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are fully fufficient to answer every objec. of an eafy, chemical combination with tion that may be made against it. its rays, their emisfion would be much
It may, however, not be amiss to re- impeded. move a certain difficulty, which arifes Another well known fact is, that the from the effect of the sun's rays upon solar focus of the largeft lens, thrown our globe. The heat which is here, at into the air, will occasion no sensible the distance of 95 millions of miles, pro- heat in the place where it has been kept duced by these rays, is so considerable, for a considerable time, although its that it may be objected, that the surface power of exciting combustion, when proof the globe of the fun itself must be per bodies are exposed, should be fufscorched up beyond all conception. ficient to fuse the most refractory sub
This may be very fubftantially an- stances*. fwered by many proofs drawn from na- It will not be necessary to mention tural philosophy, which shew tha: heat other objections, as I can think of none is produced by the sun's rays only when that may be made, but what a proper they act upon a calorific medium ; they consideration of the foregoing obfervaare the cause of the production of heat, tions will easily remove ; such as may by uniting with the matter of fire, which be urged from the diffimilarity between is contained in the substances that are the luminous atmosphere of the sun and heated : as the collision of flint and that of our globe will be touched upon fter I will inflame a magazine of gun. hereafter, when I consider the objecpowder, by putting all the latent fire it tions that may be affigned against the contained into action. But an instance moon's being an inhabitable fatellite. or two of the manner in which the fo- I shall now endeavour, by analogical lar rays produce their effe &, will bring reasonings, to support the ideas I have this home to our most common experi- fuggested concerning the construction
and purposes of the lun; in order to On the top of mountains of a fuf- which, it will be necessary to begin with ficient height, at an altitude where clouds such arguirents as the nature of the
feldom reach, to shelter them case will admit, to thew that our moon from the direct rays of the fun, we al. is probably inhabited. This satellite is ways find regions of ice and snow. Now of all the heavenly bodies the nearest, if the solar rays themselves conveyed all and therefore molt within the reach of the heat we find on this globe, it ought our telescopes. Accordingly we find, to be hotest where their course is least by repeated inspection, that we can, interrupted. Again, our aëronauts all with perfect confidence, give the folconfirm the coldness of the upper re- lowing account of it. gions of the atmosphere ; and since, It is a fecondary planet, of a confitherefore, even on our earth the heat of derable size; the surface of which is diany situation depends upon the aptness verfified, like that of the earth, by of the medium to yield to the impression mountains and vallies. Its situation, of the solar rays, we have only tc ad- with respect to the sun, is much like mit, that on the fun itfelt, the elastic that of the earth; and, by a rotation fluids composing it atmosphere, and the on its axis, it enjoys an agreeable vamatter on its surface, are of such a na riety of seasons, and of day and night. ture as not to be capable of any
excesfive affection from its own rays; and, * The subject of light and heat has been indeed, this seems to be proved by the very ably difcuffed by M. de Luc, in his excopious emission of them; for if the cellent work, Idées sur la Météorologie, Tome elastic fluids of the atmosphere, or the 1, part a, chap. 2, section 2, De la Nature du
and Tome II, part 3, chap. 6, section 2, matter contained on the surface of the Des Rapports de la Lumiảre avec la Chaleur fun, were of such a nature as to admit dans l'Atmosphère.
To the moon, our globe will appear that our earth is inhiabited, were to give to be a very capital satellite ; undergo- it as his opinion, that the use of that ing the same regular changes of illuni- great body, which he sees in his neighnation as the moon does to the earth. bourhood, is to carry about his little The sun, the planets, and the starry glove, that it may be properly expoled constellations of the heavens, will rise to the ligit of the sun, so as to enjoy and set there as they do here; and hea- an agreeable and useful variety of illuvy bodies will fall on the moon as they minatior, as well as to give it light by do on the earth. There seems only to reflection from the sun, when direct daybe wanting, in order to complete the light cannot be had. Suppose also that analogy, that it should be inhabited like the inhabitants of the fatellites of Jupithe earth.
