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OBSERVATIONS ON THE MANNERS OF MANKIND. MEN in all ages, when placed in ness Hy falter than perhaps any others. fimilar situations and circumstances, “ Whofo is liberal of his meat, men have exhibited similar appearances in shall speak well of him; and the report, manders and conduct. This coincidence of his good house-keeping will be ben is often very surprising, and will appear lieved. But against him that is a nig ítriking from the following quotations gard of his meat, the whole city thall and remarks. Were one to read the murmur and the testimonies of his under quoted verses without knowing niggardness shall not be doubted of.” 1 whence they are taken, it would not be As a mere matter of curiosity, I may unnatural to suppose, that some person here take notice, that the old motto in had used the quaint language of our antient charchyards, " bedie mihi, cras Bible translation, to express the little tibi,is nearly a Latin tranllation from petty arts by which men of narrow and a verse in Ecclesiasticus, “ Remember, contracted minds evade the payment of my judgment; for thine also shall be just debts, and especially those which so; yesterday for me, and to-day far ihey have contracted in an emergency thee." of diftress, and which, consequently,

That wisdom is the attribute of men; vught to be paid with the utmost re- of learning is perhaps not just, if we gularity. Many, when a thing was are too nice in considering many of lenț them, reckoned it to be found, and their actions ; but that such men only, put them to trouble that helped them. have the means of acquiring and extende Till he hath received, he will kiss a ing wisdom cannot be doubted. It is man's hand; and for his neighbour's also as certain that persons employed in money he will speak submissively ; but businesses of drudgery have neither the when he should repay, he will prolong means, nor the taste for intellectual imthe time, and return words of grief, provement. What I am about to quote: and complain of the time. If he pre has, if I inistake not, been lately apvail, he shall hardly receive the half, plied to a political purpose. - My busiand he will count as if he had found ness is only with the antiquity of, man, it; if not, he hath deprived him of his ners, and the immortality, if I may use money, and he hath gotten him an enemy the expression, of a just remark. If a without cause : he payeth him with curf- remark or observation be once just, ici ings and railings; and for honour he never dies. “ The wisdom of a learned will pay him disgrace. Many, there man cometh by opportunity of leisure : fore, have refused to lend for other and he that hath little business, Tall-be-i men's ill dealing, fearing to be defraud. come wise. How can he get wisdom ed. Yet have thou patience with a that holdeth the plough, and that glori-> man in poor estate, and delay not to eth in the goad, that driveth oxen, and show him mercy.”

is occupied in their labours, and whose There are few men more popular, as talk is of bullocks ?” The whole of far as the circle of their acquaintance this chapter, the thirty-eight, is worthyi extends, than those who give good of perufàl. It is supposed, but unjustly, dinners.” Such men are never wich- to favour despotic principle ; it only, out friends to grace their hospitality; diftinguishes between the merits of cula and the opposite character is as much tivated and uncultivated minds to theout of favour. If we know nothing of happiness of civil society. a man's wealth, probity, or talents, we There are a set of beings in the are always sure to be made acquainted world, who having some agreeable quewith the properties of his table. The lities of little value but in company, two reputations of liberality and sordid- affect to dispise every honest and indus

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trious mode of earning a fubfistence, in ancient times for all the various mo-
and live by going from place to place, difications of human action, whether
and from table to table, where they pay arising from ignorance, wickedness, or
a certain quantity of flattery for a good temper, or from the peculiarity of situa-
dinner. Thefe are sometimes called tion in life, with respect to rank or
danglers, hangers-on, or led captains, and wealth. We fee, too, how nearly the
fometimes toad eaters. Every good- manners of ancient and modern ages
natured gentleman, who keeps a plenti- approximate in the way of transacting
ful table, receives frequent visits from business between men in trade ; all the
these free-booters ; and, when they are various cafes of fraud, dishonesty, debt,
once encouraged, it is not eafy to get furetieship, bankruptcy, are recorded in
rid of them, without using methods one shape or other in the books above
more harslı than a mcekly-dispofed mind mentioned, and indeed, might be traced
relishes. They are above taking hints, to a much higher fource by any person
and by no means over-nice in punctilios, who will read ancient books with an
so that a fmall affront will not disgust eye chiefly to the manners they occafion-
them, and they are always much more ally mention. Thefe are direct procfs
inclined to pocket an infult, than to re- of the existence of such manners, be
sent it. The former is easy; the latter cause where a precept is given to avoid
they cannot fo well afford. They are any folly or crime, it follows that such
not, however, a new species of beings, folly or crime was then in existence ;.
the production of modern tables and and we may farther judge of its being
modern idlenefs. Our author charac. common or uncommon, from the precept
terizes them with great justice and equal being more or less frequently repeared,
feverityThe life of him that de- or more or less strengthened by various
pendeth on another man's table is not collateral considerations. A few hours
to be counted for a life ; for he pol- may be very pleasingly employed by
luteth himself with other men's mea: ; peruling the works quoted with this
but a wise · man, well-nurtured, will view.
beware thereof. Begging is sweet in From a perufal of these works, and
the mouth of the shameless."

