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midical form. It is fuppofed to be two leagues from the plain to the higheft fummit; but the way is fo bad, that fetting out early in the morning, it can not be gained till two hours after midday; and the height is fo prodigious, that the failors begin to defery it twenty legaues at fea. Though the fummit of the rock, when viewed from the bottom in the plain, appears like a point, it forms a terrace 203 paces in diameter, in the centre of which is a large and deap lake of fome of the best water in the world. Thence proceed feveral freams, which fall in torrents down the fides of the mountain, and, uniting, form three great rivers in the plain. Near the lake is a large stone, on which is the print of a man's foot, as perfectly engraved as if the impreffion had been made on wax. The Cinglaffes are perfuaded, that it is a veftige of the first man, and, therefore, they have called the mountain Hammalella, or Adam's Mount, which the Portuguefe have tranflated Pice de Adam, that is Adam's Peak. Some tradition, mingled with fable, must have been received from the difperfed commercial Jews, concerning the first ancestors of the human race; for the natives believe that the first man was created here; that the lake arofe from the tears fhed by Eve on the death of Abel; and that Cevlon was part of the terrestrial paradife. The principal product of Ceylon is cinnamon, of which, as it is peculiar to this ifland, we fhall give a more particular account in our next. Befide cinnamon, Ceylon produces many things with which the inhabitants might carry on a great trade; fuch as long pepper, feveral drugs and roots ufeful in dying and in medicine, cardamom, mirabolans, filk, tobacco, ebony, excellent timber for building, lead ore, betel, wild honey, mufk, wax, cryfal, faltpetre, fulphur, fugar, rice (of which the Dutch carry great quantities to the coat of Coromandel) iron, fteel, copper, gold and filver, all forts of precious ftones, except diamonds, and
laftly, elephants. The mines of gold and filver, indeed, are prohibited to be worked; the precious ftones are all referved for the king; and fulphur and faltpetre are not allowed to be exported, but are refined on the island. Hence, the commerce of the Dutch may be faid to be confined almost to cinnamon; and even for this they trade only with the natives adjoining to their fettlements, who are kept under fubjection by the awe of their garrifons. The Dutch, however, export a confiderable number of elephants from Ceylon to India, where they are much valued, the fmalleft felling for upwards of forty guineas, and the largest for about feventy pounds fterling. Their teeth are larger, whiter, and of a finer grain than any that come from India or Africa. Before the Europeans appeared in India, the Chinese were mafters of the trade of Ceylon; afterward the Perfians, Arabians, and Ethiopians, came in for a fhare of it; and fince the Portuguefe were expelled from the island, the Dutch have excluded all other nations from any share in its trade.
In the inland country of Ceylon are reckoned five capital cities; namely, Candy, the metropolis of the ifland, and the refidence of most of the kings, till it was taken and burnt by the Portuguefe; but it being found to be too much expofed, the royal feat was removed to Nellembyneur, a city more in the heart of the country. The third city is Alloutneur, which lies to the north east of Candy. The fourth is Batoula, which is between fixty and seventy miles to the east of Candy; and the fifth is Digligineur, fituate between Candy and Batoula.
The Dutch East India Company are poffeffed, not only of the whole coaft of Ceylon, but of ten or twelve leagues within land. Their principal harbours lie on the eastern coast. Trincomale is reckoned the best and finest harbour in the Eaft Indies; that of Batacola, more to the fouthward, is lefs reforted to, and little or no trade is carried on thence. At the promontory, called Point de
Galle, on the fouth-west coast, the Dutch have the strength of their government, and here their fhips take in their cargoes for Europe. Colombo and Negambo, lie on the weft fide of the island, in the part called the Cinnamon coaft: the former is the principal ftation in the colony at the latter the fineft cinnamon is procured. The company have introduced the culture of pepper and coffee, the chief of which is drawn from the country about Matara.