ter, Saturn, and the Georgian planet, To this it may be objected, that we were to look upon the primary ones, to perceive no large seas in the moon ; which they belong, as mere attractive that its atmosphere (the existence of centres, to keep together their orbits, which has even been doubted by many) to direct their revolution round the sun, is extremely rare, and unfit for the pur and to supply them with rullected light poses of animal lite; that its climatis, in the abience of direct illumination. its feasons, and the length of its days, Ought we not to condemn their ignototally differ from Ours ; that without rance, as proceedig*from want of atdenic clouds (which the moon has not) tention and proper reflection ? It is very there can be no rain; perhaps no rivers, true that the earth, and.those other piano lakes. In thort, that, notwithilaid- neis that have satellites about them, pering the similarity which has been point- form all the offices that have been nam. ed out, there seems to be a decided diferi, für the inhabitants of these little ference in the two planets we have con- globes; but to us, who live upon one pared.
of these planets, their reasonings cannot My answer to this will be, that that but appear very defective, when wc ice very difference which is not obj. cted, what a magnificent dwelling.place the will rather (trengthen the force of my earth affords to numberless intelligent argument than lessen its value: we fiui, beings. even upon our globe, that there is the These considerations ought to make molt striking difference in the fituation the inhabitants of the plane is wiser than of the creatures that live upon it. While we have supposed those of their fatelman walks
upc in the ground, the birds lites to be. We surely ought not, like fly in the air, and fishes swini in water ; then, to say “ the sun (that inimense we can certainly not object to the con- globe, whole body wouid much more veniencies afforded by the moon, if those than fill theʼwhole orbit of the moon) that are to inhabit its regions are fitted is merely an attractive centre to us. to their conditions as well as we on this From experience we can affirm, that globe are to ours. An absolute, or to- the performance of the most falutary oftal fámeness, ftems raiher to denote im- fices to inferior planets, is not inconperfections, such as nature never ex- liftent with the dignity of superior purposes to our view; and, on this ac- poses; and, in consequence of such acount, I believe the analogies that have nalogical reasonings, assisted by telescobeen mentioned fully fufficient to esta- pic views, which plainly favour the blish the high probability of the moon's same opinion, 'we need not hesitate to being inhabited like the earth.
admit that the sun is richly stored with To proceed, we will now suppose an inhabitants. inhabitant of the moon, who has not This way of considering the sun is properly considered such analogical rea of the utmost importance in its conselonings as might induce him to furmise quences. That stars are funs can hard
ly admit of a doubt. Their immense very close together, that, notwithstanddistance would perfectly exclude them ing the great distance at which we from our view, if the light they send may suppose the cluster itself to be, it us were not of the solar kind. Besides, will hardly be possible to allign any sufthe analogy may be traced much farther. ficient mutual distance to the stars comThe sun turns on its axis. So does the posing the cluster, to leave room for ftar Algol. So do the stars 6 Lyræ, à crowding in those planets, for whose Cephei, » Antinoi, o Ceti, and many support these stars have been, or might more ; most probably all. From what be, supposed to exist. It should seem, other cause can we lo probably account therefore, highly probable that they exfor their periodical changes? Again, ist for themselves; and are, in fact, onour sun has spots on its surface. So has ly very capital, lucid, primary planets, the star Algol; and so have the stars connected together in one great system already nanied ; and probably every star of mutual support. in the heavens. Oo our fun these spots As in this argument I do not proare changeable. So they are on the ceed upon conjectures, but have actual ftar o Ceti, as evidently appears from observations in view, I shall mention an the irregularity of its changeable lustre, instance in the clusters, No 26, 28, and which is often broken in upon by acci: 35, VI. clafs, of my catalogue of ne. dental changes, while the general pe bulæ, and clusters of stars. (See Phil, riod continues unaltered. The fame Trans. Vol. LXXIX. Part II. page little deviations have been observed in 251.) The stars in them are so crowd. other periodical stars, and ought to be ed, that I cannot conjecture them to be ascribed to the same cause. But if the at a greater apparent distance from each stars are suns, and suns are inhabitable, other than five seconds ; even after a we fee at once what an extensive field proper allowance for such stars, as on for animation opens itself to our view. a supposition of a globular form of the
