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of the disc. However, by admitting vated spots on its furface will seem to
larg mountains on the surface of the be cavities, and all cavities will assume
fun, we fhall account for the different the shape of mountains. But then, at
opinions of two eminent astronomers; the lanie time, the moon, iostead of
one of whom believed the spots depres- having the convex appearance of a
Led below the fun, while the other fup- globe, will seem to be a large concave
posed them elevated above it. For it is portion of a hollow sphere. As soon
not improbable, that some of the folar as, by the force of imagination, you
mountains may be high enough, occa- drive away the fallacious appearance of
fionally, to project above the shining a concave moon, you restore the moun-
elastic Auid, when, by some agitation tains to their protuberance, and fink
or other cause, it is not of the usual the cavities again below the level of the
height; and this opinion is much surface. Now, when I faw the spot
Itrengthened by the return of some re- lower than the shining matter of the sun,
markable spots, which ferved Callini to and an extending plane, also depressed,
ascertain the period of the sun's rota with shelving fides rising up to the level,
tion. A very high country, or chain I also found that the sun was convex,
of mountains, may oftener become vi- and appeared in its natural globular
sible, by the removing of the obstructing state. Hence I conclude, that there
Auid, than the lower regions, on ac- could be no deception in those appear-
count of its not being so deeply covered ances.
with it.


ill would this observation In the year 1791, I examined a agree with the ideas of solid bodies bobs large spot in the fun, and found it evi- bing up and down in a fiery liquid? dently depressed below the level of the With the smoke of voicanoes, or scum surface; about the dark part was a broad upon an ocean? And how easily it is margin, or plane of confiderable extent, explained upon our foregoing theory. less bright than the fun, and also lower The removal of the shining atmosphere, than its surface. This plane seemed to which permits us to see the sun, must rise, with shelving fides, up to the place naturally be attended with a gradual din where it joined the level of the surface. minution on its borders; an instance

In confirmation of these appearances, of a fimilar kind we have daily before I carefully remarked that the disc of us, when through the opening of a the fun was visibly convex ; and the cloud we see the sky, which generally reafon of my attention to this particular, is attended by a surrounding haziness of was, my being already long acquainted fome short extent; and seldom tranfits, with a certain optical deception, that fron) a perfect cleárness, at once to the takes place now and then when we view greatest obfcurity. the moon ; which is, that all the ele.

(To be continued.)

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DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF THE SCRIPTURES. SOME attempts at rendering the fa- ing to some writers, à translation of the cred writings inib our 'narive tongue whole Bible was made, within a few took place in yery early times. About years of this period, by the venerable the year 706, Adelme, Bishop of Sher- Bede; But of this fact there is much borne, is faid to have translated the reason to doubt. No fatisfactory eviPsalms into Saxon ; and nearly about dence of such a translation appears in the same time; a version of the four the best accounts of his life, and the Gospels, into the same language, is un: most accurate catalogues of his works. derstood to have been executed by Eg. Equally doubtful is the truth of Fuller's bert, Bishop of Laddesfern. Accard. affertion, that Bede translated the


Psalms and New Testament into Eng. ecuted in 1397. The fact, however is, lish. He wrote, indeed, many com- that he translated only a few texts, mentaries upon the Scriptures, which which were either painted on the walls were chiefly collections, from the anci- of his patron's chapel in Berkley-castle, ent Fathers ; but there is no direct evi- or are scattered in fundry parts of his dence of his having done more than the works. The success which Wickliff making of a version of the Gofpel of met with, gave encouragement to some St John into the Saxon language, for of his followers to review his translathe benefit of the church. This was tion, or rather to make another, less one of the last employments

