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Overpowered by selfish confiderations, much affected by general character. because they have not the capacity to This was also the case with Dr Camplook beyond the present advantage, and bell. In politics, he maintained that to extend to the misery that stands on moderation which is the surelt criterion the other side of it. 'The fame circum- of truth and rectitude, and was equally itance that betrays the perversity of their distant from those extremes into which hearts, also evinces the weakness of their men are fo apt to run on great political judgments.
He cherished that patriHis reputation as a writer, is as ex- otism which consists in wishing and tenlive as the present intercourse of endeavouring to promote, the greatest letters; not confined to his own country, happiness of his country, and is always but spread through every civilived na subordinate to universal benevolence. tion. In his literary pursuits, he aim. Firmly attached to the British conftitued not, as is very often the case with tion, he was animated with that genuine men of distinguished literary abilities, love of liberty which it inspires and inmerely at establishing his own celebrity, vigorates. He was equally averse to or encreasing his fortune, but had chiefs despotism and to popular anarchy, the ly at heart, the defence of the great two evils into which political parties cause of religion, or the elucidation of are so frequently hurried, to the destrucher dictates. At an early period, he tion of all that is valuable in governentered the lifts as a champion for ment. Party-spirit, of whatever defChristianity, against one of its acutest cription, he coosidered as having an opponents. He not only triumphantly unhappy tendency to pervert to the most refuted his arguments, but even con- pernicious purposes, the best principles ciliated his respect by the handsome and of the human mind, and to clothe the dextrous manner in which his defence most iniquitous actions with the most was conducted. While he refuted the specious appearances. Although tenainfidel, be spared the man, and exhibit- cious of those sentiments, whether in ed the uncommon spectacle of a pole. religion or politics, which he was conmical writer, possessing all the modera. vinced to be rational and just, he never tion of a Christian. But while he de. suffered mere difference of opinion to fended Christianity against its enemies, impair his good-will, to obstruct his he was desirous of contributing his good offices, or to cloud the chearfulendeavours to encrease, among its pro- ness of conversation. His own confeffors, the knowledge of the facred versation was enlivened by a vein of writings. Accordingly, in the latter part the most agreeable pleasantry. He pofof his life, he favoured the world with seffed an uncommon facility of passing a work, the frụit of copious erudition, from the gravest to the most airy sub
of unwearied application (for almost jects, and from the liveliest to the grave · thirty years) and of a clear and com- est, without degrading the one or di
prehensive judgment. We have only minishing the pleasure of the other. The
Political principles will always be snail thare of reputation, not only from
the able manner in which he handled 1777. A Sermon on the King's Fast the subject, but from the liberal style in Day, on Allegiance, first printed in 4to, which he addressed his antagonist
. It and afterwards, at the expence of Gowas fpeedily translated into French, vernment, 6000 copies were printed in Dutch, and German.
12mo, enlarged with notes, and sent to 1771. A Sermon before the Society America, when the unhappy struggle for propogating Christian knowledge, had, however, put on appearances which Edinburgh.
prevented the effecc hoped for from this before the Synod of sermon. Aberdeen.
1780. An Address to the People of 1776. The Philosophy of Rhetoric, Scotland, on the alarms which bave 2 vols. 8vo. A work which discovers been raised by what is called the Poa clearness of discernment, and accura- pish Bill. This is a powerful disuasive cy of observation, which justly entitle from bigotry, and every species of rehim to be ranked among the most judi- ligious persecution. cious critics. He entered on this In
1793. His Magnum Opus. The transqury in 1750, when a part of the work lation of the Gotpels, with preliminary was composed. The laws of elegant Differtations, 2 vols. 4to. composition and criticism are laid down with great perfpicuity.
TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 374. PRESTONPANS extends along the fish of various kinds also caught in this Frith about 3 miles, on an average it neighbourhood. About a mile from is less than one in breadth, and con. the town is the field where the battle tains somewhat above 2000 persons. of Preston was fought, in September Ravenshaugh-burn, the west boundary 1745, with so much unaccountable of the parish, divides the county of East fuccess on the part of the rebel army. from Mid-Lothian. The soil here is Of the eminent men connected with this of a rich loamy nature, partly on a clay, parish may be mentioned James Erskine and partly on gravel. The ground is, of Grange, Lord Justice Clerk in the in general, well cultivated, and rents time of Queen Anne; Hugh Dalrymple, from two guineas and a half to L. 3 Lord Drummore ; William Grant of
The whole rental is about Prestongrange, Lord Advocate in L. 2480 Sterling The inclosures are 1746, and who conducted the arduous mostly dykes of stone and lime. In this duties of that office, during that turbulent neighbourhood there are thriving ma- period, with much honour and fidelity. nufactories of salt, stone, and earth. He was afterwards promoted to a Lord en ware; and of vitriol, spirit of salt, of Seson, and to a Justiciary gown. and glauber salts. The oyster fishing Coal abounds here, but none has been has been long an object of some impor. wrought for a period of 30 years, owtance here. Within these few years ing to a cheap supply from the neighthey have fallen upon a method of send- bourhood. ing the oysters to England, which has The parish of INNERWICK escaped us greatly reduced the quantity, from the when going round the east corner of scalps being over dredged. There are this county. It lies to the east of Dun
* The oyster spawis in May, and does bar, and extends from the ocean southnot recover till the end of August
. Hence ward about 12 miles. Its breadth is the common observation, that an oyster is never those taken near the doors of the salt pans, good except in those month, in which there as they always breed beft in water that is is an R. Pandore oysters are the best, i. e. brackish,
various, from 2 to 6 miles, containing to the sea, occupy the north line of the about 960 persons. Excepting between county ; they are bleak and barren, have 2000 and 3000 acres on the coast, the ing little or no timber. The grounds country is hilly and bleak. The low fouthward from this ridge are, in genegrounds are light and sandy ; the parish, ral, flat, fertile, and well cultivated. on the whole, may be supposed to bring The most remarkable rivers are the about quool. per annum of real rent. Tweed, which from Coldstream to BerThe rent of land for tillage is al. os. wick separates this county from North, per acre, a high tack-duty for the qua. umberland. Whiteadd rand Blackadlity of the soil, but it is owing chiefly der I take their rise in the Lammer. to the great quantity of sare-ware got muir hills, and after joining thcir (treams for manure.
Being in the way from near Allanbank, empty themselves into the border towards the capital, there are, the Tweed. The London road by as may be supposed, remains of encamp- Cornhill goes through the welt division ments here, and many beautiful cumul, of the crunty from Channelkirk to Coldsupposed to have been burying places. Itream by Lauder and Greenlaw. The On the shore there is plenty of lime. ealt London road, by Berwick, passes stone, and some veins of coal also ap- through the east corner by the Peesepear, though none has been wrought; bridge, the Press, and Coldingham as usual, in such places, there is plenty muir ; and there is ano:her great road of freestone.
to Edinburgh from Berwick, by Danse,
which is kept in good repair. The COUNTY OF BERWICK, OR MERSE*.
minerals in this district, hitherto dif
covered, are few. Near Lauder, at This county has long been nominally, the head of the district, various fpedivided into three districts, viz.the Merse, cimens of copper ore have been found. Lammermuir, and Lauderdale. The In the parish of Boncle, a copper mine first includes the flat part of the county, was worked some years ago on the stretching along the banks of the Tweed estate of Lord Douglas. There has to Berwick, 25 miles in length and a- been no discoveries of coal, but on bout 15 in breadth ; and being the most the coast near Eyemouth; though there important, gave its name to the whole is no limestone as yet found in the countyt.
