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mime, or, with a very few exceptions, and all those who dance most at their have almost all ceased to be so. ease, become more or less pantomimes,
This remarkable difference of cha. and by their gestures and motions ex. racter between the ancient and the mo., press, as well as they can, the meaning dern dances seems to be the natural and story of the fong. This would be effect of a correspondent difference in still more the case, if the same person that of the music, which has accompa. both danced and fung; a practice very nied and directed both the one and the common among the ancients : it requires other.
good lungs and a vigorous constitution ; In modern times we almost always but with these advantages and long pracdance to instrumental music, which be- tice, the very highest dances may be ing itself not imitative, the greater part performed in this manner.
I have seen of the dances which it directs, and as a negro dance to his own song, the war. it were inspires, have ceased to be so. dance of his own country, with such In ancient times, on the contrary, they vehemence of action and expression, that seem to have danced almost always to the whole company, gentlemen as well vocal music; which being necessary and as ladies, got up upon chairs and tables, essentially imitative, their dances became to be as much as posfible out of the way
The ancients seem to have had of his fury. In the Greek language little or nothing of what is properly cal- there are two verbs which both fignify led instrumental music, or of music com to dance ; each of which has its proper posed not to be sung by the voice, but derivatives, fignifying a dance and a to be played upon
inštruments, and both dancer. In the greater part of Greek their wind and their stringed instruments authors, these two sets of words, like seem to have served only as an accom- all others which are nearly lynonimous, paniment and direction to the voice. are frequently confounded, and used
In the country it frequently happens promiscuoufly. According to the best that a company of young people take a critics, however, in strict propriety, one fancy to dance, though they have neither of these verbs fignifies to dance and fiddler nor piper to dance to. A ladyfing at the same time, or to dance to undertakes to sing while the rest of the one's own mulic. The other to dance company dance ; in most cases she sings without singing, or to dance to the music the notes only, without the words, and of other people. There is said, too, to then the voice being little more than a be a correspondent difference in the musical instrument, the dance is per- fignification of their respective derivaformed in the usual way, without any , tives. In the chorusses of the ancient initation. But if she sings the words, Greek tragedies, consisting sometimes and if in those words there happens to of more than fifty persons, some piped be somewhat more than ordinary spirit and some fung; but all danced, and and humour, immediately all the com- danced to their own music. pany, especially all the best dancers, OBSERVATIONS ON THE OBJECTIONS AGAINST MACHINES
TO SHORTEN LABUUR: WITH SOME IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DUTIES OF MANUFAC.
TURERS RESPECTING THE HEALTH AND MORALS OF THEIR WORKMEN. OBJECTIONS of a moral nature they are difmuffed almost without any are sometimes urged against the intro- warning, or at least a warning sufficient duction of machines, by which human to afford such of them, as are qualified labour is considerably shortened. Great to undertake another occupation, an numbers of men and women, it is said, opportunity of providing one.
But are thus thrown out of employment: molt of them, it is added, even if they
had much longer notice, would be un. had probably to lament the loss of emable to avail themselves of that resource; ployment when a competitor arrived from ther sex, their age, or their ha- from a distance, armed with the recentbits of life, they are incapable of com- ly discovered hatchet, and able to commencing a new line of business; and plete more canoes in a month than the even if they are capable, other trades other could in a year. The makers of are full, and will not receive them. hand-barrows and scuttles would perThus multitudes of honest and induf. ceive the demand for their craft matrio poor are deprived of the possibili. terially lessened, when a more commoty
of procuring a livelihood for them. dious method of carriage took place on selves and their families; they pine in the introduction of carts. The fabric misery, in sickness, and in want; and cators of hand-mills found their work driven at length to repel famine and speedily fall into disuse on the eredion nakedness by violence and plunder, of machines for grinding corn by means from being the supports, become the of wind and water. In what situation pests of society. That these objections, would the world now be, had these inwhich compassion has suggested on the ventions been succeslively profcribed sight of incidental distreis, are to be out of favour to the old workmen? disregarded, is by no means to be af But let us not deny to the objections firmed. But they are pushed to an un- under consideration the weight which reasonable length, when they are urged they possess; nor be betrayed, by a as generally conclusive against the ad- partiality for measures productive of mission of new machines by which la general good, into a neglect of any atbour is greatly diminished. How has tendant misfortunes of the poor. If, mankind been enabled to emerge from on the one hand, the mannfacturer acts a state of barbarism to civilization, to laudably when he exerts himself in the exchange dens and caves for comfort. discovery of, or the introduction of new able houses, coverings of raw skins for machines, or in the improvement