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haich their young.
Each breeds but once in a April 9, 1793. A sober hind afsummer ; each lays only two eggs.
sures us, that this day, on Wilhhanger July 4, 1790. The woman who common, between Hadleigh and Frin. brought me two fern-owls eggs last year ham, he saw several bank-martins play, on July 14, on this day produced me ing in and out, and hanging before two more, one of which had been laid fome nelt holes in a sand-hill, where this morning, as appears plainly, be. these birds usually nestle. 'cause there was only one in the nest the
This incident confirms my suspicions, evening before. They were found, as that this species of hirundo is to be last July, on the verge of the down a- seen firit of any; and gives great reason bove the hermitage under a beechen to suppose, that they do not leave their shrub, on the naked ground.-Laft
wild haunis at all, but are secreted a. those eggs were full of young, and just mid the clefts and caverns of those a. ready to be hatched.
brupt cliffs where they usually spend These circumstances point out the their summers. exact time when these curious nocturnal The late fevere weather considered, migratory birds lay their eggs, and it is not very probable that these birds
should have migrated so early from a Fern-owls, like snipes, stone curlews, tropical region, through all these cutand some other birds, make no oest. ting winds, and pioching frosts : but it Birds that build on the ground do not is easy to suppose, that they may, like make much of nests.
bats and fies, have been awakened by Sand Martins.
the influence of the sun, amid their March 23, 1788. A gentleman secret latebræ, where they have spent who was this week on a visit at Wa. the uncomfortable foodless months in a verley, took the opportunity of exa- torpid state, and the profoundeft of flummining some of the holes in the sand. bers. banks, with which that district abounds. There is a large pound åt WishAs these are undoubtedly bored by hanger, which induces these fand-mare bank-martins, and are the places where tins to frequent that district. For I they avowedly breed, he was in hopes have ever remarked that they haunt they might have flept there also, and near great. waters, either rivers, or that he might have surprised them just lakes. as they were awaking from their win. Congregating, and Disappearance of ter flumbers. When he had dug for
Swallows. some time, he found the holes were DURING the severe winds that often horizontal, and serpentine, as I had prevail late in the spring, it is not easy observed before ; and that the nests to say how the hirundines sublift : for were deposited at the inner end, and they withdraw themselves, and are had been occupied by broods in former hardly ever scen, nor do any insects apsummers : but no torpid birds were to pear for their support. That they can be found. He opened and examined retire to rest, and sleep away these about a dozen holes. Another gentle. comfortable periods, as the bats do, is man made the same search many years a matter rather to be suspected than ago, with as little success.
proved : or do they not rather spend These holes were in depth about two their time in deep and sheltered vales, feet.
near waters, where infects are more March 21, 1790. A single bank likely to be found ? Certain it is, that or sand-martin was seen hovering and hardly any individuals of this genus playing round the fand pit at Short- have at such times been seen for several heath, where in the summer they a. days together. bound.
September 13, 1791. The congreVol. LVIII.
Bating flocks of hirundines on the These swallows looked like young Church and tower are very beautiful ones. and amusing. When they fly off all
Wagtails. together from the roof, on any alarm WHILE the cows are feeding in moist they quite swarm the air. But they low pastures, broods of wagtails, white foon settle in heaps, and preening their and grey, run round them, clofs up to feathers, and lifting up their wings to their noses, and under their very bellies, admit the sun, seem highly to enjoy the availing themselves of the flies that fetwarm situation. Thus they spend the tle on their legs, and probably finding heat of the day, preparing for their e- worms and larvæ that are roused by migration, and as it were consulting the trampling of their feet. Nature is when and where they are to go. The such an eco
conomist, that the most inconflight about the church seems to consist gruous animals can avail themselves of chiefly of house-martins, about 400 in each other ! Interest makes strange number ; but there are other places of friendships. rendezvous about the village, frequented
Wryneck. at the same time.
These birds appear on the grassIt is remarkable, that though most plots and walks ; they walk a little as of them fit on the battlements and roof, well as hop, and thrust their bills into yet many hang or cling for some time, the turf, in quest, I conclude, of ants, by their claws, against the surface of which are their food. While they hold the walls, in a manner not practised by their bills in the grass, they draw out them at any other time of their remains their prey with their tongues, which are ing with us.
so long as
to be coiled round their The swallows seem to delight more heads. in holding their affumblies on trees.
