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The old practice of sowing wheat after park; but not turning to great account oats was in a great measure given up; with either, the culture of that grass hic and summer-fallow poràtoes, (where the therto has been little attended to. Seground was free and dry) rag-fauch *, veral tried the drilling of wheat and and drilled beans, became, in generat, barley, and after persevering for some the preparation for a wheat crop. This time, and put to considerable expence '. lart preparation being found to answer - for drilling apparatus, give it entirely'where the soil is too heavy for raising up; to such length was it carried, that crops of potatoes, was, and is still fre. I have seen in one farm from 70 to 80 quently put upon fuch parts of a pota, acres at a time : the objections against toe field as are of that quality. But it were, the stems more broke down by as they did not thrive on a soil soon af- wind and rain, than when sown broade tu fected by drought, peas were tried in cast, thereby - an easier prey to crowska, drills ; but they, from falling over the and pigeons, and from the crop not de interstices, and preventing the ground occupying the ground sa equally during - 1 being wrought with the plough, were the long interval betwixt hoeing and given up also, as was the white Charl.. reaping, any root weeds left, throve in ton pea, after being raifed in the fields an uncommon degree, in the interstices, * by several for selling green in the Edin. where the ground had been so much pulburgh market, who found the return no verised : Besides, the returns in geaca. object, after the expence was deducted. ral fell short of expectation. To suck
Crops of turnip were raised, but the a pitch did a spirit of improvement and consumption depending then upon buy- fpeculation arrive about thirty years ago, ing-in cattle, and the price on selling that we became dupes to quacks. Bure frequently not answering expectation, net and Timothy grafs feeds were bought the cultivation of them for long was and sown to pretty good advantage, little attended to.
as was Baron Van-Hawke's manure. About the year 1760, the face of the A stallion of Bakewell's breed, an une: country was greatly altered, much ground weildy and inactive animal, and one or was inclosed, drained, and laid down two of his bulls, were brought into this with grass feeds that never had been county ; likewise the Lancashire breed ? cultivated before. The beneficial effe&ts of cattle; none of them, however, were ; of sown grass was conspicuously obvis much propogated. Several crosses were ous ; the farm horses were enabled to tried for procuring a more active kind, do more work, cows gave more milk, of horses, and, after many experiments, the cattle reared were increased in size, the plain west country, or Clydesdale land laid down for pasture produced breed, are efteenied the most tractable, more the first year, than when left out, and the best for flow heavy work : and, or ley, according to the old practice, it for milk cows, crosses with the Alderdid in four or five, and when sown for ney and Guernsey, seem to prevail more hay after being two years cut, produced than any other, and to succeed better. crops of corn superior to what it would They have, in general, two great qualihave done when laid down. St Foin ties : 11, That of not going soon yeld ; and Lucern were fowa by several. The and 2dly, Giving richer milk and butfirst was foon giren' up, the other was ter. The breed, when first imported, long persevered in by Lord Napier at had a delicate, and rather diminutive Merchifton, as it had been fome years appearance. But, by the second or before by Lord Drumore at Drumorea third generation, they became as hardy
and plump in the figure, as any kind Rene farinha de tener tears whatever. I have had of them, duke in grafs, and generally gets three furtowcroflingthat for eight or nine years but sometimes requires a fourth. 00x were nerer yeld, and always Laughter
fat ; when other kinds, in the same Edinburgh dung, and where wheat crops ftall, were but
indifferent *. thrive. About five years ago, several About twelve or fourteen years ago, of the farmers, near the town, had two horse ploughs became very common. pretty large fields of them, and a good They had frequently, for fix or seven many was sold fo high as feven pounds years before that, been ufed for plough- per acre ; but finding the sale limited, ing light land, feed-furrowing, fum- and fome left on hand, discouraged mer fallow, barley land, and potatoes ; raising them to so great extent, till last but being then only, in moit instances, winter, that the high price of fodder, a reduction of the old Scottish plough, and distillation going on slowly, brought with a long fock and coulter, and not a great demand, and led to the fowing executing the work in stiff, or very firm greater quantities last summer than ever, laud, so effe&ually as it ought, made and the causes for encreasing the detwo horses be considered inadequate to mand continuing, they fell 2os. per the ploughing of land properly, until acre higher than last year, the demand the principles of the Rotheram plough in this way is however very limited. was constructed, (which had been in- The cow-keepers, and butchers of Edintroduced into this county thirty years burgh, never have, in one year, conbefore, for the purpose of ploughing up sumed a hundred acres; and it cannot Sprooty nteadow grounds,) came to be be counted upon as a staple article to better known; and from practice, the the farmers in general, in this part of power of two horses is foʻniuch better the county, though on deaf dry land, understood, that now a greater number, the fowing turnip and a crop of barley are never to be seen in a plough, but in after, is found to be more profitable than extraordinary cases.