of clean and convenient cloths, acorns and machines already existing, by which wild fruits for salubrious food, unletter- his manufacture may be rendered cheaped ignorance for books and knowledge, er or better ; on the other hand, he is but by the progressive introduction and highly criminal if he does not with e. the rapid improvements of machinery ? qual earneftness exert himself to guard And are we prepared to say that human against that distress, which the halty life has attained to its highest degree of adoption of inventions, calculated for refinement ? Or that the means which dispatch, frequently occasions at first have brought it to its present state ought among the workmen, whose labour they not to be permitted to carry it further supersede. Let him not be hurried by Or that, while every nation around us unfeeling avarice, or blind emulation, is advancing in improvement, Great suddenly to bring them into use to a Britain alone is to fand still? Those great extent. Let him study to profimple machines and implements, with. vide employment for. his ancient ferout which we should now be at a loss vants in some other line, especially for how to sublist, were new in their day; the women and the old men: and, at and in many instances the invention of all events, let him not turn them adrift, them undoubtedly diminished, perhaps until they have means of immediately annihilated, the demand for that species procuring bread for themselves and their of labour which was before in great children in another occupation. This request. The boat-maker of early times, attention to the welfare of his fellowwho first undermined the tree, and then creatures, by whose industry and coil formed it into shape by scrapping it with he has been enriching himself, is réoyster-lhelis, and hollowing it with fire, quired of him by his and their common
master. Did it force him to refrain alleviating the evils incidentally profrom increasing his profits, he would duced by any one of those improvements be bound in conscience to refrain ; did in conducting manufactures, to which, it impose a heavy drawback on the in-' collectively taken, so large a share of crease, he ought to pay it with cheer- the national strength and prosperity is fulness. But the distresses in question to be ascribed. will rarely be great or permanent. Re There are other calamities affecting medies are every where at hand; and workmen in a very ferious manner, and they are commonly multiplied in a little with consequences deeply to be lamenttime by the very circumstance which ed, against which the proprietor of a renders them neceffary. The geoeral manutactory ought molt anxiously to effect of shortening labour is not to lef- guard; the dangers, namely, to which sen the number of labourers wanted, their health and morals are frequently but to enlarge the mass of produce, and exposed by the nature and circumstanto augment the comforts of life. Every ces of their employment. Such dansuccessful invention ultimately increases gers will fitly be noticed in this place ; the number of working hands ; partly since, although they exist in nearly all by employing many in fabricating and manufactures, they are commonly most condučting the new machinery, and in formidable in those in which large and performing various subsequent opera- complicated machines collect a great tions on the articles produced by it; number of workmen under the fame but principally by rendering manufac- roof. tures better and cheaper, and thus creat Some manufactures impair the health ing fo vast an additional demand for of the workmen by the deleterious quathem at home and abroad, as to cause lity of the materials used; others, by a much larger quantity of workmen to the crowded rooms and vitiated air in be occupied in preparing them, than which they are carried on. Of the first was employed when they were made in class are several processes on metallic the old manner, and sold at the ancient substances. The pernicious effects of price. Such, for example, has evi- lead are proverbial, and the palsies and dently been the effect of the introduc. other complaints frequent among those tion of cotton-mills. And further ; who are employed upon it. I have seen the new invention itself frequently fur- a young man at work in a manufactory nishes some collateral and auxiliary of white lead, whose complexion was branches of employment, to which the rendered by his occupation as livid as labour rendered needless by it may easily the substance which he was preparing be transferred. Most of those for whom for sale. “ The men who are emprovision cannot thus be made, will be proyed in filvering looking glasses often able to find a place
a country like
come paralytic; as is the cas also this, if time be allowed them by the with those who work in quicksilver manufacturer for search and inquiry, in mines. This is not to be wondered at, one or other of the numerous trades o- if we may credit Mr Boyle ; who as. pen to receive them. Instances how- sures us that mercury has been several ever will occur, in spite of the wisest times found in the heads of artificers and kindest precautions on the part of exposed to its fumes. In the Philosothe master, of individual workmen de. phical Transactions there is an account prived of subsistence by the erection of of a man who, having ceased working his machinery. These the hand of him in quicksilver for six months, had his who has been the innocent cause of their body still fo impregnated with it, that distress should be stretched out to relieve. by putting a piece of copper into his But every man ought willingly to con- mouth,, or rubbing it with his hands, it tribute in a reasonable proporiion toward inftantly acquired a silver colour. I
remember having seen at Birmingham a tion his workmen in large, dry, and very stout man rendered paralytic in the well ventilated rooms.
