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midical form. It is supposed to be two lastly, elephants. The mines of gold
leagues from the plain to the highest and silver, indeed, are prohibited to
fummit; but the way is so bad, that be worked; the precious stones are
setting out early in the morning, it can all reserved for the king; and sulphur
not be gained till two hours after mid- and saltpetre are not allowed to be ex.
day; and the height is so prodigious, ported, but are refined on the island.
that the failors begin to desery it twenty Hence, the commerce of the Dutch
legaues at sea. Though the summit of may be said to be confined almost to
Le rock, when viewed from the bottom cinnamon; and even for this they trade
in the plain, appears like a point, it only with the natives adjoining to their
forms a terrace 203 paces in diameter, settlements, who are kept under subjec-
in the centre of which is a large and tion by the awe of their garrisons. The
drap lake of some of the best water in Dutch, however, export a considerable
the world. Thence proceed several number of elephants from Ceylon to
freams, which fall in torrents down the India, where they are much valued,
fides of the mountain, and, uniting, the smallest selling for upwards of forty
form three great rivers in the plain. guineas, and the largest for about seven-
Near the lake is a large stone, on which ty pounds sterling. Their teeth are
is the print of a man's foot, as perfecily larger, whiter, and of a finer grain than
engraved as if the impreslion had any that come from India or Africa.
been made on wax. The Cinglafles Before the Europeans appeared in India,
are perfuaded, that it is a vestige the Chinese were masters of the trade
of the first man, and, therefore, they of Ceylon ; afterward the Persians,
have called the mountain Hammalella, or Arabians, and Ethiopians, came in for
Miam's Mount, which the Portuguese a share of it; and since the Portuguese
Izve translated Pice de Adain, that is were expelled from the island, the
Adam's Peak. Some tradition, mingl. Dutch have excluded all other nations
ed with fable, muit have been received from any share in its trade.
from the dispersed commercial Jews, In the inland country of Ceylon are
concerning the first ancestors of the hu- reckoned five capital cities ; namely,
man race ; for the natives believe that Candy, the metropolis of the island,
the first man was created here ; that and the residence of most of the kings,
the lake arose from the tears shed by till it was taken and burnt by the Por-
Eve on the death of Abel; and tattuguese; but it being found to be too
Ceylon was part of the terrestrial para. much exposed, the royal seat was re-
dur.

moved to Nellembyneur, a city more
The principal product of Ceylon is in the heart of the country. The third
cionamon, of which, as it is peculiar city is Alloutneur, which lies to the
to this ifand, we shall give a more par. north east of Candy. The fourth is
ticular account in our next. Beside cin- Batoula, which is between fixty and fe-
ramon, Ceylon produces many things venty miles to the east of Candy ; and
with which the inhabitants might carry the fifth is Digligineur, situate between
on a great trade ; such as long pepper, Candy and Batoula.
several drugs and roots useful in dying The Dutch East India Company are
and in medicine, cardamom, mirabo- poffeffid, not only of the whole coast
lans, filk, tobacco, ebony, excellent of Ceylon, but of ten or twelve leagues
imber for building, lead ore, betel, within land. Their principal harbours
wild honey, musk, wax, crysal, falt- lie on the eastern coast. Trincomale is
petre, sulphur, sugar, rice (of which reckoned the best and finelt harbour in
the Dutch carry great quantities to the the East Indies ; that of Batacola, more
coast of Coromandel) iron, steel, cop- to the southward, is less resorted to,
jer, gold and lilver, all sorts of pre- and little or no trade is carried on thence.
civus stones, except diamonds, and At the promontory, called Point de

Galle,

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Galle, on the south-west coast, the that received damage, either in temDutch have the strength of their govern- pests or in action. On the 12th of ment, and here their ships take in their April following (at the very instant cargoes for Europe. Colombo and Ne- that Sir George Brydges Rodoey was gambo, lie on the west side of the island, gaining a complete victory in the West in the part called the Cinnamon coaft: Indies) a desperate, but indecisive en. the former is the principal ftation in the gagement was fought, near Ceylon, becolony : at the latter the finest cinna- tween the British and French Admirals, mon is procured. The company have Sir Edward Hughes and M. de Sufintroduced the culture of pepper and frein: after which, the harbour of coffee, the chief of which is drawn Trincomale received the British feet, from the country about Matara. while the French commander availed

