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SCOTS

THE

MAGAZINE

For JULY 1796.

MEMOIRS OF THE LATE GEORGE CAMPBELL, D. D.

D

PRINCIPAL OF THE MARISCHAL COLLEGE OF ABERDEEN.

R CAMPBELL was born at Aberdeen in 1719. His father, the Rev. Colin Campbell, was one of the minifters of that city. He was educated in his native city, and after paffing the ufual course of academical learning, he ftudied divinity, under the Rev. J. Chalmers, profeffor of divinity in the Marifchal college. He was, in 1749, an unfuccefsful candidate for the church of Fordown, against Mr Forbes. This is one of the benefices which are in the gift of the Crown; and it is a rule with his Majesty's Minifters to give the living to that candidate who has the majority of land-owners in his favour. In this Mr Campbell failed by a very fmall number. In 1750, he was prefented by Sir Thomas Burnett, of Leys, to the living of Banchary Ternan, on the Dee, about twenty miles weft from Aberdeen from this he was tranflated to Aberdeen, in 1756, and nominated one of the city minifters, in the room of Mr John Biffet, deceased, a puritan of the old school, whofe ftrictnefs and peculiarities are yet remembered by many in that place..

In 1759, on the decease of Principal Pollock, he was chofen Principal of Marifchal college, and fucceeded to the divinity chair in 1771, on Dr Alexander Gerard being tranflated to the profefforship of divinity in King's college

amiable woman died abont a year before him. They were an eminent pattern of conjugal affection.

From this time, he enjoyed a remarkable fhare of good health and fpirits. He had, all his life, a rooted aversion to medicine. He got the better of every ailment, by a total and rigorous abftinence from all kind of fuftenance whatever, and it was not till he was attacked by an alarming illness, about two years before his death, that he was perfuaded by his friends to call in medical aid. What nature could do, the had all along performed well, but her day was over, and fomething of art became neceffary. Then, for the first time, he owned the utility of medical men, and declared his recantation of the very mean opinion he had formerly entertained of them and their art. A few months before his death, he refigned his offices of Principal, Profeffor of Divinity, and one of the city minifters, and was in all fucceeded by Dr W. L. Brown, late of Utrecht, and from the fame and character of this gentleman, it may be afferted, with fome confidence, that a more worthy fucceffor could not well have been found. to

He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and was elected a member of the Edinburgh Royal Society, but at what time, has efcaped the memory of Before his fettling in Aberdeen, the writer of this article. He died he maried Mifs Grace Farquharfon, on the 6th of April laft, in the 77th aughter of Mr Farquharfon, of White- year of his age.

hofe, by whom he had no iffue. This Dr Campbell, as a public teacher,

LVIII.

