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ihe Apocalypse. Lastly, another com- and to see that the rules laid down were pany of seven, at Cambridge, had af. strictly regarded. Signed to them the Apocrypha, includ. Nearly three years were employed in ing the Prayer of Manaffeh.” In this making this version, the progress of appointment it was intended that the which was not a little retarded by the divines employed should not be too ma. death of a Mr Lively, a Cambridge ny, left one should trouble another ; scholar, upon whom the weight of the and at the same time, that they should work greatly rested, on account of his be so numerous as to prevent any im- skill in the Oriental languages. It is portant object from escaping their atten. to be regretted, that the memory of a tion. The prelates were likewise en- man of such eminent literature, and joined to inform themselves of such whose assistance was of so much conse, learned men in their several dioceses as quence in this great undertaking, should had knowledge in the Hebrew and have funk into almost total oblivion. Greek tongues, and had studied the When the trallation was finished, two Scriptures; and the king's pleasure was perfons were chosen to refine and polish fignified, that their obfervations should it, from each of the joint companies be sent to one of three persons fixed which had assembled at Oxford, Cama upon for the purpose of receiving any bridge, and Westminster. The two occasional communications.

from the Cambridge companies were For the encouragement of the tran- Mr John Boys, fellow of St John's flators, provision was made that they college, and Mr Andrew Downes, should be promoted to ecclefiaftical be. Greek philosopher ; who daily met their nefices, as opportunity offered ; and, in fellow.labourers in Stationers' Hall, the course of a few years, seven of them London, and in nine months completrose to the episcopal dignity. To invi- ed their talk. Last of all, Bilson Bia gorate their ardour, and to accelerate shop of Winchester, and Dr Miles their fpeed, the Bishop of London in Smith, who, from the beginning had formed them, that his Majesty was been very active in the affair, again re. not satisfied till the work was entered viewed the whole, and prefixed argu. upon ; and that his royal mind rejoiced guments to the several books. Dr more in the good hopes which he had Smith, who, for his indefatigable pains for its happy success, than for the peace in the work, was fpeedily advanced to concluded with Spaio. Notwithstand the bishopric of Gloucester, was order. ing these inducements, the tranflation ed to write the preface. Mention is was not a&tually begun till early in the made of a chief overseer and taskmaster, year 1607, and indeed it must have re- under his Majesty, to whom not only quired a confiderable degree of previous the translators, but also the whole church, preparation. Certain rules were pre- was much bound. The person intend. fcribed to be carefully observed in the ed was probably Archbishop Bancroft. undertaking, the generality of which The English divines, who, in 1618, were judicious and proper, thongh to a were commissioned to attend the fynod few of them, perhaps, objections might of Dort, delivered a paper to that af be made. It was likewise the king's fembly, containing an account of this pleasure, which had been signified to matter ; which in some few circumthe vice-chancellor of Cambridge so ear- ftances differs from that already given, ly as the 13th of August 1604, that It is said, in particular, that after each beside the persons employed for the individual had finithed his task, twelve Hebrew' and Greek, there should be men afsembled in one place, and revisselected three or four of the most emi ed the whole; and only seven rules are nent and grave divines of the universi. mentioned as prescribed to the interprety, to be overseers of the translations, ters, whereas there is the most authen

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tic'evidence that the rules were four, which has since continued to be the teen in number.

national standard. It was a great work, In the year 1611, every thing was highly to the honour of the kingdom, completed, and that version of the Holy and of the theological knowledge of Scriptures was published by authority our country.