The town and forts of Trincomale are fituate on the eaft fide of the island, in 81 52" of eaft longitude, and 80 45 of north latitude, on a narrow ftrip of land, running between the fea and a gulf which forms the harbour, and which is entered within land from a very fpacious bay. On the 5th of January 1782, the British fleet, commanded by Sir Edward Hughes, appeared before Trincomale, which being defended only by three officers and forty foldiers, was foon taken. The governor with the chief of his force, retired to fort Oftenburg, which ftands on a hill commanding the harbour; but the place was taken by storm fix days after. The harbour, in which the most numerous fleets may anchor with the greatest fafety, was highly ferviceable to the British fleet, on account of its vicinity to the coaft of Coromandel, and the opportunity it afforded of refitting the fhips
that received damage, either in tempets or in action. On the 12th of April following (at the very inftant that Sir George Brydges Rodney was gaining a complete victory in the West Indies) a defperate, but indecifive engagement was fought, near Ceylon, between the British and French Admirals, Sir Edward Hughes and M. de Suffrein: after which, the harbour of Trincomale received the British fleet, while the French commander availed himself of that of Batacola. Another indecifive engagement took place on the 6th of July; but a ftrong reinforcement of fhips and foldiers having joined the French fleet, the commander proceeded to attack Trincomale, Auguft 16, which, together with fort Oftenburgh, was reduced in five days. Two days after, Sir Edward Hughes appeared off the place with his fleet. This brought on another engagement, which was bravely fuftained by the English against a great fuperiority of force, but produced no advantages on either fide. During the continuance of the war, the poffeffion of the harbour of Trincomale gave the French a great afcendency in the Indian feas. Trincomale is once more in the poffeffion of the British; and, for the particular account of this important conqueft, we refer to the London Gazettes in this number.
TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND. TILL very lately, there was no connected account to be found of the agriculture, population, antiquities, curiofities, and natural productions of Scotland; and although moft of thefe very important articles are particularly noticed in that very valuable and patriotic, but voluminous work, the Statistical Account of Scotland, yet the mineralogy of the country is there but flightly touched upon. This may be partly owing to that branch of science being but little, till of late, attended to, and partly to the difficulty of procuring information on the fubject. Scotland, however, is pregnant with mineral treasure; and one chief object of the prefent undertaking is, to excite
a curiofity, and a fpirit of inquiry after thefe hidden fources of amufement and wealth. In the following account of Scotland, it is intended to give a defcription of the various minerals, hitherto discovered, and to point out the places where they have been found. But, in doing this, great minutencfs regarding the properties and proportions of every mineral or foffil cannot be expected, as most of them have never been analyfed, and many of the mines found in Scotland, have never been wrought, nor the metals affayed. Befides, fuch defcriptions could only be of fervice to a few who are advanced in that science; a more general account will, therefore,
fully anfwer the purpose of this under taking.
The plan intended is, to give, in a fhort compafs, a defcription of the external appearance of each county or district. To point out the scenes of any memorable events, or the birthplace or refidence of any patriot, man of letters, or remarkable character-to defcribe the state of fociety, and of agriculture; and finally, to take notice of the foffils and minerals, that have hitherto been found in each diftrict. In this way, the traveller will be made acquainted with fuch objects as may appear worthy of his notice or inquiry; and the inhabitant and landlord may be furnished with fome hints to promote inveftigation and refearch, which may be the means of enriching themselves and benefiting their country.
It has been often obferved, that people are, in general, better acquainted with other countries than their own. Ambition, curiofity, and a fort of pride of feeing what only the rich few can accomplish, drives many to foreign lands. They fatisfy themfelves in thinking, that their own country will, at all times, be within their reach. Hence it happens, that we are, in general, indebted to foreigners for the topography and natural hiftory of our own country. It would furely be a better as well as a more natural way of proceeding, to make ourfelves first acquainted with the laws, government, agriculture, natural productions, &c. of our own country, and thus lay a foundation for judging of thofe of others, and making the proper comparison between them.
Scotland cannot, at prefent, fhow many of the precious metals, but confiderable quantities, both of gold and filver, have, at different periods, been obtained from her bowels; and it is more than probable, that the time is not far diftant, when, in many counties, thefe treafures will again be laid open. We have been long famous for our lead mines. Iron-ftone and iron-ores we have in abundance. Copper has been discovered in various places, though, at prefent, it is no where wrought to any
extent. Of late, a very rich mine of antimony has been fet a-going, richer, it is believed, than any that is at prefent known in the world. Befides, it may be obferved, that the difcovery of mines has been, in most instances, very accidental. Very few of the metals are found in a pure ftate; they are, in general, like earth in their appearance, without any degree of metallic lustre; hence they do not readily attract notice. An early opportunity fhall be taken, of giving a fhort account of the materials that commonly accompany metals, of the ufual indication of their prefence, and of the effect which metallic mixtures have upon the soil.