4 P

was

was long admired for the clearness and tions which ignorance, craft, and hypocopiousness with which he illuftrated crify had introduced into religion, and the great doctrines and precepts of re- applied his talent for ridicule to the best ligion, and the ftrength and energy with of all purpofes, to hold up to contempt which he enforced them. Intimately the abfurdities with which the pureft perfuaded of the truth, and infinite con- and fublimeft truths had been loaded. fequence of what revelation teaches, he Placed at the head of a public femi was ftrongly defirous of carrying the nary of learning, he felt all the imporfame convictions to the minds of his tance of fuch a fituation, and uniformly hearers, and delivered his difcourfes directed his influence to public utility, with that zeal which flows from ftrong His enlarged and enlightened mind, justimpreffions, and that power of perfua- ly appreciated the extenfive confequence fion, which is the refult of fincerity of of the education of youth. He anticiheart, combined with clearnefs of un- pated all the effects refulting to the derftanding. He was fatisfied that the great community of mankind, from num more the pure dictates of the gofpel bers of young men iffuing, in regular were ftudied, the more they would ap- fucceffion, from the univerfity over prove themselves to the mind, and bring which he prefided, and occupying the forth, in the affections and conduct, all different departments of focial life. His the peaceable fruits of righteoufnefs. benevolent heart delighted to represent The unadulterated dictates of Chrifti- to itself the ftudents under his direction anity, he was, therefore, only ftudious ufefully and honourably discharging the to recommend and inculcate, and knew refpective duties of their different properfectly to difcriminate them from the feffions; and fome of them, perhaps, inventions and traditions of men. His filling the most diftinguished stations of chief ftudy ever was to direct belief to civil fociety. With thefe profpects bethe great object of practice; and with fore him, he conftantly directed his puout these, he viewed the most orthodox blic conduct to their attainment. He profeffion, as "a founding brafs, and a never fuffered his judgment to be warptinkling cymbal." But, befides the cha- ed by prejudice or partiality, or his heart racter of a preacher of righteousness, he to be feduced by paffion or private inhad also that of a teacher of the science tereft. Those mean and ignoble moof divinity to fuftain. How admirably tives, by which many are actuated in he discharged this duty, and with what the discharge of important trufts, apeffect he conveyed the foundest and proached not his mind. A certain homost profitable instruction to the minds nourable pride, if pride it may be cal of his scholars, let thofe declare, who led, diffufed an uniform dignity over are now in various congregations of this the whole of his behaviour. He felt country, communicating to their fellow the man degraded by the perverfion of Chriftians, the fruits of their studies un- public character. His understanding der fo able and judicious a teacher. alfo clearly fhowed him even perfonal Difcarding all attachment to human fyf- advantage attached to fuch principles tems, merely confidered as fuch, he tied and practice, as he adopted from a sense his faith to the Word of God alone, of obligation, and thofe elevated conpoffeffed the happiest talent in invefti- ceptions of real worth which were fo gating its meaning, and communicating congenial to his foul. He faw, he exto his hearers the refult of his own in- perienced, efteem, refpect, and influence, quiries, with a precifion and perfpicui- following in the train of integrity and ty which brought light out of obfcurity, beneficence; but contempt, difgrace, aand rendered clear and fimple, what verfion, and complete infignisance, appeared intricate and perplexed. He clofely linked to corruption and felfifkexposed, without referve, the corrup- nefs. Little minds are feduced end

ver

overpowered by selfish confiderations, much affected by general character. because they have not the capacity to look beyond the prefent advantage, and to extend to the mifery that ftands on the other fide of it. The fame circum ftance that betrays the perversity of their hearts, also evinces the weakness of their judgments.

His reputation as a writer, is as extenfive as the prefent intercourfe of letters; not confined to his own country, but fpread through every civilived nation. In his literary pursuits, he aim ed not, as is very often the cafe with men of distinguished literary abilities, merely at establishing his own celebrity, or encreafing his fortune, but had chiefly at heart, the defence of the great cause of religion, or the elucidation of her dictates. At an early period, he entered the lifts as a champion for Christianity, against one of its acuteft opponents. He not only triumphantly refuted his arguments, but even conciliated his refpect by the handsome and dextrous manner in which his defence was conducted. While he refuted the infidel, he spared the man, and exhibited the uncommon fpectacle of a polemical writer, poffeffing all the moderation of a Chriftian. But while he defended Chriftianity against its enemies, he was defirous of contributing his endeavours to encrease, among its profeffors, the knowledge of the facred writings. Accordingly, in the latter part of his life, he favoured the world with a work, the fruit of copious erudition, of unwearied application (for almoft thirty years) and of a clear and comprehenfive judgment. We have only to regret that the other writings on the New Teftament have not been elucidated by the fame pen that tranflated the gofpels. Nor were his literary merits confined to theology, and the studies more immediately connected with it. Philofophy, and the fine arts are alfo indebted to his genius and labours; and in him the polite scholar was eminently joined to the deep and liberal devine.

Political principies will always be
VOL. LVIII.