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THOUGHTS ON BOOKS, “Of making many books there is no end.” SOLOMON. WHEN we consider the valt quan- of reading; and it is in vain to say, that tity of publications which are every in such voluminous compofitions there day coming from the press, and when, is a great deal very superfluous, a great upon a just appreciation of their intrinsic deal of no value, and which it would value, we discover very few original be a waste of time to read. The fact fintiments in them, we cannot but ad- proves, at least, that they were more mire that happy faculty in man, where. assiduous students, and that they devoted by he can vary and new-dress old ar- a portion of time to their studies, which guments and precepts, so as to give we should think equal to the horrors them the charms of novelty, and often of an imprisonment. They allowed the force of conviction. It has been little time for conversation, while we observed, of late years, that the publica are satisfied to study just as much as tions of the English press have multi- will enable us to shine in conversation. plied tenfold, and that even their suca But the authors of the last and pre. cess as to circulation has very nearly ceding centuries, it must be confessed, kept pace with their number. It is a were rather compilers than original fair inference that the number of read- writers. Emerging from the long night ers is increased ; for although there of darkness which overspread Europe, may be some persons who purchase books they had to ransack the stores of antimerely as ornaments to a room, such a quity for materials, which however case cannot often happen, and I think crudely digested, formed a foundation that considering the improved state of for the more fimplified learning of the conversation, the other inference is the present day. Their minds were too more just one,

much shackled by prejudices of the phiHow far the interests of true litera- losophical and religious kind to allow ture are concerned in the increase of them to expand their own thoughts, inpublications is another question. With- stead of those of others; and, however out entering particularly on the solution much they improved on their originals, of it, I should imagine that literature they were ftill led by authority. An is spread over the kingdom in small agreeable author of our days says, that portions fitted to the wants and to the the number of those writers who can leisure of its inhabitants, but that the with any justness of expression be term. number of real scholars, and of assiduous ed thinking authors, would not formą (tudents, is very far from being greatly very copious library, though one were increased. We are greatly behind the to take in all of that kind, which both writers of the last century in the mag. ancient and modern times have producnitude of our productions. An author ed, “ Necessarily," says he, “ I ima. now is very well content to produce an gine, must one exclude from a collecoctavo volume within a time, half of pion of this sort, all that numerous une which would have been sufficient for a der-tribe in the common-wealth of litera{cholar of the last century to produce a' ture that owe their existence merely to folio. Indeed the scholars of the last the thoughts of others.”. Were we, ins and preceding centuries, produced more deed, to be as fastidious as this writer works than many who think themselves proposes, what would be the fate of students now, could undergo the fatigue the Vatican and the Bodleian libraries.

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I fear we should be thought as great of them. Whether ought hie, who gives favages as those who burnt the library an entertainment, to place his guests at of Alexandria, a lo!s, by the by, of table, or to suffer them to place themmuch less consequence than has gene- selves? Which was first, a hen or an raliy been supposed, if we may reason egg? Why are women very long in from what was left to what was loit. getting drunk? Why are men, when

Voluminous as the European authors half-drunk, more restless and disorderly, of the last two centuries have been, what than when they become quite intoxicatare they in comparison with the anci- ed? Why are there many guests iavitents? but mere pigmies in literature, ed to a wedding dinner? Why is no mere phamphleteers! We are told that faith to be given to dreams in autumn ? Epicurus left behind him three hun. Is it consistent with the good manners dred volumes of his own works, all origi- that ought to be observed at a symponal; for Aulus Gellius, quoting Varro, fium, for a man to fall asleep, before he says, there was not a citation among gets drunk ?"? them. Didymus, the grammarian, wrote

So much for this great philosopher. no less than four thousand ! Origen A man in our days, provided he were wrote fix thousand treatises. Of such not debarred the use of pen and ink, works what can we think? We may might fill up many reams of paper with surely very fairly judge from what is such disquisitions; but I que:tion wheextant, and say that if they did not bear ther the most liberal of our booksellers the stamp of antiquity, many of them would be induced to hazard the expence would have no currency at all. of publication. We owe much, un

