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ciocularly to heirs. Shakespeare's Character of Prince Henry. Vol. 58. the hero both of the tragic and comic to it. It has been already observed, part, is a young man of great abilities that nothing is more productive of danand violent pasions ; whose sentiments gerous consequences in life, than the are right, though his actions are wrong; inethod taken of disguifing the nature whose virtues are obséured by negli- of vice, in its various branches, by the gence, and whole undertanding is dif- use of palliating phrases. Under whatsipated by levity. In bis idle hours he ever form and of whatever degree, vice is rather loose iban wicked ; and when may be pursued, its influence, in its the occasion forces out his latent qua- very nature, is contaminating, degradlities, he is great without effort, and ing, embruting; and the thoughtless brave without tumult. The trifier is youth too often terminates his career in transformed into a hero, and the hero irritrievable destruction. Memorable, again reposes the trifter. This charac. as an inftance, will be the recent history ter is great, original, and just." of a virtuous and beneficent monarch,
That this character is original and who lost his kingdom and his life, juft is certain, because it is the faithful through the boundless extravagance and delineation of what has actually existed ; abandoned profligacy of his brothers, but that it merits ardent commenda- who appear themfelves to be now contion, or flrould be exhibited as an ex. demned to perpetual exile, the objects ample, cannot be so easily allowed. It of universal contempt. #quires a greater degree of refinement But on this subject, we have been and acuteness than falls to the lot of anticipated, in a manner, by Dr Knox, ordinary minds, to mark the delicate who, in one of his Effays, has the boundaries between idle or diffolute following excellent remarks : manners' and uncorrupt morals, between « There are those who consider early Haofeness and wickedness; to fetile the profligacy as a mark of that spirit, which exa&t quafitum of vice of which a young seldom fails to produce, in the fubleman may be guilty; or to explain the quent periods of life, a wife and a compatibility of justice with injustice, of virtuous character. The example of duity with disobedience. The reforma. Henry the Fifth is often cited in contion of our heroic Henry the Fifth was, firmation of their opinion. Shakespeare Indeed, an illustrious event'; but as an has indeed represented his errors and example, it ought ever, to be quoted reformation in so amiable a light, that with caution. Sir William Blackítone many are not displeased when they fee having mentioned that George Nevile, a young man beginning his career Duke of Bedford, was degraded from riot and debauchery. While there is the peerage, by act of parliament, on an appearance of spirit, they regard not account of his poverty, which rendered the vice. him unable to support hís dignity, adds, * The example of Henry the fifth
: ferves, at the same time, by having bap- apparent of a crown. If the future pened, to fhew the power of parlia. king is found to be early initiated in the ment ; and, by having happened but 'excesses of sensuality, it is a favourable once, to few how tender the parliament presage, and we are referred to the exhath been, in exerting fo high a power.*" ample of Falstaff's Hal. If he devote In like manner, the example of Henry his time to drinking, and be actually the Fifth is a folitary one ; which ferves, involved in continual intoxication, it is at the same time, by having happened, all the better, for do we not recollect to shew the posibility of such a reforma. Hal's exploits at the Boar's Head, in tion, and, by having happened but once, Eastcheap? Dame Quickly, Doh Tearto Thew the extreme danger of trusting sheet, are illustrious instances to prove * Commentaries, Book 1. ch. 12. what company a prince should keep, in
order to become hereafter a great king. tinent, to skulk in the garrets of blind It is in the haunts of intemperance and alleys, to spend their days in gaols, or vice, and in the company of sycophants are early carried to the church-yard, and knaves, that he is, according to the amid the thanks and rejoicings of their vulgar phrase, to sow his wild oats, to friends for so happy a deliverance from spend the exaberance of his fpirit, to shame and ruin. But if one wild youth fubdue the ebullition of his blood, and becomes but a tolerably good man, we to acquire a valuable species of moral are ltruck with the metamorphosis, as experience.
we are with every thing uncommon, " It is true, indeed, that Henry the We exaggerate his goodness, by comFifth is a remarkable instance of early paring it with his previous depravity. profligacy and subsequent reformation. We cite the example, as a consolatory He is a remarkable, because he is a topic, wherever we behold a young man, rare instance. For one who succeeds as the scripture beautifully expresses it, as he did, a thousand become either in. walking in the ways of his own heart, eurable debauchees, drunkards, and and in the Night of his own eyes.
