linfor the seal cutter.

lithgow, Perth, Kincardine or Mearns, There is a calcedony, or white cornelian, Aberdeen, Inverness, Nairne and Crofound in Fife, which is equal in colour and martie, Fife, Angus or Forfar, Clackhardness to that brought from the East In

mannan and Kinross, Banff, Ross, Eldies.

Granite, of a very fingular appearance, is gin or Moray, Sutherland, Argyle, Orfound near Portory, and, it is believed, is kney, Bute and Caithness.-Caithness,

where else. When polished, the Nairne, and Clackmannan, being configures very much resemble the Hebrew joined with others, the number is now characters

reduced to thirty; and accordingly only • The foflils and ores found in Scotland are various. It abounds with coal and limestone; thirty members are returned to Parliavariety of iron ores; cobalt, red, green, and ment by the counties. yellow ; silver, gold, lead, antimony, bismouth, In our description we shall nearly &c. zeolites, micaceous stones, asbestus, great follow the order in which they are enuvariety of amianthus, forles, and varieties merated above. of curious earths. All these will be particularly noticed, in describing the places where

(To be continued.) they are found.

found no

REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.

1

Inquiries into the Origin and Progress of unto Sir John Chandos if, by the false

his wife, as nearest cousin by affinitie tbe Science of Heraldry in England, &c. By James Dallaway, A. M. Fellow had not bin made away and alienated

conveyance of the said Katrington, it of the Society of Antiquaries. 4to. into the enimies hands, hee offered thereL.2:2:6. Boards. White.

fore to trie the quarrell by combate, aAS it may be a gratification to our gainst the faide Katrington, whereupon readers to see a minute account of the the fame Katrington was apprehended, manner in which duels authorised by

and putte in prison, but shortly after set law were formerly conducted, we will at libertie againe. lay before them the following extract; Whilst the Duke of Lancaster* during premifing that, though the formalities the time that his father King Edward used on such occafions, were regulated lay in hys last fickneffe, did in al things by the heralds, the battle itself was en what liked him, and so at the contema joined by law, the trial by battle being plation of the lord Latimer, as was part of the jurisprudence of the country, thought, hee released Katrington for the not only in former periods, but at this time, so that Sir John Annelly could not present day; for, though it be now fal come to the effect of his fute in the len into disuetude, Blackstone says that meane time, till nowe. Such as feared " the law which allowed such a mode to be charged with the like offences, “ of trial has never been repealed :". stayed the matter, till at length, by the

“ ANCIENTLY when one person was opinion of true and auntiente knights, accused by another without any further it was defyned, that for such a foreign witness than the bare ipfe dixit of the ac- controverse that hadde not rifen within cuser, the accused party making good the limmittes of the realme, but touchhis own cause by strongly denying the ed poffeffion of thynges on the further fact, the matter was then referred to the side of the fea, it was lawful to have decifion of the sword. If the parties it tryed by battayle, if the cause were were noble, the king himself was always first notified to the conestable and marpresent at the combat, feated on a scaf- shal of the realme, and that the combate fold, attended by the earl marshal and was accepted by the parties. high constable of Eugland, who were to

Hereupon was the day and place apsee that no undue advantage was taken poynted, and all things provided readie, by either party. The conqueror was with lyftes rayled and made fo subftan. then declared innocent, and the van- tially, as if the same shoulde have enquished guilty.

dured for ever. The concourse of people The seventh of June, a combate was that came to London to see this tried, foughte before the King's palace at Weft

was thought to exceede that of the minfter, on the pavement there, betwixt king's coronation, so defyrous were men one Sir John Annesley knight, and one to behold a light so strange and unaccufThomas Katrington esquier.

tomed. The occasion of this strange and no The king and his nobles, and all the table triall rose hereof. The knight ac- people being come togyther in the morncused the esquier of treason, for that ing of the day appoynted, to the place where the fortreffe of Sainte Saviour where the lyftes were fet up, the knight within the isle of Constantine in Nor- being armed and mounted on a fayre mandie, belonging sometime to Sir John courfer seemely trapped, entered first as Chandos, had bin

committed to the said appellant, staying til his adversarie the deKatrington, as Captayne thereof, to fendant should come. And shortly after keepe it against the enemies, he hadde

was the esquier called to defend his

cause, for money folde and delivered it over to in this fourme. Thomas Katrington dethe Frenchmen, when he was sufficient. fendant, come and appeare to save the ly provided, of men, munition and vit. action, 'for which Sir John Annesley tayles, to have defended it against them; knight and appellant, haih publiquely, and Gith the inheritance of that fortreffe, and by writing, apelled thee: he being and lands belonging thereto, had apper

* The famous John of Ghent. teyned to the said Annelley in righte of

G

thus VOL. LVIII.

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