Plutarch wrote above one hundred doubtedly, to the laborious compilations and fifty treatises, of which we have of ancient writers, but unless we employ no remains. I cannot offer a more just the nicest discrimination in selecting the opinion of him than I find in a scarce gold from the dross, our time will be and curious tract of the late Lord spent to as little purpose in reading as Hailes. Of Plutarch he says, “ His theirs was in writing. reading was, at lealt, equal to his judg. It is, at the same time, no reproach, ment. His works are treated with a no dishonour to the voluminous writers fort of traditionary respect, by persons, of past ages, that their works are now who possibly know him merely as a feldom seen, and seldomer read. They biographical compiler, so that one can gave us all they had, the learning of hardly venture, even in this free age, their own times, but they could not give to speak freely of him. But if a father us what they never had, the superior of the church, or a modern antiquary, light and knowledge of more modern had written professed differtations on times. The mind of man is in a state the following subjects, what should we of progressive improvement. The prehave said of his genius, or of the man- sent age knows more than the last. The ner in which he chose to employ him- next will know more than the present ; self, and edify the public?” His Lord- and the immortality of the soul has Mhip then quotes the following ridiculous been beautifully illustrated by the author queftions, which the reader will find of Clio, who says (I quote from megravely discussed in Plutarch's morals. mory) that as we die long before our

Why do the Roman women salute faculties are exhausted, long before we their relations with a kiss ? Why does learn all that we are capable of learning, a man, returning from the country, or is it not highly probable that there is a from a journey, send before to advertise future state of existence, where our his wife of his return? It has been sug. progress in learning shall never be intergelted to me, that it is to tell her to get rupted, and where perfect knowledge dinner ready ; but Plutarch assigns four shall be perfect happiness ?

N. yeasons for the custom, and that is none

ON

ON THE ART OF ENGRAVING. WRITTEN IN ITALY, BY THE LATÉ SIR ROBERT STRANGE. WHEN we look back into antiqui- so much does he breathe, in his finelt ty, and form to our imagination an prints, the spirit of his sublime author. idea of that perfection, to which the Other painters of the Roman school, as Greeks and Romans carried the fine well as Parmigiano, Salvator Rosa, &c. arts, we cannot but lament that they have transmitted to us many, fine come were strangers to that of engraving. positions in this art. The refinement of their taste, the purity The Bolognese school furnishes more and simplicity of their conceptions, and recent examples.. Annibale and Agosthe care which they took, by their tino Caracci gave the lead. Agostino, works, to transmit their reputations to although one of the greatest painters posterity, leave it beyond a doubt, that that Italy ever produced, exercised the this art would have met with their en- art of engraving in preference to that of couragement and protection; as it is painting; and has thereby established the most secure depositary, for after to himself, and secured to others, a reages, of whatever is traly great, elegant, putation to the latest posterity. Guido, or beautiful.

Guercino, Simon Cantarini de Pefaro, It was about the year 1460, that the Siranis, &c. have all of them left engraving was invented. I shall pass us many elegant prints, which are so over its early period, which I may many ltriking proofs of their having have an opportunity of considering on cultivated the art of engraving. fome future occasion. No sooner had To see it ftill in a higher degree of this art appeared, than it attracted ge- perfection, let us examine it when the neral attention. All the great painters school of Rubens presided in Flanders. adopted it, with a view of multiplying Here we shall find, that this great paintheir works, and of transmitting them ter was no less intent upon cultivating with great certainty to posterity. Albert this great art than that of painting; conDurer, and Andrea Mantegna, two of fcious that, by this means, he not only the greatest painters of that age, prac. diffused his reputation, but secured it tifed the art of engraving, and have left to succeeding generations. Bollwert, os a variety of elegant compositions. Pontius, Volterman, &c. were the com These early productions of the art drew, panions of his and of Vandyck's leisure by their novelty and excellence, the ad. hours. They esteemed one another ; niration of all Italy. Raphael him- they lived together as friends and self, that prince of painters, was parti- equals; and, to use the words of a late cularly charmed with the works of ingenius writer, Sous leurs heureuse's Albert Durer; and, in return for some mains le cuivre devient or. Under their prints he had received from him, fent hands' copper became gold.". The bím a present of his own portrait, paint- works of those engravers, which are ed by himself.