We rogues ; ruin their character and for- talk as if we almost congratulated a tunes; or die under the operation of fo parent, when his fon has fpirit enough rough an experiment. We hear not of to violate, not only the rules of dethose who are obliged to go to the East cency, but also the most sacred laws of Indies, to hide themselves on the Con- morality and religion.". W.
ON THE PLEASURES OF A WELL CULTIVATED MIND).
THE benigo hand of Providence in every situation, but in the walks of has scattered flowers, as well as thorns, literature ? “ These studies," says in the road of life, and the great skill Tully, in a passage which cannot be too requisite, is to select those which are often repeated, “afford nourishment to perennial ; those which do not bud, our youth, and delight to our old age: blow, and wither in a day, from those they heighten the enjoyments of prospewhich shine with tranfient lustre, or rity, and, in adverse circumstances, conceal poisonous qualities under the supply resources and consolation, at beauties of a vivid foliage and variegated home they are an inexhaustible fund of tipts.
pleasure, and are unattended with inAmong the many arguments for a convenience abroad: they are our comdue cultivation of the mind, by the pur- panions at night, our fellow-travellers suits and acquisitions of literature, few on a journey, and our society in rural merit greater attention, than the con- retirement *." "With the same sentisideration, that a well-cultivated mind ments he elsewhere, alks, “ What then enables those who enjoy the advantages are all the pleasures of the festive board, of it, to derive the purest, the sweetest, the magnificence of the public games the most elegant, and the least injurious and exhibitions, and the fascinating pleasures, from themfelves and from re. charms of the fair, compared with the fection. The man of taste and learn- enjoyments we derive from the studies ing creates, as it were, a little world of literature? studies, which, with men of his own, in which he exercises and of sense and education, ever increase in improves his faculties; and he feels attractions, as they themselves increase the most exalted fàtisfaction arising from things, the existence of which is lcarce • Hæc India adolescentiam alunt, seneca Jy known to a vulgar mind.
tutem oble&ant, secundäs :us ornant, adverWhere, indeed, shall we find ob
fis perfugiuin ac folatium præbent, delectarit jects, capable of attaching the wind in cum, peregrinantur
domi, non impediunt foris, pernectant nobifon every period of life, at all times, and Archia, cap. 6. Vol. LVIII.
theme mufeOn the Pleasures of a Well Cultivated Mind. Vol. 58. in years *.”
Such were the senti- day is ushered 'in by a splendid luminary, ments of this illustrious philosopher. whofe beams expose to view the beau. He had roved, with pleasure, through ties of the world, and gild the face of all the various walks of learning; in nature; and when the curtain of sight every period of life, they were his fa- veils terrestrial obje&ts from our eyes, vourite baunts; and, as Time moved the wide expanse appears spangled with on in rapid fight, he beheld Study his stars, and opens the prospect of innunever failing companion, and scattering merable worlds. Spring, fummer, auher sweetest lowers on his boary head. tumn, present us with natural beauties,
In the idea of learning, as a source in the fucceffive periods of their growth; of unfailing intellectual pleasures, we and even stern winter leaves many obare not to confine ourselves to classical jects undestroyed, from which a vigostudies, or to those abstruse investiga- rous and well-cultivated taste may extions of science, which require vncon- ' tract no inconsiderable degree of entermion powers and extraordinary efforts; tainment. not to those subjects only. which exer
-What though not all cise our reason, but those which are the Of mortal offspring can attain the heights proper objects of the faculty we call taste, of envied life; though only few poffefs and which give rise to an infinite variety Yet Nature's care, to all her children jut, of the most pleasing sensations, as well with richer treasures and an ampler itate, as to the most sublime reflections. This Endows at large whatever happy man essay would be too diffufe, were I to Will deign to use them. His the city's pomp. point out the innumerable instances in The rural honours his. Whate'er adorns which this obfervation may be exem
The princely dome, the column and the
arch, plified. Let us advert only to the beau- The breathing marbles and the sculptur'd gold, ties of the creation. That taste, which Beyond the proud poffeffor's narrow claim, is most commonly the result of a well- His tuneful breast enjoys. For him, the Spring cultivated mind, fills us with admiration Distils her dews, and from the filken gem of the stupendous magnitude of the Of Autumn tinges every fertile branch
