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margin of the candle; from which they little, bit of chalk near the flame from a return' te the flame, and continue these wire attached by a silk string to the motions till they are either burned or arm of a stand, the same attraction and run off along with the melted wax. repulfion was observed by, M. Hemmer. These oscillations are very beautifully These bodies sometimes only approachfeen, if a little powdered charcoal be ed the flame, and at others they rushed ftrewed upon the melted wax-a tallow fairly into it; they even paffed through candle cloes not shew them fo well. If it, and were repelled on the opposite there be an oblong particle among 'the side to the distance of several lines : in rest, it will approach the flame by its this case, they did not traverse the boend, never by its fide ; and such par- dy of the flame to regain their former ticles present their ends, in some cir- station, but coasted it at a small distance cumstances, alternately, and of course in a circle. Our author found, by the turn perpetually round on their journey application of M. Volta's condenser, to and fro. Even when the melted and M. Saussure's electrometer, that wax has a convex form, the particles the electricity of Aame is always negamove up the hill both to and from the tive; and this he imputes to the evapofame ; and, when the wax runs off, ration and production of elastic fluids. they will often move from the margin In all processes of this kind, negative toward the wick against the stream, be- electricity is produced, according to M. fore they run down the candle. It is Heminer. He remarks that, in not uncommon to fee particles fix them- experiments, M. Lavoisier and M. De selves to the wick after a number of La Place found the vapour of water, oscillations ; and the same thing takes positively electrified: but he afferts, that place in electrical experiments with they were deceived by the condenser. light bodies, when they have projec. De Priestley, too, when he could difting points, which throw off the elec- cover no electricity produced by, effertricity on one side, as fast as they re- vefing mixtures, was unprovided with ceive on the other.

an electrometer fufficiently fenfible. By fufpending a bit of tinsel, and a

two

REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS.

An Apology for the Bible; in a Series of to pass immediately to a serious and

Letters addrefled to Thomas Paine, critical examination of the sacred wriAuthor of a book entitled the Age of tings; for his objections being fairly Reafon, Part the Second, being an proved to originate in ignorance and Investigation of True and of Fabulous mifapprehension, the pertness and felfTheology. By R. Watson, D. D. F. fufficiency with which he has offered R. S. Lord Bishop of Landaff, and Re- them, recoil on himself and augment his gius Professor of Divinity in the Uni- disgrace. It is in this way that the Biversity of Cambridge. 12mo. As. sew. shop of Landaff combats this modern ed. Evans. There is a coarse copy champion of Infidelity. His Apology sold in Edinburgh at 9d.

forms a valuable work on the authentiMR Paine having perused the Scriptures city of the Bible, and ought to be read of the Old and New Tettament, has con- by all. It proves what the right reveceived various objections to them, and rend Author advances, that the really has expressed thefe with boldness, and of- learned are in no danger of being infec. ten with indecency. The conduct to be ted by the poison of infidelity; and it will pursued by the opponent of this popular no doubt confirm the wavering faith of writer was not to honour him by ex- many. changing railing for railing, but by treat Many instructive extracts might be ing with dignified contempt and christian made from this very valuable work, but self-command, his vanity and his levity,

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hope the following short extracts will in- tion of the laws of nature.-Different ! duce such of our readers as have not seen in what?--Not in the magnitude of the the book to read the whole. Mr Paine evil-not in the subjects of sufferance -'confiders it an insurmountable moral not in the author of it-for my philosoobjection to the authenticity of the Scrip- phy, at least, rinstructs me to believe, tures, that they describe the Ifraelites as that God not only primarily formed, but exterminating the Canaanites by the that he hath through all ages executed, express command of God. This he af- the laws of nature; and that he will ferts is sufficient of itself to destroy the through all eternity administer them, for facred authority of the Bible. Bishop the general happiness of his creatures, Watson thus replies to it: “ I am afto- whether we can, on every occalion, disnished that so acute a reasoner should cern that end or not.' attempt to disparage the Bible, by bring The Bishop finithes his examination of ing forward this exploded and frequent- that part of the Age of Reason which rely refuted objection of Morgan, Tindal, lates to the Old Teitament, in the fol. and Bolingbroke. You profess yourself lowing beautiful and masterly manner: to be a deitt, and to believe that there is 6. You conclude your objections to a God, who created the universe, and the Old Testament in a triumphant Ityle; established the laws of nature, by which an angry opponent would say, in a style it is sustained in existence : You profess, of extreine arrogance, and lottish féif, that from the contemplation of the sufficiency." I have gone,” you say, works of God you derive a knowledge “ through the Bible (miltaking here, as of his attributes; and you reject the Bible in other places, the Old T ftament for because it ascribes to God things incon- the Bible) às a man would go through a hstent (as you suppose) with the attri- wood, with an axe on his fhoulders, and butes which you have discovered to be fell trees; here they lie; and the priests, long to him ; in particular, you think it if they can, may replant them. They repugnant to his moral justice, that he may, perhaps, stick them in the ground, should doom to destruction the crying or but they will never grow.”-And is it smiling infants of the Canaanites.--Why possible that you should think so highdo you not maintain it to be repugnant ly of your performance, as to believe, to his m'oral justice, that he should fuf- that you have thereby demolished the fer crying or smiling infants to be swal authority of a book, which Newton himlowed up by an earthquake, drowned self esteemed the most authentic of all by an inundation, consumed by a fire, histories; which, by its celeftial light, starved by a famine, or destroyed by a illumines the darkeit ages of antiquity ; peftilence? The Word of God is in per- which is the touchstone whereby we are fect harmony with his work; crying or enabled to distinguish between true and {miling infants are subjected to death in fabulous theology, between the God of both. We believe that the earth, at the Israel, holy, just, and good, and the imexpress command of God, opened her pure rabble of heathen Baalim; which has mouth, and swallowed up Korah, Da- been thought, by competent judges, to than, and Abiram, with their