now fold at the price of pictures, are Marc Antonio, who, by studying evident proofs of the honourable state Albert Durer's works, had improved of the arts in those days. the art of engraving, was among the first What numberless examples too have who carried it to Rome, when the not Rembrandt, Bergham, Ostade, and genius of the divine Raphael presided others of the Dutch masters, left us over the Roman school. Those who of their desire to cultivate engraving ? are conversant in the fine arts know, Have not the works of the former, how much this painter encouraged en- which are now fold at the most amazgraving in Marc Antonio, his ingenious ing prices, transmitted a reputation both pupila Examine that engraver's works, to himself and to his country, which and you will find evident proofs of .it, time can never obliterate ;' the Bloem

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arts, the Vischers, and others, were cere ting to posterity the Cartoons of Ra. tainly oroaments to the age in which phael, which had been purchased by they lived.

her grandfather, Charles the First. With During the reign of Lewis the Four. this view the fent for Dorigny, the teenth, what a number of greal artists engraver, as this art was then but little appeared in this profession, and did cultivated in Britain. The reception honour to France! the names of Gerard, he met with from the Queen is well Andran, Edelink, Poilly, &c. will be known. She honoured him with an lasting ornaments to that kingdom. apartment in the royal palace of HampThat magnificent prince frequently a- ton-court, visited him from time to time, mused himself in this way; and so countenanced him on all occasions, and charmed was he with the works of the was the patroness of his undertaking. ingenious Edelink, that he conferred After her death, King George the upon him the honour of knighthood. First imitated the example of Anne ; It has been owing solely to the honour. and, upon Dorigny's having completed able rank given to this art, by the his engravings, not only made him a Royal Academy of painting at Paris, very considerable present, but conferred that it has been cherished and cultivat- upon him the honour of knighthood. ed to such a degree of excellence, that, From the departure of this artist, who for a century past, Paris has been the executed a work which will reflect lastdepofitory of the finest productions in ing honour to Britain, the art of engravthis way ; and these have been the ing again relapsed into its former obsource of incredible riches to France. fcurity, till toward the middle of this

Let us, in the last place, follow this century; when it was revived afres, art into Great Britain.

by the introduction of other foreigners, Queen Anne, whose reign has been together with the successful endeavours generally called the Auguftan age of of several ingenious natives of these this country, was defirous of transmit- kingdoms.

Linnæus

ON THE PRIMÆVAL FORM OF EUROPE. WHETHER the earth's motion Certain it is, that the European seas, have a tendency progressively to gather north of forty-five degrees latitude, have the ocean about the equator, as theorists greatly diminished in extent. have maintained

* obferves upon this subWhether some great convulsions of ject : “ It is evident, from occular innature, breaking down the southern {pection, that the land increases from mound of the Caspian, occasioned a year to year, and that the bounds of vast mass of sea to now fouthward, along our continent are expanded, the course of the Dejleh and the Forât, We see the sea-ports of East and (Tigris and Euphrates,) deluging whole West Bothnia every year decreasing, provinces, and forming, or deforming, and becoming incapable of admitting with its alluvion fand, much of the vessels, by the fand and foil thrown up, plainy peninsula of Arabia, as various which are always adding new increments traditional and natural evidence conspire to the fore. The inhabitants of the to prove

ports are obliged to change their feats, Whether, by an unrelenting process, and sometimes remove a quarter of a the water on this globe, is gradually mile nearer to the fea; of tbis metamorphosed into folid and into at feen examples at Pithea, Lulea, and mospheric substance, without being re- Hudwickval. On the eastern side of produced with corresponding celerity; Gothland, near Hoburg, the increase as, from experiment, is possible, and, * Select Dissertations from the Amanifrom observation, highly probable- tates Academicæ, p. 82.

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