As the plan is comprehenfive, and the materials, for many articles of it, only to be got from perfons interested in these inquiries, we folicit the aid and affiftance of fuch of our readers as çan furnifh any materials for rendering this, account accurate and complete.-The following is a lift of fome of the minerals, and precious ftones found in Scotland, of all which more particular notice will be taken in the fequel of this account
*Most of the gems and precious stones have been found in Scotland, the diamond excepted.
Pearls are found in the long-shaped fresh water mufcle, called the horse-muscle, (mydifcovered in the eftuaries of most of the ri tilus, cygnius, and anatinus.) They have been vers of the north. Pearls are alfo found in our common oyfters, and in the common muscle, though of a small size.
places, of different fhades, from a deep red
with the oriental.
The topaz is found in many places of the Highlands, of various colours; the most beautiful are thofe that go by the name of mountain where they are found; they are in Cairngoram, or Caringarom ftones, from the cryftals of fix fides,
The ruby and byacinth are found near Ely in Fife. They are found mixed with the fand of the fea, but the rock which runs under the fand is full of them; few, however, are of any fize or very pure.
Emeralds are found in feveral different
SCOTLAND comprehends that part of the island of Great Britain, lying to the north of the river Tweed, and is fituated between 54 and 59 degrees of north latitude. It extends 278 miles in length; the breadth is variable, being in fome places 180 miles. Scotland contains an area of 27,794 miles. The furface of the country is very irregular, being on the whole mountainous: from the report lately made to the Agricultural Board, there are 12,151,471 acres of cultivated ground, and 14,218,224 uncultivated. It abounds with rivers and lakes. Thefe are, for the most part, fkirted with wood, which gives a very picturefque appearance to the fcenery.
We cannot give any fatisfactory account of the origin of the name, as writers differ fo much on this point. Some antiquaries make Scot a corruption of Scuyth, or Sythian; hence they in
Amethysts are found of a large fize and good colour, fome of an inch over, and have brought 30 and 40 guineas each.
Garnets are found in great quantity in the Highlands, fome as large as a walnut.
The Cornelians, or Scotch pebbles, are well known, and are no where equalled either in variety or beauty.
fufpers are to be met almost every where. The fpotted jafper, found on Arthur's Seat, is fingular and beautiful. It used to be wrought into buttons, which were fold at a high price. Similar fpecimens have no where elfe been found. The green jasper, or blood-ftone, as
it is generally called, from the ifland of Icolm kiln, is a beautiful stone, and answers well
for the feal cutter.
There is a calcedony, or white cornelian, found in Fife, which is equal in colour and hardness to that brought from the Eaft Indies.
Granite, of a very fingular appearance, is found near Portory, and, it is believed, is found no where elfe. When polifhed, the figures very much refemble the Hebrew
The foffils and ores found in Scotland are
various. It abounds with coal and limestone; variety of iron ores; cobalt, red, green, and yellow; filver, gold, lead, antimony, bifmouth, &c. zeolites, micaceous ftones, afbeftus, great variety of amianthus, fhorles, and varieties of curious earths. All these will be particularly noticed, in defcribing the places where they are found.
fer the origin of its population. In the Gaelic, Scot or Scode fignifies a corner, or fmall divifion of a country. Others obferve, that, in the fame language, the word Scuit fignifies a wanderer, and fuppofe that this may have been the origin of Scot.
The origin of the people has been warmly difputed by many antiquaries." The moft probable conjecture is, either that they are defcended from the Caledonians, on the weft; or from the South Britions, who being preffed northwards by the Gauls, gradually occupied this part of the island.