of his life. strict and verbal, and more agreeable to A Saxon translation of the Pentateuch, the sense. Io Wickliff's original unJoshua, parts of the Books of Kings, dertaking he did not act without proEsther, Judith, and the Maccabees, is per affiftants, and the pains they took also atıributed to Elfric, or Elfred, or were very laudable, and indeed judiAluricius, who was Archbishop of cious. Canterbury from the year 993 to 1006. The next translation, which is of Whether the narrative be itrictly exact, fufficient consequence to be here paris not of material consequence in this ticularly mentioned, was that by T'in. place to inquire. There were several dall. It included the whole New Telother attempts of the same kind before tament, and was finished at Antwerp, the time of Wickliff ; but they extend- where, or at Hamburgh, it was published only to some parts of the sacred ed in the year 1526. Such was the writings. Nor do any of these versions offence taken at it by Archbishop Warappear to have been published; having ham and Bishop l'onstall, that they been made only for the use of the re- hurled furious censures against the transspective translators, or of the particular Jator and his adherents; and the latter churches to which they belonged. of these prelates purchased for the

The first person who appears upon greater part of the impresion, to prevent undoubted evidence to have translated its dispersion among the mass of the the whole Bible was the famous John people. This circumstance was of Wickliff. This work was finished and singular advantage to the work; for published by him sometime before the Tindall was enabled, by the fale of his year 5381. The translation was made book, to give more correct editions of from the Latin bibles then in common it to the public. Not content with use, or which were usually read in the opening the treasures of the New Tefchurch ; for though he was sensible of tament to the Christian world, he formthe preference that was due to the au- ed the design of adding to it a version thority of the Greek and Hebrew text, of the Old Testament.

This design he was not sufficiently acquainted with he did not live to complete. The these languages to make them the foun- Pentateuch was translated by him, and dation of his verfion. Notwithstanding 'printed at Hamburgh in 1530 ; and in this disadvantage, Wickliff's translation the next year be published an English was a production of great importance version of the prophet Jonah. It has and utility, having been a considerable been supposed that, previously to his step in that reformation in religion which decease, he finished all the Bible, ex. was begun by him, and which paved cepting the Apocrypha, which was the way for the more eminent altera. traplated by Rogers. But it appears tions that afterward took place. An molt probable that he translated only English version of the Bible has been the historical parts. That Tindall's attributed to John Trevisa, a native of version has many faults, will be acCorowall, and vicar of Berkley in Glou- knowledged by every one who is concestershire, and is said to have been ex- verfaạt with the subject : Devertheless,

it was a great effort for a single man, Cranmer did not rest in what he had especially corisidering the period in which already done. His mind was so inhe lived. An author who cannot be tent on introducing a free use of the expected to be partial to him, but whose Scriptures by able and faithful translators, liberality of mind rises above all pre- that he divided an old English transjudices and distinctions (we mean Doctor lation of the New Testament into nine Geddes) thinks that “though Tindall's or ten parts, and caused these parts to is far from being a perfect tranílation, be transcribed into paper books, which yet few first translations will be found he distributed among the most learned preferable to it. It is astonishing," adds Bithops, and others; requiring that they the Doctor, “how little obfolete the would perfectly correct their respective language of it is, even at this day: and portions, and return them to bim at a in point of perspicuity and noble fimpli- limited time. When the day came, the city, propriety of idiom and purity of only person who did not send in his ftyle, no English version has yet fur- proper part at Lambeth, was Stokefiey palied it.” Doctor Geddes has farther Bishop of London. What was the redeclared, that, if he had been inclined sult of this undertaking is not ascertainto make any prior English version the ed. ground-work of his own, it would cer Thomas, Lord Cromwell, concurred tainly have been Tindall's, and that with Cranmer in promoting the reading perhaps he should have done this, if and study of the Scriptures. In some Their Hebrew text had been the fame, injunctions which were published by him, Such a testimony to the merit of Tin- as the King's vicar-general and vicedall places him high in the rank of bibli- gerent in ecclesiastical matters, it was cal literature.

