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to the very heart a glow of irritation, and was no master of style.” He thought Then are come the luxuries of genius, higher of Leibnitz than of Bacon. He the true hours for production and com- fpoke of Montesquieu's genius, but thought position--hours so delightful, that I his style too Itudied, and wanting evohave spent twelve and fourteen succef. lution. 6 Tiis, however, (faid he) sively at my writing-desk, and still been was a natural consequence of his frame in a state of pleasure. It is for this of body. I knew him well; he was gratification, yet more than for glory, almost blind, and very impatient. If that I have toiled. Glory comes if it he had not clipt his ideas into sort fencan, and mostly does come. This plea- tences, he would have lost his period besure is greater if you consult no books : fore the amanuensis had taken it down." I have never consulted authors, iill I He spoke to me of the passion for had nothing left to say of my own." study, and of the happiness which it
I alked him what is the best method bestows. He told me that he had von of forming one's self. He answered, luntarily secluded himself from society; “ Read only the capital works, read that at one time he courted the compathem repeatedly, and read those in e. ny of learned men, expecting to acquire very department of taste and science; much from their conversation, but he for the framers of such works are, as had discovered that little of value could Cicero says, kin-fouls, and the views be so gleaned, and that, in order to of one may always be applied with ad- pick up a phrase, an evening was ill vantage in some very different branch squandered: that labour was become a by another, Be not afraid of the talk. want to him, and he hoped to conseCapital works are scarce. I know but crate to it much of the three or four five great geniuses Newton, Bacor, years of life which probably, remained Leibnitz, Montesquieu, and myself. New- to him ; that he feared not death--that ton, (continued he,) may have disco- the hope of an immortal renown was the vered an important principle, but he most powerful of death-bed confolaspent his life in frivolous calculations, tions. ANECDOTES OF PERSONS CONNECTED WITH THE
(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 513.) MARAT.
god! It has since been removed to a TERMED by Dumourier, the Medu- more obscure fituation, and his characTa's head of the Revolution, and whose ter is now justly odious in France. To brutal wilhes, and barbarous actions, the Royalists and Girondists, this man have been eminently differviceable to was equally deteftable ; and the former, the cause of liberty throughout Europe, as usual, expressed their joy, by means was not, as is generally imagined, a of puns, &c. inimediately after his death. Frenchman. He was born at Neuf. CHARLOTTE Cordet. chatel, the sovereignty of which, ever. The daughter of a man, attached by a since the diet of 1707, has appertained place to the court. T'he demoiselle Corto the house of Brandenburg. He was det was zealous for freedom; rich, therefore a Prusian.
young, beautiful.ma woman-she was, It is well known that he was a cow- nevertheless, a republican. An enthuard, who “ could speak daggers, but fiaft, but not a fanatic ; she possessed the not use them,” yet it is not of fuch ge- warmth of the one character, without neral notoriety, that his hideous coun. the extravagance of the other.
At the tenance was the exact counterpart of place of execution, the uttered not a his heart. His body was placed in the single world. Her face ftill poffessed
French pantheon ; for under the mo- an heroic calmness; and the seemed Darchy of Robespierre, Marat was a conscious of future glory, and approach
ing happiness. Although filent, her erected by one of the most celebrated gesticulations were, however, eloquent- architects of that day; the marble busts Jy impreffive ; for the frequently placed and bas-reliefs, were cut by the chiffel her hand on her heart, and seemed to of Couston ; the statues, by Adam and say, “ 1 rejoice in having exterminated Falconet; the paintings are by Vanloo ; a monster!"