whole county, in many districts there 211 This county is of a quadrangular are pits of excellent marl, chiefly stune GE
form, but all its sides are waving and and clay marl. The rich and fertile unequal. On the north it is bounded strath from the foot of the Lammerby East Lothian ; on the east by the muir to the river ['weed had, scarcely German Ocean; on the south-east and 40 years ago, a very bleak and naked fouth by the river Tweed, the English appearance; now it is rich and highly border, and Roxburghshire; and on cultivated, well inclosed, and is one of the west by the shires of Edinburgh and the finest districts in the island. In no Peebles. Its greatest length, from west quarter has the use of lime been of more to ealt, is 33 miles, and from south to service, or more generally employed as north it is about 16 miles. The chain manure. Through almost the whole of. of Lammermuir hills, from Soutra hill it, agriculture is carried on with much
* This is probably a corruption of March, spirit, industry, and success. being on the march or boundary between On leaving East Lothian, or the counEngland and Scotland.
ty of Haddington, travelling fouthward, + It is computed that above 80,000 bolls of vidual are exported from this county at
we enter this county in the parishi of Berwick and Eyemouth, and an equal quan- # A corruption of Whitewater, and Black
tity transported by land-carriage to Edin- water. e burgh, Haddington, and Dunbar.
COCKBURNSPATH, consisting of be- country must have been the scene of tween 7000 and 8000 acres, part of much strife and bloodshed. The water which is hill and muir, that upon the of Whitadder is a small stream here; sea-coast is, in general, light and sandy, but well stocked with trout. Cranshaws though some is of a rich clayey quality. is used as goat whey quarters during It brings from 3os. to 40s. the Scots the summer months. acre, the whole yielding between 4000l. COLDINGHAM is an extensive parish, and goool, yearly ; there are about 884 between 6 and 7 miles long, and as mainhabitants. On the London road, ny in breadth, and containing 2391 inwhich passes through the parish, we habitants, but of an irregular figure. A meet with the Peaths, or Piese-bridge, very extensive moor extends to the as it is commonly pronounced, planned welt; on the fea-coast the ground is and executed by Mr Henderson. It was rich and productive ; St Abb’s Head thrown over a ravine in the year 1786, is situated on this coast. The town of cut by the Peese-burn ; the bridge is 300 Coldingham, containing nearly 720 perfeet long, and 15 feet wide ; from the fons, stands about a mile from the sea, bottom of the burn to the top of the and appears, from various circumstanrailing, it measures 123 feet. About ces, to have been very ancient, and a quarter of a mile from this bridge, much more extended than at present. stands the Old Tower ; it is the ruins The shores afford excellent fishing for ancient castle of considerable cod, turbet, haddock, and many
other strength ; being near the boundary of white fish. Besides fome natural wood the two kingdoms, many 'vestiges of on the banks of the river Eye, there is camps of various kinds are visible on a good deal of planting lately made in the rifing grounds ; in the glens and this parish. Several ruins may be trapasses many military operations may be ced, but none of any eminence. traced. The ruins of the old church EYEMOUTH was once a part of the of Auld-Cambus, formerly united to priory of Coldingham ; it is a very small this parish, are still standing. The parish, about a mile square, and conschistic rocks which compose the Lam- taining about 1000 inhabitants. The mermuir hills, terminate on the sea- ground is a rich loam, inclining to sand, coast here; it is gratifying to the mi- and is almost wholly arable and inclosneralogist to trace the line of separa- ed. There may be reckoned in whole tion of the primary and secondary Itra- 800 acres, which yield from 25s. to ta; they are distinctly laid bare, at a 40s. per English acre. There is a good place called Sickar Point, by the wash. harbour here, lately erected at the ing of the sea. The schiltus stands nearly mouth of the river Eye where the town in a vertical position, and the fandstone stands, and which is daily receiving im. joins it, and lies close upon it, in hori. provements ; the coast abounds with fish. zontal Itrata. Though no other mine- On a small promontory which stretches rals have been discovered, yet in the out into the sea, there are the remains gravel it is not uncommon to find also of a regular fortification. The rock whinstone, granite, porphyry, and even which composes this promontory, is a limestone.