wives, their have afforded matter for the laws of Sofons, and their little ones. This you ef- lon, and a foundation for the philofophy teem so repugnant to God's moral juf- of Plato; which has been illustrated by tice, that you spurn, as fpurious, the the labour of learning in all ages and book in which the circumstance is re- countries, and been admired and venea lated. When Catania, Lima, and Lis rated for its piety, its sublimity, its vebon, were severally destroyed by earth- racity, by all who were able to read and quakes, men with their wives, their fons, understand it? No, fir; you have gone and their little ones; were swallowed up indeed through the wood, with the best alive :-why do you not spurn, as (pu- intention in the world to cut it down ; rious, the book of nature, in which this but you have merely busied yourself in fact is certainly written, and from the exposing to vulgar contempt a few. unperufal of which you infer the moral lighily Thrubs, which good men had justice of God! You will probably, re- wisely concealed from public view ; you ply, that the evils which the Canaanites have entangled yourself in thickets of luffered from the express .command of thorns and briars; you have lost your God, were different from those which way on the mountains of Lebanon ; the are brought on mankind by the opera- goodly cedar trees whereof, lamenting

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the madness, and pitying the blindness, of ed than the great pyramid, by which even your ráge against them, have fcorned the the period of the summer solstice canblunt edge and the bafe temper of your not be ascertained; because the shadow is axe, and laughed unhurt at the feeble- then too high to be distinctly perceive pefs of your stroke."

ed. Yet the celebrated chronologist

Vignoles supposes that the priests calcuPbilosophical Dissertations on the Egyptians lated the equinoxes by means of the py.

and Chinese, Translated from the ramids ; but he would never have forma French of M. de Pauw, Private Rea- ed this opinion, had his plans of those der to Frederic II. King of Prussia.

monuments been as exact, and his maps By Capt. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 8vo. of Egypt as good, as ose now pub128. Boards.' Chapman.

lished. THE leading design of the work is to " It should be remarked, that the compare the Egyptians and Chinese in Egyptians observed no determined proa variety of particulars, in order to prove portion between the breadth of the base, that the latter did not borrow their in. and the height of the pyramids. As ftitutions and customs from the former; their dimensions varied so confiderably, and the result of his inquiry is, that no no idea could be had of having recourse #wo nations ever lefs refembled each o. to them, in order to find out the equi. ther. In the process of his research, the noctial days; which, according to Maauthor takes a wide compass, and brings crobius, were indicated by simple styles, before the reader a great variety of cu- or, as others pretend, ty water-clocks. rious facts and ingenious obfervations. One fact was entirely unknown to Vig

M. de P. examines the state of popu- noles : the pyramid, called el Harem el lation, with respect to both countries; Kieber el Koubli by the Arabs, has a base and he concludes that China is much much broader, in proportion to its height, less peopled in proportion to its fize than than the great pyramid of Memphis. Thus Germany, and that the accounts of the beginning much sooner than the other to extent and population of ancient Egypt całt no fade at mid-day, it cannot ferve have been greatly exaggerated.