and as to the gardens, they were laid Brutus and Cordet both equally struck out by M. de Lise, the Capability Brown for liberty, and, alas ! neither of them of France. was happy enough to secure it; but the
It was here that Pompadour, revelexecution of Robespierre feems to have ling in the wealth of plundered provineffected, for modern France, what the ces, presided over the revels of Comus, punishment of Antony, and the banish- and endeavoured to vary the pleasures, ment of Octavius, could not perhaps and dissipate the fatiety of her royal have produced in degenerate Rome. lover. At one time, she would sur
To this woman, Greece would have prise him with a theatrical exhibition, erected statues; Rome, temples. France in which she appeared as Venus, while may fome day insert her name in the he was the favourite Adonis of the dracalendar of her martyrs ;-the ancients ma: at another, by a kind of candlewould have placed her among their gods! light entertainment, on the recovery of Letter to her Father on the evening be- his son, in which an illuminated dol. fore her trial.
phin, by a happy pun, represented the “ My dear respected Father, heir-apparent of the monarchy; certain “ Peace is about to reign in my dear fiery monsters, his late disease ; and an native country, for Marat is no more! Apollo, with a torch in his hand, the Be comforted, and bury my memory god of phyfic, by whose intervention he in, eternal oblivion. I am to be tried was recovered. to-morrow, the 17th, at seven o'clock On the accession of Louis XVI. the in the morning. I have lived long e- daughters of the former monarch were nough, as I have achieved a glorious allowed to occupy this enchanting spot, exploit. I put you under the protec- formerly the residence of a father's mis. tion of Barbarous and his colleagues, tress, and the scene of their expensive in case you should be molested. Let gallantries. Unlike that father, in enot my family blush at my fate; for re- very thing but in good-nature, they member, according to Voltaire,
were constantly at the feet of their con"That crimes beget disgrace, and not the fessor, or their crucifix, and the spot scaffold.”
which had so often blushed with the Fuly 16. 1793. C. Cordet. debauchery of its former, now edified MESDAMES.
the pious, by the devotion of the preThe aunts of Louis XVI. were the sent owners. first of the royal family that took the At the approach of the storm, they alarm, and emigrated from France. repaired to the centre of catholicism for Belle Vue, the villa, or rather palace, shelter, and now share at Rome the bein which they resided, was one of the nedictions of the Pope, the prayers of most beautiful in the kingdom, being the Abbe Maruy, lately made a bishop, built by their father, Louis XV. for one by Pius VI. and the palace of Cardinal of his many mistresses. It is situated Bernis, heretofore ambassador from on a rising ground, between Sove and France to the Holy See. Meudon, near the great road leading Good, charitable, pious, perhaps to from Paris to Versailles ; the river excess, they, in character, exhibit a Seine winds along the bottom of the clofe affinity to their amiable mother, hill, and, by its serpentine course, seems the daughter of the unfortunate Staas if desirous to linger in fo charming nislaus, king of Poland :—there is a faa. neighbourhood. The building was mily likenefs, even in their misfortunes ! (To be continued.)
ON THE NATURE AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUN
AND FIXED STARS.
CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 522. August 26, 1792. I examined the ing margin, which was greatly below fun with several powers, from go to the surface of the sun, had, next to it, 500.
It appears evidently that the black a protuberant lump of shining matter, a 1pots are the opaque ground, or body of little brighter than the rest of the sun. che fun ; and that the luminous part is About all the spots, the shining matan atmosphere, which, being interrupted ter seems to have been disturbed; and or broken, gives us a tranlient glimpse is uneven, lumpy, and zig-zagged in ad of the sun itself. My seven-feet reflec- irregular manner. tor, which is in high perfection, repre- I call the spots black, not that they sents the spots, as it always used to do, are entirely fo, but merely to distinguish much depressed below the surface of the them; for there is not one of them, 10
day, which is not partly, or entirely, September 9, 1792. I found one of covered over with whitish and unequal. the dark spots in the sun drawn pretty ly bright nebulofity, or cloudiness. This, near the preceding edge. In its neigh- in many of them, comes near to an bourhood I saw a great number of ele- extinction of the spot ; and in others, vated bright places, making various seems to bring on a subdivision. figures : I fall call them faculæ, with After stating many similar observar Hevelius ; but without assigning to this tions, regrading the appearance and disterm any other meaning than what it appearance of these spots, the Doctor will hereafter appear ought to be given goes on as follows: It will now be to it. I see these faculæ extended, on easy to bring the result of these observathe preceding fide, over about one fixth tions into a very narrow compass. That part of the sun ; but fo far from re. the sun has a very extensive atmosphere sembling torches, they appear to me like cannot be doubted; and that this atmos the shrivelled elevations upon a dried phere consists of various elastic fluids, apple, extended in length, and most of that are more or less lucid and transthem are joined together, making waves, parent, and of which the lucid one is or waving lines.