The town and forts of Trincomale himself of that of Batacola. Another are situate on the east side of the island, indecisive engagement took place on the in 819 52" of east longitude, and 806th of July; but a strong reinforcement 45 of north latitude, on a narrow strip of ships and soldiers having joined the of land, running between the sea and a French fleet, the commander proceeded gulf which forms the harbour, and to attack Trincomale, Auguft 16, which, which is entered within land from a together with fort Ottenburgh, was revery spacious bay. On the 5th of Ja- duced in five days. Two days after, nuary 1782, the British fleet, command- Sir Edward Hughes appeared off the ed by Sir Edward Hughes, appeared place with his feet. This brought on before Trincomale, which being defend- another engagement, which was braveed only by three officers and forty fol. ly sustained by the English against a diers, was foon taken. The governor great fuperiority of force, but produced with the chief of his force, retired to no advantages on either fide. During fort Ostenburg, which stands on a hill the continuance of the war, the poffe commanding the harbour; but the place fion of the harbour of Trir.comale gave was taken by storm six days after. The the French a great ascendency in the harbour, in which the most numerous Indian feas. Trincomale is once more feets may anchor with the greatest safe- in the possession of the British ; and, for ty, was highly serviceable to the Bri- the particular account of this important tish fileet, on account of its vicinity to conqueit, we refer to the London Gathe coast of Coromandel, and the op- zettes in this number. portunity it afforded of refitting the ships TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.

TILL very lately, there was no con- a curiosity, and a spirit of inquiry after nected account to be found of the agri- these hidden sources of amusement and culture, population, antiquities, curio. wealth. In the following account of sities, and natural productions of Scot- Scotland, it is intended to give a deland; and although most of these very scription of the various minerals, hitherimportant articles are particularly no- to discovered, and to point out the ticed in that very valuable and patriotic, places where they have been found. But, but voluminous work, the Statistical Ac. in doing this, great minuteness regardcount of Scotland, yet the mineralogy of ing the properties and proportions of the country is there but slightly touched every mineral or foil cannot be exupon.

be partly owing to that pected, as most of them have never been branch of science being but little, till of analysed, and many of the mines found late, attended to, and partly to the diffi- in Scotland, have never been wrought, culty of procuring information on the sub- nor the metals affayed. Besides, such ject. Scotland, however, is pregnant with descriptions could only be of service to a mineral treasure; and one chief object few who are advanced in that science ; of the prefent undertaking is, to excite a more general account will, therefore,

fully

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fully answer the purpose of this under extent. Of late, a very rich mine of taking.

antimony has been set a-going, richer, The plan intended is, to give, in it is believed, than any that is at pre2 short compass, a description of the sent known in the world. Besides, it external appearance of each county or may be observed, that the discovery of district

. To point out the scenes of mines has been, in most instances, very any memorable events, or the birth- accidental. Very few of the metals are place or residence of any patriot, man found in a pure state ; they are, in geof letters, or remarkable character to neral, like earth in their appearance, describe the state of society, and of without any degree of metallic lustre ;

agriculture; and finally, to take notice hence they do not readily attract notice. arab

of the follis and minerals, that have An early opportunity shall be taken, of
hitherto been found in each district. giving a short account of the materials
In this way, the traveller will be made that commonly accompany metals, of
acquainted with fuch objects as may the usual indication of their presence,
appear worthy of his notice or inquiry; and of the effect which metallic mix-
and the inhabitant and landlord may be tures have upon the soil.
furnished with some hints to promote As the plan is comprehensive, and,
investigation and researcin, which may the materials, for many articles of it,
be the means of enriching themselves only to be got from persons interested
and benefiting their country,

in these inquiries, we solicit the aid and It has been often observed, that peo. assistance of such of our readers as can

ple are, in general, better acquainted furnish any materials for rendering this, bra

with other countries than their own. account accurate and complete.—The Ambition, curiosity, and a sort of pride following is a list of some of the mineof feeing what only the rich few can ac- rals, and precious stones found ia complish, drives many to foreign lands. Scotland, of all which more particular They satisfy themselves in thinking, notice will be taken in the fequel of this that their own country will, at all times, account