in any manner to indicate the equinoxes. The character of the Chinese archi- Befides, it may be apposite to ask, what tecture is found to be directly oppofite means were employed by the priefts of to that of the Egyptians. It is denied Thebęs, who had no pyramid in all their that China affords' any monuments of country, whatever Abulfeda has asserted great antiquity, and that any credit is to the contrary; and yet their college due to what the Chinese historians re was the firft in Egypt, as well for astrolate of the fourishing state of their coun. nomical knowledge, as in point of antitry under the ancient emperors. the contrary, the architecture of the ' We must not therefore attribute Egyptians is hewn to be of high anti- views to the Egyptians, which they quity, and to afford indubitable proofs could not have entertained without difof ancient greatness. We shall copy the covering a total want of common sense. author's ingenious research concerning For surely a fimple dial-pin is better athe use of the pyramids of Egypt, as a dapted to afford exact indications in fpecimen both of the work and the tran- such matters, than any mass where the Nation;

fhade must be greatly impaired. “ The largest of the pyramids, Gituat. “ The pyramids, as well as the obeed in twenty-nine degrees fifty minutes lisks, were monuments erected in honour and some feconds north latitude, begins of the Being who enlightens the uni, towards the vernal equinox to afford no verse; and this determined the priests to fhadow at mid-day beyond its base; and give them a particular position. Sepul, those, who then walk round this huge chral cells might have been constructed mass of fones upwards of five hundred within these edifices, fufficient to confeet high, never lose sight of the sun. tain the bodies of all the royal family: The architects must have foreseen this Yet only two apartments are hitherto effe&t, proceeding from the pyramidal discovered, and one fimple cheft, which, form of the edifice; and the meridian in opposition to the opinion of Strabo, Made during one half of the year is con- many enlightened travellers, fuch as Docfined to the northern face, without ever tor Shaw, do not conceive to be a farreaching the earth. Thus nothing more cophagus, where any carcase was ever imperfect, as a fun-dial, could be invent

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deposited ; and, in reality, the thing is what Ctefias and Diodorus Siculus revery improbable. Endless conjectures late of an obelisk, attributed by them to have been hazarded; but hitherto no Semiramis, of which no person however writer has reflected, that this cheft might could speak from his own knowledge. be what the Egyptians called the Tomb Egypt, on the contrary, must have exof Osiris. Many luch were found through hibited more than eighty of the largest out the whole country; and the fuper- fize. The operation of erecting them ftition, attached to their construction, was not very difficult among people, confified in making the rays of the fun who, from having transported many fuck defcend around them, without causing maffes, had acquired an experience, any fhade on the ground at mid-day, which Fontana wanted, when he emduring at leaft one half of the year. ployed fix hundred men, and one hundred This phenomenon continued longest in and forty horses, upon that of the Vatithe southern pyramids of Illabon and Ha. can. The power of the cables and capuara, towards the extremity of the plain ftans being known, it is calculated, that called Cochome, and from their ruinous this force would have been sufficient to ftate, they may be considered as more raise ten thousand pound weight more ancient than those of Memphis. The than was necessary on that occafion. As latter are thought ftill capable of refift- the Egyptians did not place their obeing the lapfe of five thousand years, ac- liiks on such elevated pedestals as those cording to a calculation formed on the so improperly employed at Rome, they progress of their decay since the days of might, with four hundred men and eighHerodotus. That historian mentions ty horses, have managed any monument many figures and characters on the ex of that kind even with capítans alone. terior of those edifices, now no longer The story, told by some authors, convisible ; but Mr Norden spoke without cerning one of the Pharaohs, who, they reflection, when he asserted, in his jour- say, tied his sons to the top of one of ney through Nubia, that they were con- these stones to make the workmen more structed prior to the invention of hiero- cautious, is too notoriously absurd to reglyphics. Such mistakes shock all no- quire refutation. By examining attentions of history; and it were to be de- tively the form and position of the obefire:l, that the greater part of travellers, lisks of Egypt, it is easy to perceive, that before their departure, or at least after they could never be intended as gnótheir return, would take fome pains to mons, according to the opinion fo preimprove their studies.

valent in Europe. Two were placed at The priests of ancient Egypt, by the entrance of the temples; and when determining so very accurately the po- those buildings could be approached by fition of the pyramids, have enabled us different ways, the number of such fpires to ascertain, that no variation has taken was augmented in proportion. This is place in the direction of the poles. In evident at the present day, in the ruins vain should we look on the whole fur- of the temple of Phylæ ; in that of The. face of our globe for any other means of bes; and at the supposed tomb of Oly. obtaining this information. Had Chal- mandyas; a word evidently composed of dea ever pofleired edifices equally folid Mendes and Osiris. with those of Egypt, fome prodigious 6 Thus, we find, that nothing like ruins wculd ftill be found there: but gnomons was the object; otherwise the from being formed of brick and bittu- absurdity is evident of placing them fo men, all the higher parts foon fell asun- near each other, that their shadows must der; and fome remains are discovered frequently be confounded together. Beonly at a few feet above the foundation, sides, the upper part, called the pyramiwhere the tenacity of the bittumen