fowing wheat. Green kail and cabbages were plant Barley is now frequently fown in this ed in the fields, about ten years ago, part of the county at the same time as near the town, to the extent of an acre oats ; and where the ground has been bor two on a farm, and fold well at the well prepared, turns out fully better than time distillation was stopt and fodder that which is sown later. The grain bigh; but as soon as distilleries were never fails to be of a better quality. then again set a-going, the demand failed, The errors that seem to prevail most and such crops were a good deal given among the farmers in this district, is an up, so that for some time, few have over propensity for crops of wheat, and been planted but for the farm cows; a great reluctancy to lose a crop, when and for that purpose, cabbage, yams, the land requires more work than can and' red curl'd kail, are found of the be given to å drilled one ; which causes utmost advantage for winter and spring wheat often to be sown, where either food. No green crop whatever, affords oats or barley would have been more more sustenance than a crop of green profitable, and beans drilled, where, had kail, on rich ground, in the end of the ground been summer fallowed, the April and beginning of May.
crop of wheat after, would have been The raising of turnips has been a good worth a great deal more than both the deal revived' of late years ; but is no beans and wheat, and the land left in a • great object to the farmers in general, high state of cultivation. where the ground can be kept rich with The other arable lands in this coun
ty, where manure cannot be procured A cross between the Galloway and Al- for keeping them all under tillage, rederney, would probably, make a good breed. course is had to pasturing apart, and The cross that turned out so well with me, winter feeding cattle, and sheep; and, in was with a good kind of cows, procured from the cours of this county, and the thort this situation, inclosing is of the utmost borned kind.
consequence, not only by affording thel
ter, but as it gives cattle, feeding at tity of dung greatly increased, when their ease, greatly the advantage over well fed and littered with straw, comthofe driven about by a herd. The old pared to their situation formerly, when practice of leaving out the land that they had nothing to eat but straw, and was intended to rest, without sowing not a stalk to lie ons. grafs seeds, is almost given up. Some
Some It is remarked, that the pasture grass lay down what is intended to be pastur- in this county, in general, is kept shorted, very properly, before it is too much er than nost others; a loss so obviexhauffed, and low such grass feeds as ous, that it is furprising it should be peris calculated for procuring a close sward; fevered in. Three sheep or cattle well but for the greatest part, they are re- fed, will yield more profit than five half luctant to lay land down for pasture to fed, and the uneaten grafs never loft. relt, until it has been rather severely Where lands depend on pasture, for cropt, and, in the western part of this producing crops of corn, over-cropping county, little else is sown but rye grass ought never to take place, and more atwith a view to thrash for feed. A fe- tention ought to be paid for procuring a vere mode of cropping, as all is carried good sward than for raising a crop of off the ground in the end. Pasture hay. Plenty of white clover and rib ground, left in this state, must continue grefs is found to be the most effectual long to be much the better of lying ley. for that purpose. Too much red clover How Dowly is it enriched by all the is apt to destroy other seeds ; and yel, cattle it feeds, and if it be a heavy thin low clover is not much to be depended foil, it derives as little benefit from the on, thriving only in fome grounds, and atmosphere. With a close sward of even in these appearing one year, but grass, the ground not only grows faster not another, and, in this county, rerich, from the greater quantity of paf. maining permanent only in particular ture it yields, and the manure it conse- foils. Free gravelly foils are those where quently receives, but by being rich, and it continues longest, por is cattle food close in the sward, the soil is prepared of it. to receive and absorb a great part of There is ancther situation of arable those rains that otherwise would run land in the higher parts of this county, off, and carry away useful substances that differs a good deal from the formore than they bring.