Its lucid leaves unfolds : for him, the hand mundane fýstem. It is charmed with With blooming gold, and blushes like the the regularity, order, and proportion which every part of it displays; with Fach paffing hour sheds tribute from her the beauty and variety of colours which
wings; tinge the face of nature ; tvith the fitness And loves unfelt attract him. Not a breeze
And still new beauties nieet his lonely walk, and utility of all its productions ; with Flies'o'er the meadow, not a cloud inibibes "the intexhaustible 'diversity, and endless The setting fun's effulgence, nota ftrain fuccefsion of new objects, which it pre. From all the tenants of the warbliog shade sents to view. Flowers disclose a thou. Ascends, but whence his bofom can partake
Fresh pleasure, unreprov'd. fand delicate or vivid hues : animals ap
It is difficult pear in comely symmetry. Here the
be attached to the ocean expands its smooth and boundless common objects of human pursuit, withfurface : there the earth spreads a-ver. out feeling the fordid or the troublesome dant carpet. · Mountains rife with pog. pafsions : but, in the pursuits of learnged majesty ; the rallies wear a pleasant 'ing, all is liberal, noble, generous. bloom; and even the dreary' wilderness. They require and promote that compreis not destitute of auguft fimplicity. The henfive mode of thinking, which over
looks the mean and little occupations of Quæ funt igitur epularum, aut ludorum, the vulgar mind. To the man of phiaut fcortorum voluptates cum his voluptati: losophical observation, the world appears bus comparanda ? Atque hæc quidem fudia do&rinæ. Quae quidern prudentibus, et as a theatre, in which the buty actors bene inftitutis, pariter çum ætate crescunt. coil and weary De Senectute, cap. 14.
He sees the emptinds of many
objects which are ardently pursued; he of civil life; but excluding the motives is acquainted with the false glitter, that of interest or ambition, it is to be culcisurrounds him ; he knows how short vated, for its own fake, by those who and unsubstantial are the good and evil understand and wish to enjoy, under that excite all the ardour of pursuit and every circumstance, the utmost attainable abhorrence; and can therefore derive a happiness. Next to religion, it is the degree of delight from reflection, of best and sweetest source of comfort in which they who are deeply and success. those hours of dejection, which every fully interested in them, can never para mortal must sometimes experience. It ticipate.
constitutes one of the most solid pillars “ It is true,” says an elegant writer, to support the toltering fabric of human " that learning thould be pursued as a felicity, and contributes as much to qualification for the several profesions virtue as to happiness.".
C. AGRICULTURE OF MID-LOTHIAN. THE extent of this County is, in G. Robertson, that we shall alnost copy whole, about 360 square miles, contaiq. 'it verbatim, ing 230,400 English, or 183,240 The various and particular situations Scotch acres.
One third part may be of the different lands in this county reckoned hill, or ground incapable of make them applicable to different purs tillage, the other two thirds, or 120,000 poses. The value of ground Scotch acres, are in tillage, pasture, or half a mile of the suburbs of Edinburghi, wood. The pasture on the Moorfoot for raising nursery and garden, ftuffs, hills, comprehending about 50 square for butchers to reft their cattle on, for miles is, in general, good and healthy; pafturing at hand horses by the night, the Pentland are bleaker, and do not and cows that are milk'd twice a day, yield fo fine pasture. A circumstance is far beyond any thing that could be holds true here, as well as in most other made by tillage. Pasture grounds in distri&ts, that the north sides of the hills the neighbourhood of Edinburgh have are the most fertile. The farms of this peculiar advantages. They are made county are from 100 to 300 acres in, uncommonly rich by numerous herds extent, of arable ground. The climate, of cattle, being often more like a though in a pretty high latitude, neatly fold than a grazing field; and from 56°, is upon the whole healthy, and the great quantity of smoke conftantnot unfavourable to vegetation. Its by hanging over them, the grass is not greatelt drawback is the unstability and only more plentiful, but comes earlier, uncertainty, often all the seasons are ex, and continues longer, than where ground perienced in one day : the cold east of a better quality is in a different situawinds which generally prevail more than tion. two months in the spring, are a great
The value of the fields from the im. hindrance to vegetation, as well as de- mediate vicinity, till three-fourths of a structive to fruit, and injurious to mile father from Edinburgh, decreases health. There is seldom any fall of greatly, and they are but in part occuInow before December, in the loy pied in the fane way, as the former. grounds, and rarely any after Christmas, The demand, as yet, for grazing pur
hough it often lies till the end of Fe- poses, not having extended so far, bruary.