Grosbeak. November 3, 1789. Two swallows Mr B. shot a cock grosbeak, which were seen this morning at Newton vi- he had observed to haunt his garden carage house, hovering and settling on for more than a fortnight. I began to the roofs and out-buildings. None accuse this bird of making sad havoc have been observed at Selborne since among the buds of the cherries, gooseOctober 11. It is very remarkable, berries, and wall fruit, of all the neighthat after the birundines have disap- bouring orchards. Upon opening its peared for some weeks, a few are oc- crop or craw, no buds were to be seen ; casionally seen again. Sometimes, in but a mass of kernels of the stones of the first week in November, and that fruits. Mr B. observed, that this bird only for one day. Do they not with- frequented the spot where plumb-trees draw and flumber in some hiding place grow; and that he had seen it with during the interval ? For we cannot somewhat hard in its mouth, which it suppose they had migrated to warmer broke with difficulty ; these were the climes, and so returned again for one stones of damsons. The Latin orniday. Is it not more probable that they thologists call this bird coccothrausles, are awakened from sleep, and, like the i. e. berry-breaker, because with its bats, are come forth to collect a little large, horny beak, it cracks and breaks food ? Bats appear at all seasons, through the shells of stone fruits for the sake of the autumn and spring months, when the feed or kernel. Birds of this fort the thermometer is at 50, because then are rarely seen in England, and only in phalænæ, moths, are stirring.
winter. OBSERVATIONS ON DANCING, AS AN IMITATIVE ART.
BY THE LATE ADAM SMITH, L. L. D. THE initative powers of dancing mental music, and are at least equal, are much fuperior to those of inftru- perhaps, superior, to those of any other
art. Like instrumental music, however, tative dancer to that of a good painter it is not necessarily or effentially imita- or statuary. The dancer, however, may tive, and it can produce very agreeable have a very considerable degree of me. effects, without imitating any thing. In rit, and his imitation perhaps may fomethe greater part of our common dances times be capable of giving us as much there is little or no imitation, and they pleasure as that of either of the two consist almost entirely of a succession of artists. All the subjects, either of stasuch steps, gestures, and motions, regu- tuary or of history painting, are within lated by the time and measure of mulic, the compass of his imitative powers ; as either display extraordinary grace, or and in representing them, his art has require extraordinary agility. Even even some advantage over both the other some of our dances, which are said to two. Statuary and hiltory painting can have been originally imitative, have, in represent but a single instant of the ac
in which we practise them al. tion which they mean to imitate : the most ceased to be so. The minuet, in causes which prepared, the consequences which the woman, after passing and re. which followed, the situation of that passing the man several times, first gives fingle inftant are altogether beyond the him up one hand, then the other, and compass of their imitation. A pantothen both hands, is said to have been mime dance can represent distinctly originally a moorish dance, which em those causes and consequences ; it is not blematically represented the passion of confined to the situation of a single inlove. Many of my readers may have (tant; but, like epic poetry, it can refrequently danced this dance, and, in present all the events of a long story, the opinion of all who saw them, with and exhibit a long train and seccession great grace and propriety, though of connected and interesting situations. neither they nor their spectators once It is capable therefore of affecting us thought of the allegorical meaning which much more than either statuary or paintit originally intended to express. ing. The ancient Romans used to shed
A certain measured, cadenced step, tears at the representations of their pancommonly called a dancing step, which tomimes, as we do at that of the most keeps time with, and as it were beats interesting tragedies ; an effect which is the measure of the music which accom- altogether beyond the powers of statupanies and directs it, is the essential ary or painting. characteristic which distinguishes a dance The ancient Greeks appear to have from every other sort of motion. When been a nation of dancers, and both their the dancer, moving with a step of this common and their stage dances seem to kind, and observing this time and mea, have been all imitative.
The stage fure, imitates either the ordinary or the dancers of the ancient Romans appear more important actions of human life, to have been equally fo. Among that he shapes and fashions, as it were, a grave people it was reckoned indecent thing of one kind, into the resemblance to dance in private societies ; and they of another thing of a very
different kind: could therefore have no common dances. his art conqners the disparity which Among both nations imitation seems nature has placed between the imitating to have been considered as essential to and the imitated object, and has upon dancing. that account some degree of that sort It is quite otherwise in modern times : of merit which belong to all the imita. thongh we have pantomime dances upon tive arts.
This disparity, indeed, is the Itage, yet the greater part even of not so great as in some part of those our stage dances are not pantomime, arts, nor consequently the merit of the and cannot well be said to imitate any imitation which conquers it. Nobody thing. The greater part of our comwould compare the merit of a good imi- mon dances either never were panto
mime, or, with a very few exceptions, and all those who dance most at their have almost all ceased to be so. ease, become more or less pantomimes,
This remarkable difference of cha. and by their gestures and motions ex. tacter between the ancient and the mo.. press, as well as they can, the meaning dern dances seems to be the natural and story of the song. This would be effc et of a correspondent difference in still more the case, if the same person that of the music, which has accompa. both danced and sung ; a practice very pied and directed both the one and the common among the ancients : it requires Other.