that which furnishes us with light, seems By some good views in the afternoon, also to be fully established by all the I find that the rest of the surface of the phænomena of its spots, of the faculæ, fun does not contain any faculæ, except and of the lucid surface itself. There a few on the following, and equatoral is no kind of variety in these appearpart of the sun. Toward the north ances but what may be accounted for and south I see no faculæ ; there is all with the greatest facility, from the con- , over the sun a great unevenness in the tipual agitation which we may easily surface, which has the appearance of a conceive must take place in the regions mixture of small points of an unequal of such extensive elastic Auids. light; but they are evidently an un- It will be necessary, however, to be a evennefs or roughness of high and low little more particular, as to the manner parts.
in which I suppose the lucid Auid of February 23, 1794. By an experi- the fun to be generated in its atmosphere. ment I have just now tried, I find it An analogy that may be drawn from confirmed that the fun cannot be fo dif- the generation of clouds in our own tinctly viewed with a small aperture and atmosphere, seems to be a very proper faint darkening glasses, as with a large one, and full of instruction. Our clouds aperture and stronger ones; this latter are probably decompositions of some of is the method I always use.
the elastic fluids of the atmosphere itOne of the black spots on the preced- felf, when such natural causes, as in this Vol. LVIIL
grand chemical laboratory are generally what is lost by the emiffion of light ; at work, act upon them ; we may there. though the manner in which this can be fore admit that in the very extensive brought about should not appear to us. atmosphere of the sun, from causes of Many of the operation's of nature are the same nature, similar phænomena will carried on in her great laboratory, which take place ; but with this difference, we cannot comprehend ; but now and that the continual and very extensive then we see some of the cools with which decompositions of the elastic fluids, of she is at work. We need not wonder the sun, are of a phosphoric nature, and that their construction should be so finattended with lucid appearances, by gular as to induce us to confess our ig, giving out light.
norance of the method of employing If it should be objected, that fuch them, but we may rest assured that they violent and unremitting decompositions are not a mere lufus nature. I allude would exhaust the fun, we may recur to the great number of small telescope again to our analogy, which will furnish comets that have been observed ; and to us with the following reflections. The the far greater number still that are proextent of our own atmosphere, we bably much too small for being noticed see, is still preserved, notwithstanding by our most diligent searchers after the copious decompositions of its fluids, them. Thofe fix, for instance, which in clouds and falling rain ; in flashes my sister has discovered, I can from exof lightning, in meteors, and other lu- amination affirm, had not the least apminous phænomena ; because there are pearance of any solid nucleus, and seemfresh fupplies of elastic vapours, con- ed to be mere collections of vapours tinually ascending to make good the condensed about a centre. waste oceasioned by those decompofi. that I have also observed, were nearly tions. But it may be urged, that the of the fame nature. This throws a case with the decomposition of the elaf- mystery over their destination, which tic fluids in the folar atmosphere would seems to place them in the allegorical be very different, since light is emitted, view of tools, probably designed for and does not recurn to the sun, as clouds some falutary purposes to be wrought by do to the earth when they descend in them; and, whether the restoration of showers of rain. To which I answer, what is lost to the fun by the emiffion that in the decomposition of phosphoric of light, the possibility of which we have fluids every other ingredient but light been mentioning above, may not be one may also return to the body of the sun. of these purposes, l shall not presume to And that the emission of light must waste determine. The motion of the comet the sun, is not a difficulty that can be discovered by M. Mesfer, in June 1770, opposed to our hypothesis. For as it is plainly indicated how much its orbit was an evident fact that the sun does emit liable to be changed, by the perturbaJight, the fame objection, if it could be tions of the planets; from which, and one, would equally militate against every the little agreement that can be found other assignable way to account for the between the elements of the orbits of phænomenon.