It is true that analogy may induce us cluster, will interfere with one another, to conclude, that since stars appear to has been made. Now, if we would leave be suns, and suns, according to the as much room between each of these common opinion, are bodies that serve ftars as there is between the sun and to enlighten, warm, and sustain a syf- Sirius, we must place these clusters tem of planets, we may have an idea of 42,104 times as far from us as that star numberless globes that serve for the ha- is from the sun. But, in order to bring bitation of living creatures. But if these down the lustre of Sirius to that of an funs themselves are primary planets, we equal star placed at such a distance, I may
fee some thoulands of them with ought to reduce the aperture of my our own eyes, and millions by the help twenty feet telescope to less than the of telescopes ; when, at the same time, two-and-twenty hundredth part of an the same analogical reasoning Still re- inch; when certainly I could no longer mains in full force, with regard to the expect to see any star at all. planets which these suns may support. The same remark may be made, with
In this place I may, however, take regard to the number of very close potice that, from other considerations, double stars, whose apparent diameters the idea of suns or stars being merely being alike, and not very small, do not the supporters of systems of planets, is indicate any very great mutual distance. not absolutely to be admitted as a gene. From which, however, must be deduct
Among the great number of ed all those where the different distanvery compressed clusters of stars, I have ces may be compensated by the real given in my catalogues, there are some difference in their respective magnitudes. which open a different view of the hea- To what has been said may be ad
The Stars in them are so ded, that in some parts of the milky
vens to us.
way, where yet
the stars are not very The mottled appearance of the sun is small, they are so crowded, that in the owing to an inequality in the level of year 1792, August 22, I found by the the surface. gages that, in forty-one minutes of time, The sun is equally mottled at its no less than 258 thousand of them had poles and at its equator ; but the motpassed through the field of view of my tled appearances may be feen better atelescope.
bout the middle of the disc than toward It seems, therefore, upon the whole, the circumference, on account of the not improbable that, in many cases, stars fun's spherical form. are united in such close systems as not The unevenness arising from the eleto leave much room for the orbits of vation and depression of the mottled planets, or comets ; and that conse. appearance on the surface of the sun, quently, upon this account also, many feenis, in many places, to amount to as stars, unless we would make them mere much, or to nearly as much, as the deuleless brilliant points, may themselves pression of the penumbræ of the fpots be lucid planets, perhaps unattended by below the upper part of the shining subsatellites.
stance, without including faculæ, which
are protuberant. The following observations, which The lucid substance of the sun is neiwere made with an improved apparatus, ther a liquid, nor an elastic fluid; as is and under the most favourable circum- evident from its not instantly filling up stances, should be added to those which the cavities of the spots, and of the unhave been given. They are decisive evenness of the mottled parts. It exwith regard to one of the conditions of ists, therefore, in the manner of lucid the lucid matter of the sun.
clouds swimming in the transparent atNovember 26. 1794. Eight spots mosphere of the fun; or rather, of luin the sun, and several subdivisions of minous decompositions taking place them, are all equally depressed. . within that atmosphere. The sun is mottled
PARTICULARS IN THE NATURAL HISTORY OF BIRDS.
CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 552.
descend in the night to streams and ON the 27th of February 1788, meadows, perhaps for water, which Stone Curlews were heard to pipe ; their upland haunts do not afford them. and on March ist, after it was dark, The smaller Willow Wren. some were palling over the village, as The smallest uncrested or Willow might be perceived by their quick short Wren, or chiff chaff, is the next early note, which they use in their nocturnal summer bird which we have remarked ; excursions by way of watchword, that it utters two sharp piercing notes, so they may not Aray and lose their com. loud in hollow woods as to occasion an panions.
echo, and is usually first heard about Thus, we see, that retire whither- the 20th of March. soever they may in the winter, they Fern Owl, or Goat Sucker. return again early in the spring, and The country people have a notion are, as it now appears, the first sume that the fern-owl, or churn-owl, or mer birds that come back. Perhaps eve-jarr, which they also call a puckethe mildness of the season may have ridge, is very injurious to weanling quickened the emigration of the curlews calves, ' by inflicting, as it strikes at
them, the fatal distemper known to They spend the day in high elevated cow-leeches by the name of puckefields and sheep-walks ; but feem to ridge. Thus does this harmless, illfated bird fall under a double imputa- of which there are several forts ; and tion, which it by no means deserves; exhibited on the occalion a command of in Italy, of sucking the teats of goats, wing superior, I think, to that of the whence it is called caprimulgas ; and swallow itself. with us, of communicating a deadly When a person approaches the haunt disorder to cattle. But the truth of the of fern-owls in an evening, they conmater is, the malady above-mentioned tioue flying round the head of the ob is occasioned by the aftrus bovis, a dip truder, and by striking their wings toterous insect, which lays its eggs along gether above their backs, in the man. the chines of kine, where the maggots, ner that the pigeons called smitters, when batched, eat their way through are known to do, make a smart snap : the hide of the beast into the Atla, and perhaps at that time they are jealous for grow to a very large size. I have just their young; and this noise and gesture talked with a man, who says, he has are intended by way of menace. more than once stripped calves who Fern-owls have attachment to oaks, have died of the puckeridge ; that the no doubt on account of food; for the ail or complaint lay along the chine, next evening we saw one again, several where the Aesh was much fweiled, times, among the boughs of the same and filled with purulent matter. Oace tree ;
but it did not skim round its stem I myself faw a large rough maggot of over the grass, as on the evening before. this fort squeeezed out of the back of a In May these birds find the scarabeus cow. These maggots in Essex are called melolontha on the oak; and the jcarawornils.
bæus solstitialis at Midsummer. These The least obfervation and attention peculiar birds can only be watched and would convince men, that these birds observed for two hours in the twentyneither injure the goat-herd nor the four ; and then in a dubious twilight, grazier, but are perfectly harmless, an hour after sun-set and an hour before and fub ft alone, being night birds, fun rife. or night infects, such as scarabai, and On this day, (Jaly 14, 1789,) 2 phalene; and through the month of woman brought me two eggs of a tern. Juiy mostly on the scarabeus solstitialis, owl, or eve-jarr, which the found on which in many districts abounds at that the verge of the hanger, to the left of season. Those that we have opened, the hermitage, under a beechen shrub. have always had their craws stuffed with This person who lives just at the foot large night-moths and their eggs, and of the hanger, seems well acquainted pieces of chaffers : nor does it anywise with these nocturnal swailows, and says appear how they can, weak and unarm- she has often found their eggs near that ed as they seem, inflict any harm upon place, and that they lay only two at a kine, unless they possess the powers of time on the bare ground. The eggs animal magnetism, and can affect them were oblong, dusky, and streaked someby fluttering over them.
what in the manner of the plumage of the A fern owl, this evening, (August parent bird, and were equal in fize at 27.) Mowed off in a very unulual and each end. The dam was-sitting on the entertaining manner, by hawking round eggs when found, which contained the and round the circumference of my great the rudiments of young, and would spreading oak, for twenty times follow- have been hatched perhaps in a week. ing, keeping mostly close to the grass, From hence we may see the time of but occalionally glancing up amid the their breeding, which corresponds pretty boughs of the tree. This amusing bird well with that of the swift, as does also was then in pursuit of a brood of some the period of their arrival. Each species particular phalana belonging to the oak, is usually seen about the beginning of