great part is kept in tillage ; and tho' The progreffive state of the agricul- far from being well farmed, lets 155. or ture of this county is so accurately gi- 20. higher than can be afforded for ven, in No I. Appendix to the Aai land less than a mile "further distant ; cultural Survey of Mid-Lothian, by Mr such a difference does the command of
3 T2 dung
dung and expence of carriage make: of manure, but the carriage of some of The crops in general are potatoes, these articles is fuch an object, that, exwheat, sown grafs for cutting, and oats. cepting in times of scarcity, there is little When a field is broken up that has cut grass brought above three miles. been long in pastare, potatoes and wheat The cultivation of the lower part of alternately for years are not uncommon. this county has been progreffiyely im.
The occupations are small: few ex. proving for more than half a century; ceeding 20 acres.
tenants were then beginning to inclofe From a mile, or a mile and a quarter their farms opon long leafes, rye grass beyond the suburbs, to the distance at and clover, in small quantities, were which ground can be kept in good heart fown, and potatoes planted in the fields. with Edinburgh dung, or otherwise, One (named) Prentice, a strolling garexcepting a mere trifle, it is, and has dener, who had refided few
in. been, kept constantly under tillage. England, was the first who did so, and Notwithstanding that a great part of the being found a profitable crop, where the ground has been inclosed for many years ground was light and dry, and a good past, fome of it in a most substantial preparation for wheat, they were in a manner, without any ather advantage few years raised in fuch quantities by being derived hitherto from those costly the farmers near the town, that they be.. fences than what has been gained by came a drug ; and being an article that pasturing, the foggage, and protecting would not keep beyond the season, diswinter crops from the depredations of couraged raising of them to such an exthe farm-cattle, and on the road fides tent for some time, till the price getting from that of travellers ; fuch a value up for a year or two, afterwards led does the farmer in this part of the coun- many again to plant more than the martry put upon raifing grain, hay, and ket called for, which, of course, brought cut grafs, that few of them reserve fo on the same consequences, and in this much in pasture, as is sufficient for periodical manner hitherto, have they, grazing the young stock they rear'; every four or five years, been a crop which tends not a little, at times, to difficult to dispose of, and little to be rise the rents of grafs parks let for the got by them. This limited consumpt season. These grounds, notwithftand. precludes the planting of potatoes uniing the show of yellow weeds that at. versally in large quantities, from being a tract the attention of strangers, are, in general article in the system of farming. general, in a high state of cultivation, The consumption of hay being then but and have as much made of them as can small, the fowing of rye grass and clobe done any where. That part of the ver was little attended to for 'ten or them lying within three miles of the twelve years ; when the demand for town, and even some farther distant, hay increasing, the fowing of grass feeds excepting a few fwampy spots, and soon became general, and great crops small fields of inferior foil, have been in were produced. Levelling the fields, tillage from time inmemorial, and the and straighting the ridges, became very greatest part of them was in wheat common. This, with stoning and preevery fourth year, until fown grass was paring the ground for fowing grafs feeds, introduced, which, for thirty years past, introduced a better cultivation, and the has occupied fully a fifth of the whole, finishing of the fields in a neater man. Potatoes, wheat, and cut grass, are the ner. A spirit for improvement was.M crops of greatest value, and the nearer conspicuoully diffufed, through the layto Edinburgh, can be raifed more fres dable exertions of the Edinburgh Socie. quently, and to greater advantage, than ty, who gave premiums, and published where removed to a greater distance; works, chat rouled, the attention, and pot only from having a greater command excited emulation among all claffes.