coarse pudding-stone ; the rocks on the CRANSHAWS lies further weft in the coast are, in general, whinstone. Next middle of the Lammermuir hills, and to this lies is a very small parish, containing only Ayton parish is nearly 4 miles square, 164 inhabitants. "Crankaw's Castle is containing 1.146 inhabitants, of which a small fortified tower very entire ; this, nearly one half reside in the village. with the ruins of similar edifices in this The south-east part is billy; the feapart of the country, and the remains of shore is high and rocký. The soil in many éncampments, all show that this the middle is rich and fertile, produ
cing all kinds of grain. On the banks which project from the Lammermuir of the Eye, there is a paper mill, and hills, Chirpside-hill is one of the most 4 flour mills. Several vestiges of en. remarkable, and commands a fine view campments are shown here ; urns and of a fertile and well cultivated country. broken pieces of armour are occalional. In this parish, beautified by many gentleJy found in the ground. The manfion men's seats, some vestiges of ancient house of Ayton is pleasantly situated, camps are shown. There is plenty of and has a great deal of thriving planta- marle wrought, and lately a fpecies of tions around it.
gypsum has been discovered on the MORdington, in the south east cor. banks of Whitadder. On the estate of ner of the county, is a parish between 3 Ninewells is a plane tree supposed 150 and 4 miles in length, and from 1 to 2 years old, which measures 17 feet of in breadth, containing only about 340 folid wood below the boughs. This is inhabitants. The soil is various ; on the family seat of the Humes, of which the banks of the river Whitadder it is the celebrated David Hume was a stiff clay; towards the coast light and younger brother. fandy. The rent amounts
to about POLWART) parish is of a triangular 2000l. At Lammerton stands the cha- form ; its greatest length is 3, and its pel where James IV. of Scotland was greatest breadth 2 miles, and contains married to Margaret, daughter of Hen- 288 persons ; the real rent is about ry VII. of England, in 1503. Though L. 1000 Sterling, and the Earl of neither coal nor lime are wrought in Marchmont is fole proprietor of the this county, we find vestiges of both in parish. The foil is various, the greatseveral places on the shore here, small est part is clayey; in some places it is veins of ironstone, of coal, and of lime. gravelly, in others sandy. In the midstone may be traced, and abundance dle of the village there are two old of fine freestone. The east London Thorn trees, around which it was the road passes through this parish, and also custom for every new-married pair, with the Berwick road by Dunse to Edin- their company, to dance in a ringburgh. The remains of a Danilh camp, hence the song Polwarth on the Green. Edington Castle, situated on the top of LADDYKIR K parish extends along the a steep rock, and the Witches Knows, banks of the Tweed 2 miles, and ! where, so late as the present century, mile in breadth, containing about 3500 several unfortunate women were burnt acres English, The inhabitants are in for witchcraft, are objects worthy of the number about 60o. In general, the traveller's rotice.
soil is a deep loam, sometimes with a Foulden is a small parish, nearly 24 clay, and sometimes with a gravelly. miles square, and contains 344 inhabi- bottom; the rent is from 15s. to 30s.
In general, the soil is good ; on per acre, and the farms produce from the south a clayey foil prevails ; in the L. 300 to L. 6co per annum. The centre of the parish it is loamy, but ground is, on the whole, flat here, with more light towards the north.
a few gentle risings, and is well cultiried banks of the Whitadder make this vated. The improvement of their sheep quarter pleasant.
Itock has been of late much attended to CHIRNSIDE parish is of an oblong fi- in this quarter. gure, about 41 miles at the greatest SWINTON and SIMPRIM. These unin' length, and 3 where broadest, contain. ted parishes extend about 4 miles from ing about 6523 acres, which rent from east to west, and 3 from north to 12s. to 30s. per acre. The number of south, and contain near 900 inhabitants. inhabitants are y61, 609 of whom re. The soil is, in general, a deep clay; fide in the village of Chirnside, which the surface is varied by rising grounds, is a presbytery feat. Of the eminences and gentle elevations, in long ridges