of the Greek and Roman authors, we 4. These extracts may be extended by may be assured that there existed in the curious reader to a far greater length the world, at the time of their original than it is proposed to carry them in this publication, a much higher degree of paper.«. Enough, probably, has been civilization in society, than we should said to direct the reader's attention to be apt to furpose, were we to imagine this book, and to the Proverbs and that mankind bad been in a fate of unWisdom of Solomon, two pieces in which interrupted progression from the creathe most admirable precepts are blend. tion to the prefent time. On the con. ed with remarks upon life and manners, trary, we know that civilization has which cannot fail to strike an intelligent been, as it were, travelling ofer the reader. We perceive how very near globe, and residing a greater or less the resemblance is between the man portion of time in a nation, according ners of ancient and modern times, and to the operation of certain circumstances. how little we can boast of novelty in This may be understood by reflecting thofe customs upon which we are most upon, and comparing the state of anciapt to pride ourselves. We fee that ent Rome, in the days of her glory, there is nothing in modern manners, prosperity, and virtue, and in that of either good or bad, nothing in the modern Rome, in her present effemimodes of active life, in the purfuit of nacy, darknets, and degeneracy. The businefs or of pleafure, which can be fourishing cities of Greece may be recermed new. Precedents

may be found viewed with the same intention; and

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old age.

we may then inspect the rising states in come a fixed system, is at least looked the new world. In the new world, the upon as a matter of necessity, and theremanners of the old do not go on in pro- fore looked upon with indifference.m3 greffon ; colonization is the birth of st much to be regretted that the society, and men live for a time as the wisdom and goodness of the world have first of mankind may be supposed to not kept pace with its age. If, as we have lived, in a state of infantive in- are taught to believe, much will be exnocence. History shows what are the pected of them to whom much is given, causes that lead, in the case of nations, we cannot here this repeated, and preto either a premature, or a debauched sent the undaunted front of innocenoe.

But manners, we see, are in So much wisdom and experience, fuch certain respects the same in all. Polish- copious fupplies from history, precept, ed society has its advantages ; but all and example, and fo little apparent adpolished focieties, every people who vantage taken, affords matter of serious have acquired refinement, wealth, com- reflection. To the excellence of our mercial, or political importance, present polished manners we cannot lay claim.; the fame manners, the fame virtues and they are none of ours; they have bećn vices, follies and imperfections. In this of old time. To the invention of our respect, nothing can be more true than fplendid follies, and our low cunning, the saying of the wise man, " Is there our fashionable etiquettes and our petty any thing whereof it may be said, fee frauds, we have yet a more feeble prethis is new.

It hath been already of tence ; for they too derive their origin old time."

from nations once'as polished, as flouKingdoms, or nations, have been rishing, as renowned as we. compared with individuals. The com These circumstances, however, obparison is beautifully just, and it were to vious as they are, and I am afraides

roat be wished that the virtues of a nation admitting of consideration, ought not could be as eafily brought into action to operate as discouragements. There as those of an individual. But imper- is much good mixed with the evil; fe&tion hangs to all our actions when there is a disposition to act wisely and in a combination. The miserable de- uprightly. If that be cultivated by vastations of war, great and extended those to whom the cultivation of public beyond all computation, have unques. virtue, and the direction of the public tionably retarded the fair progress of bias are entrusted, all will yet be well; mankind in goodness and wisdom. To and we shall escape the guilt of those the frequency of war, more than half atrocious acts, which have brought dif the crimes of mankind are to be at- grace and ruin upon nations, and which tributed, and the wickedness of war now bid fair, unless Providence especialbeing handed down from generation to ly interpofe, to overthrow all that is generation, receives certain modifications valuable in society: in its progress, and if it does not be May 1796.



BY THE LATE JOHN DALBYMPLE, " THE Highlanders were composed feudal, but by the patriarchal bond: of a number of tribes called clans, each for, while the individuals which composof which bore a different name, and ed it were vaffals or tenants of their lived upon the land of a different chief own hereditary chieftain, they were also tain. The members of every tribe were defcended from his family, and souid united to each other, not only by the count exactly the degree of their defoina.

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The right of primogeniture, morecver, them. The garters of their stockings together with the weakness of the laws were tied under the knee, with a view to reach inaccessible countries, and more to give more freedom to the limb; and inaccessible men, had, in the revolution they wore no breeches, that they might of centuries, converted these natural climb mountains with the greater ease. principles of connexion between the The lightness or coolness of their dress; chieftain and his people, into the most the habit they had of going always on sacred ties of human life. The castle foot, never on horfeback; their love of of the chieftain was a kind of palace, to long journies ; and, above all, that patiwhich every man of his tribe was made ence of hunger and every kind of hard. Welcome, and where he was entertained fhip, which carried their bodies forward, according to his fation in time of peace, even after their spirits were exhausted, and to which all flocked at the sound made them exceed all other European of war. Thus, the meanest of the clan, nations in speed and perseverence of knowing himself to be as well-born as march. Montrose's marches were somethe head of it, revered, in the chieftain, times sixty miles in a day, without food his own honour; loved, in his clan, his or halting, over mountains, along rocks, own blood ; complained not of the dif- through morasses.