has diun, could not give any precise indicabeen preserved by the humidity. This tion without the addition of a globe, is most remarkable in a place supposed like that employed at Rome under Auto be the fite of a temple of Belus; but guftus and Coñitantius. Nothing of the such matters do not deserve invesiiga- kind, however, is mentioned by any antion. Besides, in no country do we find cient author, as having been practised Chaldean ftatues or monuments; while by the Egyptians; and we fee, by the all the cabinets of Europe are furnished paintings taken from the ruins of Hercuwith Egyptian antiquities. We may laneum, and Atill better by the Palestrina consider as the greatest exaggeration Mofaic, that the obelisks are invariably

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represented without a globe, or any bited their own portraits. Such porplace to infert a style, or bar. When a traits are often the mott interesting parts Roman, named Maximus, was prefect of their writings; and if they be fincere of Egypt, he cut away the point, in or- we feldom complain of the minuteness der to place a globe on the obelisk of or prolixiiy of these personal memorials. Alcxander: and this muit have appeared The lives of the younger Pliny, of Peto the Egyptians as facrilege. Thus the trarch, and of Erasınus art expressed in members of the Academy of Inscriptions the epi lies which they themselves have at Paris were very ill informed, when given to the world. The Essays of Monthey made their report to the Academy tagne and Sir William Temple bring us of Sciences, relative to the antiquity of home to the houses and bofoms of the supporting the globes with obelilks : for authors: we smile without contempt at fuch iras never the practice of the Egyp- the headstrong paflions of Benevento tians."

Cellini, and the gay follies of Colley Cib

ber. The confeflions of St Austin and Miscellaneous Works of Edward Gibbon, Rofferu disclose the secrets of the huE/9; with Memoirs of his Life and man heart. The commentaries of the Writings composed by himself: i!luf- learned Huet have survived his Evangetrated from his Letters, with occa- lical Demonttration; and the memoirs Lional Notes and Narrative, by John of Goldoni are more truly dramatic than Lord Sheffield. 410. 2 Vols. 21. 1os. his Italian comedies. The heretic and Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies.

the churchman are strongly marked in THE natural and reasonable avidity, the characters of Whiston and Bishop with which the remains of celebrated Newton, and even the dulness of Miauthors are fought, is peculiarly strength- chael de Marolles and Antony Wood, ened when a picture of the character, acquires some value from the faithful rethe manners, the dispositions, and the presentation of men and manners. That studies of the writer, forms a part of i am equal or superior to some of these, these interesting papers.

the effects of modetty or affectation canThe narrative, however, of the life of not force me to diffemble.” an eminent author must be infinitely We will not resume any thing of the more intéresting when written by him. life of Mr Gibbon, as an account has felf. As compofitions of this kind per- already been given in vol. 58. p. 87. hap3 needs some apology, Mr Gibbon The following trait of his private chawrites as follows:

racter, in a love connection, appears in“ A sincere and simple narrative of my teresting : may

amuse some of my leisure “ I hesitate, from the apprehension of hours; but it will subject me, and per- ridicule, when I approach the delicate haps with justice, to the imputation of subject of my early love. By this word vanity. I may judge, however, from I do not mean the polite attention, the the experience both of past and of the gallantry without hope or design, which prefent times, that the public are always has originated in the spirit of chivalry, curious to know the men who have left and is interwoven with the texture of behind them any image of their minds: French manners. I understand by this the möft scanty accounts of such men passion the union of delire, friendship, are compiled with diligence and perused and tenderness, which is enflamed by a with eagerness: and students of every single female ; which prefers her to the clafs may derive a leffon or an example rest of her sex, and which seeks her poffrom the most fimilar to his own. My, feffion as the supreme or the fole hap. name may hereafter be placed among piness of our being. I need not blush at the thoutáud articles of a Biographia recollecting the object of my choice ; Britannica : and I must be conscious that and though my love was disappointed no one is so well qualified as myself to of success, I am rather proud that I was describe the series of my thoughts and once capable of feeling fuch a pure and actions. The authority of my masters, exalted sentiment. · The personal at1 of the grave Thuanus and philofophic tractions of Mademoiselle Susan CurHume, might be sufficient to juftify my chod were embellished by the virtues delign; but it would not be difficult to and talents of the mind. Her fortune produce a long list of ancients and mo was humble, but her family was respecdis, who io various forms have exhi- table. Her mother, a native of France,

had

own life

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