This was also the cafe with Dr Campbell. In politics, he maintained that moderation which is the fureft criterion of truth and rectitude, and was equally diftant from thofe extremes into which men are fo apt to run on great political questions. He cherished that patriotifm which confifts in wishing and endeavouring to promote, the greatest happiness of his country, and is always fubordinate to univerfal benevolence. Firmly attached to the British conftitution, he was animated with that genuine love of liberty which it inspires and invigorates. He was equally averfe to defpotifm and to popular anarchy, the two evils into which political parties are so frequently hurried, to the destruc-` tion of all that is valuable in govern ment. Party-fpirit, of whatever defcription, he confidered as having an unhappy tendency to pervert to the most pernicious purposes, the best principles of the human mind, and to clothe the moft iniquitous actions with the most fpecious appearances. Although tenacious of thofe fentiments, whether in religion or politics, which he was 'convinced to be rational and juft, he never fuffered mere difference of opinion to impair his good-will, to obftruct his good offices, or to cloud the chearfulnefs of converfation. His own converfation was enlivened by a vein of the most agreeable pleafantry. He poffeffed an uncommon facility of paffing from the graveft to the most airy fubjects, and from the livelieft to the graveft, without degrading the one or diminishing the pleasure of the other. The infirmities of age abated not the chearfulness of his temper, nor did even the perfuafion of approaching diffolution, impair his ferenity.

The following is a lift of his works: 1752. A Sermon before the Synod of Aberdeen.

1761. An Effay on Miracles, against Mr Hume. This treatife is well known to the learned world. He obtained no fmail thare of reputation, not only from 3 &

the

the able manner in which he handled the fubject, but from the liberal style in which he addreffed his antagonist. It was fpeedily tranflated into French, Dutch, and German.

1771. A Sermon before the Society for propogating Chriftian knowledge, Edinburgh.

before the Synod of

1777. A Sermon on the King's Faft Day, on Allegiance, first printed in 4to, and afterwards, at the expence of Government, 6000 copies were printed in 12mo, enlarged with notes, and fent to America, when the unhappy struggle had, however, put on appearances which prevented the effect hoped for from this fermon.

Aberdeen.

1776. The Philofophy of Rhetoric, 2 vols. 8vo. A work which discovers a clearness of difcernment, and accuracy of observation, which juftly entitle him to be ranked among the most judicious critics. He entered on this Inquiry in 1750, when a part of the work was compofed. The laws of elegant compofition and criticism are laid down with great perfpicuity.

1780. An Address to the People of Scotland, on the alarms which have been raised by what is called the Popifh Bill. This is a powerful disuasive from bigotry, and every fpecies of religious perfecution.

1793. His Magnum Opus. The tranflation of the Gotpels, with preliminary Differtations, 2 vols. 4to.

TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 374.

PRESTONPANS extends along the fifh of various kinds alfo caught in this Frith about 3 miles, on an average it neighbourhood. About a mile from is lefs than one in breadth, and con- the town is the field where the battle tains fomewhat above 2000 perfons. of Prefton was fought, in September Ravenfhaugh-burn, the weft boundary 1745, with fo much unaccountable of the parish, divides the county of Eaft fuccefs on the part of the rebel army. from Mid-Lothian. The foil here is Of the eminent men connected with this of a rich loamy nature, partly on a clay, parifh may be mentioned James Erskine and partly on gravel. The ground is, of Grange, Lord Juftice Clerk in the in general, well cultivated, and rents time of Queen Anne; Hugh Dalrymple, from two guineas and a half to L. 3 Lord Drummore; William Grant of 10s. The whole rental is about Prestongrange, Lord Advocate in L. 2480 Sterling. The inclofures are 1746, and who conducted the arduous moftly dykes of stone and lime. In this duties of that office, during that turbulent neighbourhood there are thriving ma- period, with much honour and fidelity. nufactories of falt, ftone, and earth- He was afterwards promoted to a Lord en ware; and of vitriol, fpirit of falt, of Sefhon, and to a Jufticiary gown. and glauber falts. The oyfter fishing Coal abounds here, but none has been has been long an object of fome impor- wrought for a period of 30 years, owtance here. Within these few years ing to a cheap fupply from the neighthey have fallen upon a method of fend- bourhood. ing the oyfters to England, which has greatly reduced the quantity. from the fcalps being over dredged. There are

The parish of INNERWICK efcaped us when going round the east corner of this county. It lies to the east of Dunbar, and extends from the ocean fouthward about 12 miles.