Let him conspace of six months, by being employed stantly prefer giving them their work to in fixing an amalgam of gold and silver perform at home, whenever it can be on copper. He stood before the mouth done with tolerable convenience, to of a small oven strongly heated ; the collecting them together into the same mercury was converted into vapour ; apartment. Let him encourage them, and that vapour was inhaled by him, where opportunity offers, to reside in The person I saw was very sensible of villages and hamlets, rather than in a the cause of his disorder ; but had not crowded town. Let him inculcate on courage to withstand the temptation of them in how great a degree cleanliness high wages, which enabled him to con- contributes to health ; and impress them tinue in a state of intoxication for three with the necessity of invariably observdays in the week, instead of, what is ing those inany little regulations, which, the usual practice, two." Of manufac- though singly coo minute to be noticed tures which injure the health of the in this place, have collectively much efworkmen, not by any noxious quality feet in preventing disease. Where his in the article operated upon, but by ex- own efforts seem likely to fail, let him ternal circumstances usually attending lay the matter before the ableft phytithe operation, an example may be pro- cians, and steadily put in practice the duced in that of cotton. “ The ready instructions which he receives. And communication of contagion to numbers finally, let him exert his utmost abilities crowded together, the accession of viru- to discover innoxious procelles which lence from putrid effluvia, and the in. may be substituted for such as prove jury done to young persons, through detrimental to the persons who conduct confinement and too long continued la- them; and direct by private solicitation, bour,” are evils which we have lately and on proper occasions, by public preheard ascribed to cotton-mills by per- miums, the attention of experienced fons of the first medical authority assem- artists and manufacturers to the same bled to investigate the subject. To these object. The success of his endeavours must be added, if report speaks truth may in many cases be found highly, ad. concerning the practice of some cotton- vantageous to him, not merely by premills, the custom of obliging a part of serving the lives of his most skiiful workthe children employed there to work all men, bue by saving some valuable matenight ; a practice which must greatly rial formerly lost in the operation. But contribute toward rendering them feeble, whether that be the case or not, he will diseased, and unfit for other labour, at least reap a satisfaction from them when they are dismissed at a more ad- which he could not otherwise have envanced period of youth from the manu- joyed, that of reflecting on his profits factory.
with a quiet conscience. To have recourse to every reasonable The morals of manufacturers assemprecaution, however expensive, by which bled together in numerous bodies are at the health of the workmen may be se. lealt as much endangered as their health. cured from injury, and to refrain from The danger sometimes arises from time prosecuting unwholesome branches of and opportunities for instruction being trade, until effe&ual precautions are denied ; sometimes from the contagion discovered, is the indifpensable duty of of vice being unrestrained, and shame the proprietor of a manufactory. Let itself extinguished by the universality of him not think himself at liberty to bar. guilt. The former of these evils takes
the lives of men for gold and silver. place in manufactories where chilLet him not seek profit, by acting the dren are employed; the latter, in all part of an executioner. Let him Ita- manufactories where multitudes of work
ing hands, whatever be their age, are tendance of his people on religious worcollected. In proportion as virtue is ship, and to lead them to use some short more valuable than bodily strength, in and simple form of family prayer every proportion as eternity is more import- evening in their own houses. Let him ant than the present life, the manufac- acquire their confidence and secure their turer who
pays no attention to the reli- attachment, by joining uniform mild. gious principles and morals of the peo- ness and affability of behaviour to the ple under his care, is more criminal firmness requilite for the maintenance iban if he had suffered them to put poi. of his authority. Scrupulously abstainfon to their mouths without appriling ing from every mark of pride and superthem of its qualities. Several of the ciliousness, let him convince them that measures already indicated as preserva. he has their interest at heart, by studytives of health, are equally adapted for ing their comforts ; by advancing them the preservation of morals. The em- little fums of money before-band, when ployment, for example, of as finali a fickness, or an approaching rent day, number of persons as may be in the or the neceffity of laying in fuel againit fame room; encouragement afforded to. winter, or some other emergency, disworkmen to reside in villages, where tresses them. Let him acquaint him, convenience will allow, rather than in felf, as far as may be practicable, with the midst of the infection of a great each of his workmen individually, and town ; permission given them to perform observe his temper and dispositions, his their work at their own homes, when habits of life, and the state of bis cis. the nature of the fabric will admit that cumstances, that he may be able to adpractice; and strong and repeated in- monith him occasionally in such a manculcation of habits of cleanliness, are ner as may be most likely to be bene. means adapted to the accomplishment ficial. Let him uniformly show favour of both purposes. But these are not to the meritorious, and check the idle the only or the most efficacious means and the profligate. And never let him of preveoting the inroads of vice. Let forget the efficacy which he may give to the proprietor of the manufactory em- his iostructions and reproofs, by his own ploy the different sexes apart from each virtuous example. other. Let him provide for the esta By thus diligently watching over the blishment of schools for the religious in- health, the comforts, and the morals of struction of all who can be induced to his workmen, the manufacturer will obattend them, whether children or of viously promote his own satisfaction and mature age, on Sundays at least, if not emolument, while he is discharging an in the evenings of week days. Let indispensable duty. He will render a bim distribute, from time to time,' reli- large proportion of his workmen robust, gious bouks level to the capacities of industrious, and honest. He will inthe readers. Let him establish a little spire them with that personal attachment library, from which proper treatises may to himself which, among other advanbe lent out for a limited period, and tages, will contribute to secure bim from under proper regulations, to all who the machinations of any unprincipled delire them. Let his appoint penalties competitor, who may be base enough to for drunkenness, oaths, and improper tempt them by bribes to betray their language, and exact them regularly and malter's operations, or to defert him with imparciality. Let him take every for the purpose of entering into a rival fit measure to secure the constant at- manufactory.
ON DWARFS AND GIANTS. THE ancients supposed that a race a peculiar oation. Homer gives an ac. of men of diminutive stature composed count' of a pigmy nation contending