The territory of the ancient Scots, before the annexation of Pictavia, comprehends all that fide of Caledonia, which lies along the North and Weftern Ocean, from the Frith of Clyde to the Orkneys. Towards the east, their dominions were divided from the Pictifh territories, by thofe high mountains which run from Dumbarton to the Frith of Tain. In procefs of time the Scots entirely fubdued their neighbours, the Picts, and gave their own denomination to all Caledonia, Pictavia, and Valentia; all which are now comprehended under the general name
Scotland was divided into thirtythree counties or fhires, viz.-Edinburgh, Haddington, Berwick, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, Lanark, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Ayr, Dumbarton, Renfrew, Stirling, Linlithgow, Perth, Kincardine or Mearns, Aberdeen, Invernefs, Nairne and Cromartie, Fife, Angus or Forfar, Clackmannan and Kinross, Banff, Rofs, ELgin or Moray, Sutherland, Argyle, Orkney, Bute and Caithnefs.-Caithness, Nairne, and Clackmannan, being conjoined with others, the number is now reduced to thirty; and accordingly only thirty members are returned to Parlia ment by the counties.
In our defcription we fhall nearly follow the order in which they are enumerated above.
(To be continued.)
REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.
Inquiries into the Origin and Progress of the Science of Heraldry in England, &c. By James Dallaway, A. M. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 4to. L. 2:2:6. Boards. White.
AS it may be a gratification to our readers to fee a minute account of the manner in which duels authorised by law were formerly conducted, we will lay before them the following extract; premifing that, though the formalities ufed on fuch occafions, were regulated by the heralds, the battle itself was enjoined by law, the trial by battle being part of the jurifprudence of the country, not only in former periods, but at this prefent day; for, though it be now fallen into difuetude, Blackstone fays that "the law which allowed fuch a mode "of trial has never been repealed:"
"ANCIENTLY when one perfon was accufed by another without any further witness than the bare ipfe dixit of the accufer, the accufed party making good his own cause by ftrongly denying the fact, the matter was then referred to the decifion of the fword. If the parties were noble, the king himself was always prefent at the combat, feated on a scaffold, attended by the earl marshal and high conftable of England, who were to fee that no undue advantage was taken by either party. The conqueror was then declared innocent, and the vanquifhed guilty.
The feventh of June, a combate was foughte before the King's palace at Weftminfter, on the pavement there, betwixt one Sir John Annesley knight, and one Thomas Katrington efquier.
The occafion of this ftrange and notable triall rofe hereof. The knight accufed the efquier of treafon, for that where the fortreffe of Sainte Saviour within the ifle of Conftantine in Normandie, belonging fometime to Sir John Chandos, had bin committed to the faid Katrington, as Captayne thereof, to keepe it against the enemies, he hadde for money folde and delivered it over to the Frenchmen, when he was fufficient ly provided, of men, munition and vit tayles, to have defended it against them; and fith the inheritance of that fortreffe, and lands belonging thereto, had apperteyned to the said Annesley in righte of VOL. LVIII.
his wife, as nearest coufin by affinitie unto Sir John Chandos if, by the falfe conveyance of the faid Katrington, it had not bin made away and alienated into the enimies hands, hee offered therefore to trie the quarrell by combate, against the faide Katrington, whereupon the fame Katrington was apprehended, and putte in prifon, but shortly after fet at libertie againe.
Whilft the Duke of Lancaster* during the time that his father King Edward lay in hys laft fickneffe, did in al things what liked him, and fo at the contemplation of the lord Latimer, as was thought, hee released Katrington for the time, fo that Sir John Annefly could not come to the effect of his fute in the meane time, till nowe. Such as feared to be charged with the like offences, stayed the matter, till at length, by the opinion of true and auntiente knights, it was defyned, that for such a foreign controverfe that hadde not rifen within the limmittes of the realme, but touched poffeffion of thynges on the further fide of the fea, it was lawful to have it tryed by battayle, if the cause were firft notified to the coneftable and marfhal of the realme, and that the combate was accepted by the parties.
Hereupon was the day and place appoynted, and all things provided readie, with lyftes rayled and made fo fubftantially, as if the fame fhoulde have endured for ever. The concourfe of people that came to London to fee this tried, was thought to exceede that of the king's coronation, fo defyrous were men to behold a fight so strange and unaccuftomed.
The king and his nobles, and all the people being come togyther in the morning of the day appoynted, to the place where the lyftes were fet up, the knight being armed and mounted on a fayre courfer feemely trapped, entered first as appellant, staying til his adverfarie the defendant fhould come. And shortly after was the efquier called to defend his cause, in this fourme. Thomas Katrington defendant, come and appeare to fave the action, for which Sir John Annesley knight and appellant, hath publiquely, and by writing, apelled thee: he being *The famous John of Ghent. G