ordered, “ that every person, or proIn confequence of the gradual pre- prietary of any parish church within the valence of Protestant principles, a riling realm, should provide a book of the folicitude appeared for the diffusion of whole Bible, both in Latin and also in the Bible in the mother tongue. Arch. English, and lay it in the choir, for bishop Cranmer was particularly zealous every man that wished to look and read in this respect; and accordingly, not- therein : and should discourage no man withstanding the opposition of Gardiner from reading any part of the Bible, and his party, he obtained, through the either in Latin or English.” Such a influence of Queen Anne Bullen, an permiffion could not fail of tending to order from the King, for a new tranf- produce a great revolution in the minds Jation of the Scriptures. This was in of our countrymen. 1534 ; and in the next year the whole In the year 1537, another edition of Bible was finished at the press. From the English Bible made its appearance, the rapidity with which the work was which had been printed at Hamburgh, executed, it is evident that Cranmer and or Marpurg, by Grafton and WhitHis associates must have had it in pre- church. It bore the name of Thomas vious preparation. The chief burden Matthewe, and was set forth with the of the undertaking lay upon Miles Cover King's licence. In this edition great dale, a divine whom we have formerly use was made of T'indall and Covercharacterised in his proper place, and dale; and the New Testament was from whom this version was called Tindall's version. In fact the whole " Coverdale's Bible.” It is also often translation is represented to be no other alled Cranmer's Bible ; and it is the than that of Tindall and Coverdale, first English Bible that was allowed by fomewhat altered. That the name of royal authority, and the first translation Matthewe was a feigned one is univer. of the whole sacred writings that was fally allowed, and that it was assumed printed in our language. Archbishop for prudential reasons; one of which


was, that the reader's obligation to the work, were fummoned to appear Tindall might be concealed, his memory before the inquisitors ; and the impresbeing still odious to a great number of fion, consisting of 2,500 copies, was persons. John Rogers, before menti- seized and condemned to the flames. oned, a learned academic, and the first In consequence, bowever, of the aviwho was condemned to the flames in rice of the officer who superintended the reign of Queen Mary, is understood the burning of the books, fome chests to have been employed by Cranmer in of them were sold to a haberdasher, for superintending the edition, and in far- the purpose of wrapping his wares. nishing the few emendations and addi- When the alarm subsided, the English tions which were thought necessary. At proprietors, who had fled from Paris, the intercession of the Archbishop, Lord returned to that city, and not only reCromwell again exerted his influence covered some of the copies which had with Henry the Eighth, and his vica- escaped the fire, but brought with them rical authority, in recommending the to London the presses, types, and prinBible to public notice: and so well ters. This translation took place in pleased was our worthy prelate with his the latter end of the year 1538. Early Lordship's effectual interpofition, that in 1539, Grafton and Whitchurch he expressed himfelf in the following printed the Bible in large folio, and preterms of pious gratitude and affection: fixed to it a beautiful frontispiece delign“ I doubt not but that hereby such fruit ed by Hans Holbein. In the text, of good knowledge shall ensue, that it those parts of the Latin version which fhall well appear hereafter what high are not found in the Hebrew or Greek and excellent service you have done are inserted in a smaller letter ; and a unto God and the King : which shall mark is used to denote a difference of so much redound to your honour, that, reading between the Hebrews and the beside God's reward, you shall obtain Chaldees. Matthewe's bible was reperpetual memory for the same within vised, and several alterations were made this realm. This deed you shall hear in the translation, particularly in the of at the great day, when all things book of Psalms; but the prologues and shall be opened and made manifeft.” notes of the edition of 1537 were whol

In 1538, a quarto New Testament, ly omicted. This third edition of the in the. Vulgate Latin, and in Cover. Scriptures has been called the “ Bible dale's English, was printed with the in the large or great volume," and has King's licence. These repeated at- been supposed to be the same which tempts to enlighten the body of the Grafton obtained leave to print at Paris. people with the knowledge of the Scrip- If it was a different impression, it was tures could not fail to excite great jea- still under the chief care of Miles Colousy in the adherents to Popery. There verdale, who compared the translation was nothing which they dreaded so with the original Hebrew, and improve much as vernacular translations of the ed it in many places. Bible. At the request of King Henry