* be within their reach. Hence it happens,

SCOTLAND. that we are, in general, indebted to fo

* Most of the gems and precious stones reigners for the topography and natural have been found in Scotland, the diamond

history of our own country. It would excepted. Gai

surely be a better as well as a more na- Pearls are found in the long-shaped freh tural way of proceeding, to make our

water muscle, called the horse-muscle, (myfelres firit acquainted with the laws, discovered in the estuaries of most of the ri

tilus, cygnius, and anatinus.) They have been government, agriculture, natural pro- vers of the north. Pearls are also foupd in ED

du&ions, &c. of our own country, and our common oysters, and in the common
thus lay a foundation for judging of muscle, though of a small size.
those of others, and making the pro- places, of different shades, from a deep, red

The Sappbire has been found in several per comparison between them.

to a transparent white, and of equal hardness Scotland cannot, at present, show with the oriental. many of the precious metals, but con- The topaz is found in many places of the Siderable quantities, both of gold and Highlands, of various colours; the most filver

, have, at different periods, been beautiful are those that go by the name of obtained from her bowels ; and it is mountain where they are found ; they are in

Cairngoram, or Caringarom ftones, from the more than probable, that the time is crystals of fix fides. not far distant, when, in many counties, The ruby and byacinth are found near Ely

these treasures will again be laid open. in Fife. They are found mixed with the 1

We have been long famous for our lead fand of the fea, but the rock which runs mines. Iron-stone and iron-ores we

under the sand is full of them ; few, howh have in abundance. Copper has been

ever, are of any fize or very pure.

Emeralds are found in several different discovered in various places, though, places. i at present, it is no where wrought to any

Amethy

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SCOTLAND comprehends that part of fer the origin of its population. In the the island of Great Britain, lying to Gaelic, Scot or Scode signifies a corner, the north of the river Tweed, and is or small division of a country. Others fituated between 54 and 59 degrees of observe, that, in the fame language, north latitude. It extends 278 miles the word Scuit signifies a wanderer, and in length ; the breadth is variable, be-, suppose that this may have been the ing in some places 180 miles. Scot- origin of Scot. land contains an area of 27,794 miles. The origin of the people has been

The surface of the country is very warmly disputed by many antiquaries.' irregular, being on the whole moun. The most probable conjecture is, either tainous : from the report lately made that they are descended from the Caleto the Agricultural Board, there are donians, on the west; or from the South $2,151,471

I acres of cultivated ground, Britions, who being pressed northwards and 14,218,224 uncultivated. It a- by the Gauls, gradually occupied this bounds with rivers and lakes. These part of the island. are, for the most part, skirted with The territory of the ancient Scots, wood, which gives a very picturesque before the annexation of Pictavia, comappearance to the scenery.

prehends all that side of Caledonia, We cannot give any satisfactory ac- which lies along the North and Wefa count of the origin of the name, as tern Ocean, from the Frith of Clyde writers differ so much on this point. to the Orkneys. Towards the east, Some antiquaries make Scot a corruption their dominions were divided from the of Scuyth, or Sythian ; hence they in- Pictish territories, by those high moun

tains which run from Dumbarton to Amethysts are found of a large size and the Frith of Tain. In process of time good colour, some of an inch over, and have the Scots entirely subdued their neighbrought 30 and 40 guineas each.

Garnets are found in great quantity in the bours, the Picts, and gave their own Highlands, fome as large as a walnut. denomination to all Caledonia, Pic

The Cornelians, or Scotch pebbles, are well tavia, and Valentia ; all which are now known, and are no where equalled either in comprehended under the general name variety or beauty.

of Scotland. Fufpers are to be met almost The spotted jasper, found on Arthur's Seat,

Scotland was divided into thirtyis fingular and beautiful. It used to be wrought three counties or thires, viz. Edininto buttons, which were sold at a high price. burgh, Haddington, Berwick, Rox. Similar specimens have no where else been burgh, Selkirk, Peebles, Lanark, Dumit is generally called, from the island of Icolm fries, Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Ayr, kiln, is a beautiful stone, and answers well Dumbarton, Renfrew, Stirling, Lin. for the seal cutter.

lithgow, Perth, Kincardine or Mearns, There is a calcedony, or white cornelian, Aberdeen, Inverness, Nairne and Crofound in Fife, which is equal in colour and martie, Fife, Angus or Forfar, Clackhardness to that brought from the East In

mannan and Kinross, Banff, Ross, El dies.