*The oyfter spawns in May, and does not recover till the end of Auguft. Hence the common obfervation, that an oyfter is never good except in those month in which there is an R. Pandore oyfters are the beft, i. e.

Its breadth is those taken near the doors of the falt pans, as they always breed beft in water that is brackish,

various,

*

various, from 2 to 6 miles, containing about 960 perfons. Excepting between 2000 and 3000 acres on the coast, the country is hilly and bleak. The low grounds are light and fandy; the parish, on the whole, may be fuppofed to bring about 4000l. per annum of real rent. The rent of land for tillage is 21. os. per acre, a high tack-duty for the quality of the foil, but it is owing chiefly to the great quantity of fare-ware got for manure. Being in the way from the border towards the capital, there are, as may be supposed, remains of encampments here, and many beautiful tumuli, fuppofed to have been burying places. On the fhore there is plenty of lime. ftone, and fome veins of coal alfo appear, though none has been wrought; as ufual, in fuch places, there is plenty of freeftone.

COUNTY OF BERWICK, OR MERSE

THIз County has long been nominally divided into three districts, viz. the Merfe, Lammermuir, and Lauderdale. The first includes the flat part of the county, ftretching along the banks of the Tweed to Berwick, 25 miles in length and about 15 in breadth; and being the most important, gave its name to the whole countyt.

This county is of a quadrangular form, but all its fides are waving and unequal. On the north it is bounded by Eaft Lothian; on the east by the German Ocean; on the fouth-east and fouth by the river Tweed, the English border, and Roxburghshire; and on the weft by the fhires of Edinburgh and Peebles. Its greateft length, from weft to eaft, is 33 miles, and from fouth to north it is about 16 miles. The chain of Lammermuir hills, from Soutra hill * This is probably a corruption of March, being on the march or boundary between Engiand and Scotland.

It is computed that above 80,000 bolls of victual are exported from this county at Berwick and Eyemouth, and an equal quantity transported by land-carriage to Edinburgh, Haddington, and Dunbar.

to the fea, occupy the north line of the county; they are bleak and barren, having little or no timber. The grounds fouthward from this ridge are, in general, flat, fertile, and well cultivated. The most remarkable rivers are the Tweed, which from Coldftream to Berwick feparates this county from vorthumberland. Whiteadd rand Blackadder take their rife in the Lammermuir hills, and after joining their streams near Allanbank, empty themfelves into the Tweed. The London road by Cornhill goes through the west divifion of the county from Channelkirk to Coldftream by Lauder and Greenlaw. The eaft London road, by Berwick, paffes through the east corner by the Peefebridge, the Prefs, and Coldingham muir; and there is another great road to Edinburgh from Berwick, by Dunfe, which is kept in good repair. The minerals in this district, hitherto dif covered, are few. Near Lauder, at the head of the diftrict, various fpecimens of copper ore have been found. In the parish of Boncle, a copper mine was worked fome years ago on the eftate of Lord Douglas. There has been no difcoveries of coal, but on the coaft near Eyemouth; though there is no limeftone as yet found in the whole county, in many districts there are pits of excellent marl, chiefly ftone and clay marl. The rich and fertile ftrath from the foot of the Lammermuir to the river Tweed had, fcarcely 40 years ago, a very bleak and naked appearance; now it is rich and highly cultivated, well inclofed, and is one of the finest districts in the island. quarter has the use of lime been of more fervice, or more generally employed as manure. Through almoft the whole of it, agriculture is carried on with much fpirit, industry, and success.

In no

On leaving Eaft Lothian, or the county of Haddington, travelling fouthward, we enter this county in the parish of A corruption of Whitewater, and Black

water.

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