In encampments, ference of Itation into which fortune they were expert at forming beds in a Biad throwo him ; and respected himself. moment, by tying together bunches of The chieftain, in return, bestowed a pro- heath, and fixing them upright in the tection, founded equally on gratitude ground; an art, which, as the beds were and a consciousness of his own interest. both soft and dry, preserved their health Hence the Highlanders, whom more in the field, when other soldiers loft favage nations called savage, carried, in theirs. the outward expression of their manners, Their arms were a broad sword, a the politeness of courts without their dagger called a durk, a target, a musket, vices, and, in their bosoms, the high and two pistols: so that they carried point of honour without its follies. the long sword of the Celtes, the pugio

Their dress, which was the last re- of the Romans, the field of the an. mains of the Roman habit in Europe, cients, and both kinds of modern fire. was well suited to the nature of their arms, altogether. In battle, they threw country, and Itill better to the necessi- away the plaid and under


and ties of war.

It consisted of a roll of fought in their jackets, making thus light woollen, called a plaid, six yards their movements quicker, and their in length and two in breadth, wrapped strokes more forcible. Their advance loosely round the body, the upper lap- to battle was rapid, like the charge of pet

of which rested on the left shoulder, dragoons. When near the enemy, they leaving the right arm at full liberty ; a stopped a little, to draw breath and disjacket of thick cloth, fitted tightly to the charge their muskets, which they then body; and a loose short garment of light dropped on the ground. Advancing, woollen, which went round the waist, they fired their pistols, which they threw, and covered the thigh. In rain, they almost at the same instant, at the heads formed the plaid into folds, and, laying of their opponents. They then rushed it on the Moulders, were covered as into their ranks with the broad sword, with a roof. When they were obliged threatening, and thaking the sword as to lie abroad in the hills, in their buni- they ran on, so as to conquer the enemy's ing parties, or tending their cattle, or eye, while his body was yet unhurt. in war, the plaid served them both for They fought not in long and regular bed and for covering: for, when three lines, but in separate bands, like wedges men slept together, they could spread condensed and firm; the army being three fulds of cloth bclow and six above ranged according to the clans that com.

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posed it, and each clan according to Notwithstanding all these advantages, its families ; so that there arose com the victories of the Highlanders have petition in valour of clan with clan, of always been more honourable for themfamily with family, of brother with felves, than of consequence to others. brother. To make an opening in regu. A river stopped them, because they lar troops, and to conquer, they rec were unaccustomed to swim. A fort koned the fame thing ; because in close had the same effect, because they knew engagements, and in broken ranks, no not the science of attack. They wanted regular troops could withstand them. cannon, carriages, and magazines, from They received the bayonet in the target, their poverty and ignorance of the arts ; which they carried on the left arm : then they spoke an unknown language ; and, turning it aside, or twisting it in the therefore, could derive their resources target, they attacked with the broad only from themselves. Although their sword the enemy incumbered and de- respect for their chieftains gave them, fenceless ; and where they could not as long as they continued in the field, wield the broad sword, they stabbed that exact habit of obedience, which with the durk. The only foes they the exceffive rigour of discipline only dreaded were the cavalry ; to which can secure over other troops ; yet, as many causes contributed: the novelty foon as the victory was gained, they of the enemy; their want of the bayonet accounted their duty, which was to to receive the shock of the horse ; the conquer, fuitilled; and many of them attack made upon them with their own ran home to recount their feats, and weapon the broad sword; the size of store up their plunder. In spring and dragoon horses appearing larger to them, harvest, more were obliged to retire, or from a comparison with those of their leave their women and children to die. own country ; but, above all, a belief of famine. Their chieftains too werei. entertained universally among the lower apt to separate from the army, upon: class of Highlanders, that a war horse quarrels and points of honour among is taught to fight with his feet and his themselves, and with others. teeth.

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Prince. “ By this liand, thou think'it me as far in the devil's book as thou' and

I al taff, for obduracy and persistency. Let the end try the man." But I tell thee-my heart bleeds inwardly, that my feather is so lick ; and keeping fuch company as thou art, hath in reason taken from me all oitentation of forrow.”

“ A most useful lesson,” says Mrs temptation to it might precipitate them Griffith, “ might be framed, upon the into. He connives at the robbery of very singular character of this amiable his companions, for the diversion of person. The pattern is not perfect; playing the same game upon them again, and, therefore, (Shall I venture to say but resolves to make them ample restituit ?) the example is the better, for that tion for the wrong. He offends his reason. His manners are idle, but his father by the diffoluteness of his conmoralş vncorrupt. He suffers Falstaff duct; but his filial affection and reto make as free with him as he pleases, spect are still unremitted toward him. but breaks his head, as Mrs Quickly He shews a spirit of justice in injustice, tells us, in a former scene, for hıs hav. and of duty even in disobedience" ing thrown out a jest upon his father. This part of the prince's character has Young men may learn from him, never been likewise considered by Dr Johnto be guilty of more vice, than the son: “ The prince," says he, “who is


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