Granite, of a very fingular appearance, is gin or Moray, Sutherland, Argyle, Orfound near Portory, and, it is believed, is kney, Bute and Caithness.-Caithness, found no where else. When polished, the Nairne, and Clackmannan, being configures very much resemble the Hebrew joined with others, the number is now characters

reduced to thirty ; and accordingly only The foflils and ores found in Scotland are various. It abounds with coal and limestone; thirty members are returned to Parliavariety of iron ores ; cobalt, red, green, and ment by the counties. yellow ; silver, gold, lead, antimony, bismouth, In our description we shall nearly &c. zeolites, micaceous stones, afbeftus, great follow the order in which they are enu. variety of amianthus, fhorles, and varieties

merated above. of curious earths. All these will be particularly noticed, in defcribing the places where

(To be continued.) they are found.

every where.

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REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.

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his wife, as nearest cousin by affinitie Inquiries into the Origin and Progress of unto Sir John Chandos if, by the false

tbe Science of Heraldry in England, &c. By James Dallaway, A. M. Fellow had not bin made away and alienated

conveyance of the said Katrington, it of the Society of Antiquaries. 4to. into the enimies hands, hee offered thereL.2:2:6. Boards. White.

fore to trie the quarrell by combate, aAS it may be a gratification to our gainst the faide Katrington, whereupon readers to see a minute account of the the fame Katrington was apprehended, manner in which duels authorised by and putte in prison, but shortly after set law were formerly conducted, we will at libertie againe. lay before them the following extract; Whilst the Duke of Lancaster* during premifing that, though the formalities the time that his father King Edward used on such occasions, were regulated lay in hys last fickneffe, did in al things by the heralds, the battle itself was en- what liked him, and so at the contema joined by law, the trial by battle being plation of the lord Latimer, as was part of the jurisprudence of the country, thought, hee released Katrington for the not only in former periods, but at this time, so that Sir John Annelly could not present day; for, though it be now fal

come to the effect of his sute in the len into disuetude, Blackstone says that meane time, till nowe. Such as feared “ the law which allowed such a mode to be charged with the like offences, “ of trial has never been repealed :" ftayed the matter, till at length, by the

“ ANCIENTLY when one person was opinion of true and auntiente knights, accused by another without any further it was defyned, that for such a foreign witness than the bare ipfe dixit of the ac- controverite that hadde not rifen within cuser, the accused party making good the limmittes of the realme, but touchhis own cause by strongly denying the ed poffeffion of thynges on the further fact, the matter was then referred to the side of the sea, it was lawful to have decifion of the sword. If the parties it tryed by battayle, if the cause were were noble, the king himself was always first notified to the conestable and marpresent at the combat, feated on a scaf- inal of the realme, and that the combate fold, attended by the earl marshal and was accepted by the parties. high constable of Eugland, who were to Hereupon was the day and place apsee that no undue advantage was taken poynted, and all things provided readie, by either party. The conqueror was with lyftes rayled and made fo substanthen declared innocent, and the van- tially, as if the same shoulde have enquished guilty.

dured for ever. The concourse of people The seventh of June, a combate was that came to London to see this tried, foughte before the King's palace at Weft

was thought to exceede that of the minster, on the pavement there, betwixt king's coronation, so defyrous were men one Sir John Annesley knight, and one to behold a fight so strange and unaccufThomas Katrington esquier.

tomed. The occasion of this strange and no. The king and his nobles, and all the table triall rose hereof. The knight ac- people being come togyther in the morncused the esquier of treason, for that ing of the day appoynted, to the place where the fortreffe of Sainte Saviour where the lyftes were fet up, the knight within the isle of Constantine in Nor- being armed and mounted on a fayre mandie, belonging sometime to Sir John courfer seemely trapped, entered first as Chandos, had bin

committed to the said appellant, staying til his adversarie the deKatrington, as Captayne thereof, to fendant should come. And shortly after keepe it against the enemies, he hadde

cause, for money folde and delivered it over to in this fourme. Thomas Katrington dethe Frenchmen, when he was sufficient. fendant, come and appeare to save the ly provided, of men, munition and vitaction, for which Sir John Annesley tayles, to have defended it against them; knight and appellant, hath publiquely, and Gith the inheritance of that fortresse, and by writing, apelled thee: he being and lands belonging thereto, had apper

was the esquier called to defend his

* The famous John of Ghent. teyned to the faid Aanelley in righte of

G Vol. LVIII.

thus

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