mer, confifting of a small part called A great many turnips are now raised, Croft, that, for time immemorial, has and good crops to be feen, fed off in had laid on it all the dung made on the various ways, sometimes with sheep, but farm; and the remainder, Outfield, chief mustly with black cattle, for obtaining ly plain grounds, the most of which have the command of a greater increase of been ploughed. Gitat part of these, 36 manure, and
d.not a few are consumed by or 40 years ago, were all covered with milk cows, and they are a great acqui- heath, or a coarse grass, that afforded Tirion for that purpose: dairies, upon a little pasture. When first limed and pretty large scale, have of late been a- broke up, this foil often produced good dopted by several, with what success I crops of oats for a few years, but in gecannot fay; but as an appendage to a neral was kept in tillage, while it yieldfarnı, as far as my observation and ex- ed what was worth the sowing fór; perience has gone, a few milk cows, and though no grass feeds were sown, well attended to have always proved as indeed it could have been of no feradvantageous. The acquisition now, of vice, the fward was somewhat mended, having green meat through the winter but still coarse, thin, and of little real and spring, for milk cows and young value. In many instances they have ks made of double value, and the quan- fourth breaking up, but the oftener, the
produce becomes the less, except where will anfwer, and with these to keep on, folded. A second liming has seldom for two or three nonths, the few halfany effect. By all this additional cul. fed cattle they are accustomed to fell off tivation, without manure, the ground in autumn, the farm cow's and young is only more exhausted, and when left stock, would all be of double value. again in grass, the sward is nothing If fed plentifully, through the winter mended.
and spring, compared with what they A good deal of these fields are now are, when getting nothing but a little inclosed, and some of them derive great straw through the night, and chilld advantage from being so ; but in many through the day, in cold and rainy instances, little benefit is rcapt but the weather, picking a scanty subsistence, an trilling ihelter that is obtained from illo increase of manure: would be got of thriven hedges ; it being impossible, on course ; and where these green crops fome of these grounds, to rear them to grew, to sow in with the first crop of be proper fences, besides not having corn, 6 lb. of white clover, and the water for the stock to drink. There same quantity of rib grass with rye grass, are hundreds of acres in the high parts á little red clover, and taking never of the county, without a drop of water more than one crop of hay, double the for months.
pasture will thus be produced, than if Shelter, in these extensive open no other seeds were sown but
graf: grounds, would be of the utmost im- and clover, and the ground, of course, portance ; and though hedges cannot will be fooner fit for breaking up, and be raised to answer that end, stripes of will produce every crop more abundantplanting, in cross directions, might; ly: and when part of the outfield is as trees are to be found growing much broken ur, after folding or liming, in higher than many of these grounds, and place of doing so with detached fields, there are many instances of various kinds or parts of a field, and cropping the of trees thriving where thorns do not. ground till quite exhausted, would it There is little prospect, that any con
not be much better to fold or lime a siderable part of those lands, can foon part nearest the infield, and after the be made to produce a better sward of first crop to prepare the ground and low grass ; yet great part of them, in time, turnips ? If a little dung could be sparsurely might. The heaviness and wet- ed, it would be of great importance, ness of the soil, the want of manure, not only for encreasing the quantity of (having little more than is fufficient for grass, but for improving the quality ; the old croft-land, and lime being found as every effort ought 10. be made that to operate very poorly, in most places, tends to procure an encrease of that vawhich repeated,) the lateness of the luable article. Compost dunghills should barvel, and early winters, which make be made, where stuff can be got for the access to winter crops very difficult, the purpose, and as little of the urine are all against winter feeding being car- of the cattle lost as possible; and tho’ ried to the fame extent, as where land dung will not bear the expence of being lies ip a better climate, and is of a dry. carried to the distance of eight, nine, er and freer nature. Yet there cannot or ten miles, horn shavings and woolen be the smallest doub:, but that some. rags will. By attention to procure