In the course of the same year, anhimself, Grafion had obtained a per- other Bible was printed by John Byddell; million from Francis the First to print a and the conductor of it was Richard Bible at Paris, on account of the fupe- Taverner, who had received his educarior skill of the workmen, and tbe com- tion at Christchurch in Oxford, and parative goodness and cheapness of the was patronised by Cronwell, when sepaper. But, notwithstanding the royal cretary of state.' It was probably on licence, the Inquistion interposed to account of Taverner's great skill in the prevent the execution of the design. Greek language that he was encouraged The French printers, their English emo by his patron to undertake this work, ployers, and Coverdale the corrector of which is neither a bare sevisal of the


English bible just described, nor a new porter. The prelates, who were hofversion, but between both. Many of tile to their metropolitan's laudable exthe marginal notes of Matthewe's im- ertions, represented to the King, that preslion are adopted, many omitted, and the English translation was very erroOthers inserted. Taverner, in his de- neous and heretical. Agreeably to the dication to the King, expresses a pro- language which is fo congenial to all per sense of the difficulty of a good those who are averse to every species äranlation of the Scriptures. Such a and degree of reform, it was said, that translation, he thinks, could scarcely the free ufe of the Bible was calculated be accomplished by one or two persons; to increase faction and parties, to raise and that it would require the deep con- disputes among the common people, Ferring of many learned wits together, and to destroy the peace of the kingdom. and a Full proportion of time and leisure. In the Convocation, which met in 1542, After Cromwell's death, the influence the archbishop, in the King's name, reof the bishops, who were addicted to quired the bishops and clergy to revise the Romish religion, procured 'Taver- the translation of the New Testament, Der's imprisonment in the Tower upon For this purpose, he divided it into account of this work ; but he had the fourteen parts, and portioned them out address to reinstate himself in the King's to fifteen bishops, affigning two to the favour, and his version was read in book of Revelations, on account of its churches by royal authority.

difficulty. The Convocation being soon Several privileged editions of the Bi- dissolved, the design was not carried inble rapidly succeeded ; no less than five to execution. The view of the hostile kaving appeared in 1540. In the same prelates was to banish the translation year, the curates and parishioners of e- already made, and to introduce one very parish were required, by royal pro- which should be fo frequently intersperclamation, to provide themselves with sed with Latin words as to remain uninthe Bible of the largest volume ; and to telligible to the mere English reader. the neglect of doing it a penalty was an- In parliament, the Romish party so far nexed. All ordinaries were, at the prevailed, that Tindall's translation was same time, charged to see that the pro- condemned and abolished by law. O. clamation was obeyed. Io 1541, a ther versions were, indeed, permitted new edition of Cranmer's bible was to remain in force; but even these verfinished by Grafton ; and this was fol- fions were to be read by the higher clas. lowed, in a few months, by an impres- ses only; and not by the lower fort, fion of another bible of the largest size, without the King's licence. It was which was superintended, at the King's with no small difficulty, that Cranmer command, by Tonstal bishop of Dur- obtained fome mitigation of these injuncham, and Heath bishop of Rochester. tions. Grafton, the printer, who had

This edition was followed by a far- been so zealous in promoting the knowther decree from Henry, that a Bible. ledge and diffuGon of the Scriptures, should be set up in every parish through- was imprisoned ; nor was he' released out England. But notwithstanding till he had given a bond of three hunthese injunctions were so frequently re- dred pounds.neither to print nor to sell peated, they were partially and reluct- any more English bibles till the King antly observed. The matter was dil- and the clergy should agree on a translacouraged by those bishops who were at- tion. In the year 1544, the Pentatached to Popery, and whose power and teuch was printed according to the coinfluence gradually gained strength, af- py which was set forth by royal authoter the execution of Thomas Cromwell, rity; and in 1546, a proclamation was Larl of Efrex. In him the venerable issued, which prohibited the poffeffon Cranmer loft a zealous and able fup- and the reading of Wicklif's, Tipdall's,


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