good lungs and a vigorous constitution ; In modern times we almost always but with these advantages and long pracdance to instrumental music, which be- tice, the very higheit dances may be ing itself not imitative, the greater part performed in this manner. I have seen of the dances which it directs, and as a negro dance to his own song, the war. it were inspires, have ceased to be so. dance of his own country, with such In ancient times, on the contrary, they vehemence of action and expresfion, that seem to have danced almost always to the whole company, gentlemen as well vocal music ; which being necessary and as ladies, got up upon chairs and tables, essentially imitative, their dances became to be as much as poffible out of the way
The ancients seem to have had of his fury. In the Greek language little or nothing of what is properly cal. there are two verbs which both signify led instrumental music, or of music com- to dance ; each of which has its proper posed not to be sung by the voice, but derivatives, fignifying a dance and to be played upon instruments, and both dancer. In the greater part of Greek their wind and their stringed instruments authors, these two sets of words, like seem to have served only as an accom- all others which are nearly synonimous, paniment and direction to the voice. are frequently confounded, and used
In the country it frequently happens promiscuously. According to the best that a company of young people take a critics, however, in strict propriety, une fancy to dance, though they have neither of these verbs signifies to dance and fiddler nor piper to dance to. A lady fing at the same time, or to dance to undertakes to sing while the rest of the one's own music. The other to dance company dance ; in most cases she sings without singing, or to dance to the music the notes only, without the words, and of other people. There is said, too, to then the voice being little more than a be a correspondent difference in the musical inftrument, the dance is per- fignification of their respe&tive derivaformed in the usual way, without any, tives. In the chorusses of the ancient initation. But if the fings the words, Greek tragedies, consisting sometimes and if in those words there happens to of more than fifty persons, some piped be somewhat more than ordinary spirit and some fung; but all danced, and and humour, immediately all the com- danced to their own music. pany, especially all the best dancers, OBSERVATIONS ON THE OBJECTIONS AGAINST MACHINES
TO SHORTEN LABUUR: SOME IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DUTIES OF MANUFAC. TURERS RESPECTING THE HEALTH AND MORALS OF THEIR WORKMEN. OBJECTIONS of a moral nature they are dismiffed almost without any are sometimes urged against the intro- warning, or at least a warning sufficient duction of machines, by which human to afford fuch of them, as are qualified labour is considerably shortened. Great to undertake another occupation, an numbers of men and women, it is said, opportunity of providing one.
But are thus thrown out of employment: most of them, it is added, even if they
had much longer notice, would be un. had probably to lament the loss of emable to avail themselves of that resource; ployment when a competitor arrived from ther sex, their age, or their ha. from a distance, armed with the recentbits of life, they are incapable of com- ly discovered hatchet, and able to commencing a new line of business ; and plete more canoes in a month than the even if they are capable, other trades other could in a year. The makers of are full, and will not receive them. hand-barrows and scuttles would perThus multitudes of honelt and induf. ceive the demand for their craft matrivus poor are deprived of the posibili. terially lessemed, when a more commoty of procuring a livelihood for them. dious method of carriage took place on selves and their families; they pine in the introduction of carts. The fabrimisery, in sickness, and in want; and cators of hand-mills found their work driven at length to repel famine and speedily fall into disuse on the ere&ion nakedness by violence and plunder, of machines for grinding corn by means from being the supports, become the of wind and water. In what situation pests of society. That these objections, would the world now be, had these in. which compassion has suggested on the ventions been successively proscribed light of incidental distreis, are to be out of favour to the old workmen ? disregarded, is by no means to be af- But let us not deny to the objections firmed. But they are pushed to an un- under consideration the weight which reasonable length, when they are urged they possess; nor be betrayed, by a as generally conclusive against the ad- partiality for measures productive of miston of new machines by which la- general good, into a neglect of any atbour is greatly diminished. How has tendant misfortunes of the poor. If, mankind been enabled to emerge from on the one hand, the mannfacturer acts a state of barbarism to civilization, to laudably when he exerts himself in the exchange dens and caves for comfort- discovery of, or the introduction of new able houses, coverings of raw skins for machines, or in the improvement of clean and convenient cloths, acorns and machines already existing, by which wild fruits for salubrious food, unletter- bis manufacture may be rendered cheaped ignorance for books and knowledge, er or better ; on the other hand, he is but by the progressive introduction and highly criminal if he does not with ethe rapid improvements of machinery ? qual earneftness exert himself to guard And are we prepared to say that human againit that distress, which the hafty life has attained to its highest degree of adoption of inventions calculated for refinement ? Or that the means which dispatch, frequently occasions at first have brought it to its present state ought among the workmen, whose labour they pot to be permitted to carry it further superlede. Let him not be hurried by Or that, while every nation around us upfeeling avarice, or blind emulation, is advancing in improvement, Great suddenly to bring them into use to a Britain alone is to stand still? Those great extent. Let him study to profimple machines and implements, with. vide employment for his ancient ferout which we should now be at a loss vants in some other line, especially for how to sublift, were new in their day; the women and the old men : and, at and in many instances the invention of all events, let him not turn them adrift, them undoubtedly diminished, perhaps until they have means of immediately annihilated, the demand for that fpecies procuring bread for themselves and their of labour which was before in great children in another occupation. This request. The boat-maker of early times, attention to the welfare of his fellowwho first undermined the tree, and then creatures, by whose industry and coil formed it into shape by scrapping it with he has been enriching himself, is reoyster-lhelis, and hollowing it with fire, quired of him by his and their common