what thing more might be done than is. In is to be got of these, with a proper ap. place of laying all the dung on the bar- plication of the urine, either in compost ley crops, and lit:': spots of wheat, dunghills, or otherwise, a part of these were it to be made use of for raising unproductive lands might be prepared green crops, that admit of the ground' for growing turnips, and afterwards bring thoroughly wrought, as turnips, laid down with white clover, rib aod green kail, and yams, where the soil rye grass feeds, not to be cut nor suf
fered to be potched the first year, that kind are to be found equally good thriva would ever after have a sward of grass ers with the others. To ascertain this very different from what it was, and point, is an object worthy of the attencontinue to be good pasture-ground. tion of the British Wool Society. A
The sheep walks, in this county, small heathy hill farm, for the purpose, vary as much as the arable lands. Some could not incur great expence. are connected with arable land ; upon How inclosing is to affect population, some of which turnips are raised for depends upon the use that is made of feeding the Sheep, but not yet to great the lands afterwards. If, in a proper extent ; few hitherto have been fattened manner, inclosing and pasturing is made off turnip fields in this county, though subfervient to tillage, more coro will be there are many farms well-suited to the raised than would have been otherwise ; raising of turnips, where large flocks of and of course inclosures are favourable Sheep are kept ; chose at a diltance have to population. But if, after inclosing, not yet extended much iqto the practice, the ground is all laid into grass, and and those who have sheep walks near kept for grazing, such a system must unEdinburgh, find from thence a better avoidably depopulate. One farmer, with market, reserving, in general, only a a herd or two, can make all that is to few for the spring, which, with the be made of a possession, that occupied fown grass, feed off the early lambs; the attention of two or three farmers, and if the grass is not kept too bare, many labouring servants, and their fathe
crop , of hay is not much hurt. milies, and perhaps a carpenter or wright,
There are many sheep walks that con- a smith, besides haymakers, reapers, and firt chiefly of hills and muirs, where all the various forts of tradesmen and there is little arable, in proportion to others to whom they gave employment. the large flocks that are kept, and where The effects of the little additional all the turnip-that could be raised, would employment given during the time of avail but little. Great part of these inclosing, dressing the ground, and laygrounds produce heath, and a long ben- ing it down with grass feeds, are soon ty grass, that support the flocks through- over, and in a few years, extensive out the winter season; which, on these fields, that gave occupation and food to grounds, are all of the black fac’d, numbers, appear almost uninhabited. coarse wool'd kind; and whether the Light will this country be in the scale Cheviot breed would thrive there as of nations, if our lands come to be chief. well, has never been fairly tried : but dy occupied by shepherds, and if our mathat the breed of these grounds might nufacturers have to depend upon a fobe improved by a little more attention, reign land for the bread they are to eat, is obvious, from the herd's flock always and on their own population alone, for being fuperior to the master's ; amongst a supply of hands to carry on their bus some of whom, and on pretty high fivels. grounds, crofles with the white faced
ON THE ELECTRICITY OF FLAME.
FROM THE GERMAN OF M. J. J. HEMMER. SOME of the experiments on this When a wax candle, about nine lines subject are so easy, and at the same time in diameter, has been burning for some fo curious, that we are persuaded a time, it any particles of the charred great number of our readers will amuse wick fall into the melted wax, they themselves by repeating them. M. Hem- may be observed to hasten rapidly tomer had observed the appearances here ward the fame, into which they almost described as early as 1776, and he pub- rife, and then move
a contri ry die lished a fhort notice of them in 1778 rection with equal speed, as far as the Vol. LVIII.