all the comets that have been observed, There are moreover considerations it appears clearly that they may be dithat
may leffen the pressure of this al. rected to carry their falutary influence leged difficulty. We know the exceed- to any part of the heavens. ing subtility of light to be such, that in My hypothefis, however, as before ages of time its emanation from the sun observed, does not lay me under any cannot very sensibly lessen the size of obligation to explain how the fun can this great body. To this may be add- sustain the waste of light, nor to shew ed, that, very possibly, there may also that it will sustain it for ever ; and I he ways of restoration to compensate for should also remark that, as in the ana
logy logy of generating cloulds I merely al. as we fee now and then in our atmofJude to their production as owing to a phere, their apparant intensity, when decomposition of some of the elastic Huids viewed at the diltance of the sun, might of our atmosphere, that analogy, which not be much inferior to that of the lucid firmly rests upon the fact, will not be folar Auid. less to my purpose to whatever cause From the luminous atmosphere of these clouds may owe their origin. It is the lun I proceed to its opaque body, the same with the lucid clouds, if I may
ich, by calculation from the power so call them, of the fun. They plainly it exerts upon the planets, we know to exist, because we see them; the' man- be of great solidity; and from the phæner of their being generated may remain nomena of the dark spots, many of an hypothesis ; and mine, till a better which, probably on account of their high can be proposed, may stand good ; but, fituations, have been repeatedly seen, whether it does or not, the consequences and otherwise denote inequalities in I am going to draw from what has been their level, we surmise that its surface said will not be affected by it.
is deversified with mountains and vallies. Before I proceed, I shall only point What has been said enables us to come out, that according to the above the- to some very important conclusions, by ory, a dark spot in the sun is a place in remarking, that this way of considering its atmosphere which happens to be free the sun and its atmosphere, removes the from luminous decompositions ; and great diffimilarity we have hitherto been that faculæ are, on the contrary, more used to find between its condition and copious mixtures of such fluids as de chat of the rest of the great bodies of compose each other. The penumbra the folar system, which attends the spots, being general
The fun, viewed in this light, appears ly depressed more or less to about half to be nothing else than a very eminent, way between the solid body of the fun large, and lucid planet, evidently the and the upper part of those regions in first, or, in ftri&tness of speaking, the which luminous decompositions take only primary one of our fyftem ; all place, must of course be fainter than others being truly fecondary to it. Its other parts. No spot favourable for similarity to the other globes of the solar taking measures having lately been on system with regard to its solidity, its the sun, I can only judge, from former atmosphere, and its deversified surface ; appearances, that the regions in which the rotation upon its axis, and the fall the luminous solar clouds are formed, of heavy bodies, leads us on to suppose adding thereto the elevation of the that it is most probably also inhabited, faculæ, cannot be less than 1843, nor like the rest of the planets, by beings much more than 2765 miles in depth. whose organs are adapted to the pecuIt is true that in our atmosphere the liar circumstances of that vast globe, extent of the clouds is limited to a very Whatever fanciful poets might say, Darrow compass ; but we ought rather in making the sun the abode of blessed to compare the solar ones to the lumin- spirits, or angry moralists devise, in ous decompositions which take place in pointing it out as a fit place for the our aurora borealis, or luminous arches, punishment of the wicked, it does not which extend much farther than the appear that they had any other foundacloudy regions. The density of the tion for their assertions than mere opiluminous solar clouds, though very nion and vague surmise; but now I great, may not be exceedingly more to think myself authorised, upon astronomithan that of our aurora borealis. For, cal principles, to propose the fun as an if we consider what would be the bril: inhabitable world, and am persuaded liancy of a space two or three thousand that the foregoing observations, with the miles deep, filled with such corruscations conclusions I have drawn from them,
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