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master. Did it force him to refrain alleviating the evils incidentally profrom increasing his profits, he would duced by any one of those improvements be bound in conscience to refrain ; did in conducting manufactures, to which, it impose a heavy drawback on the in-' collectively taken, so large a share of creafe, he ought to pay it with cheer- the national strength and prosperity is fulness. But the distresses in question to be ascribed. will rarely be great or permanent. Re
There are other calamities affecting medies are every where at hand; and workmen in a very ferious manner, and they are commonly multiplied in a little with confequences deeply to be lament. time by the very circumstance which ed, against which the proprietor of a renders them neceffary. The general manufactory ought molt anxiously to effect of shortening labour is not to lef- guard ; the dangers, namely, to which fen the number of labourers wanted, their health and morals are frequently but to enlarge the mass of produce, and exposed by the nature and circumstanto augment the comforts of life. Every ces of their employment. Such danfuccessful invention ultimately increases gers will fitly be noticed in this place ; the number of working hands ; partly since, although they exist in nearly all by employing many in fabricating and manufactures, they are commonly most conducting the new machinery, and in formidable in those in which large and performing various subsequent opera- complicated machines collect a great tions on the articles produced by it; number of workmen under the fame but principally by rendering manufac. roof. tures better and cheaper, and thus creat- Some manufactures impair the health ing so vaft an additional demand for of the workmen by the deleterious quathem at home and abroad, as to cause lity of the materials used; others, by a much larger quantity of workmen to the crowded rooms and vitiated air in be occupied in preparing them, than which they are carried on. Of the first was employed when they were made in class are several processes on metallic the old manner, and sold at the ancient substances. The pernicious effects of price. Such, for example, has evi- lead are proverbial, and the palsies and dently been the effect of the introduc. other complaints frequent among those tion of cotton-mills. And further ; who are employed upon it. I have seen the new invention itself frequently fur- a young man at work in a manufactory nishes fome collateral and auxiliary of white lead, whose complexion was branches of employment, to which the rendered by his occupation as livid as labour rendered needless by it may easily the substance which he was preparing be transferred. Most of those for whom for sale. “ The men who are emprovision cannot thus be made, will be ployed in silvering looking.glasses often able to find a place in a country like become paralytic; as is case also this, if time be allowed them by the with those who work in quicksilver manufacturer for search and inquiry, in mines. This is not to be wondered at, one or other of the numerous trades o- if we may credit Mr Boyle ; who afpen to receive them. Instances how- fures us that mercury has been several ever will occur, in spite of the wisest times found in the heads of artificers and kirdest precautions on the part of exposed to its fumes. In the Philosothe master, of individual workmen de- phical Transactions there is an account prived of subsistence by the erection of of a man who, having ceased working his machinery. These the hand of him in quicksilver for six months, had his who has been the innocent cause of their body still so impregnated with it, that distress should be stretched out to relieve. by putting a piece of copper into his But every man ought willingly to .con- mouth, or rubbing it with his hands, it tribute in a reasonable proportion toward instantly acquired a filver colour, I
remember having seen at Birmingham a tion his workmen in large, dry, and very stout man rendered paralytic in the well ventilated rooms.
Let him conspace of six months, by being employed stantly prefer giving them their work to in fixing an amalgam of gold and filver perform at home, whenever it on copper:
He stood before the mouth done with tolerable convenience, to of a small oven strongly heated ; the collecting them together into the same mercury was converted into vapour ; apartment. Let him encourage them, and that vapour was inhaled by him, where opportunity offers, to reside in The person I saw was very sensible of villages and hamlets, rather than in a the cause of his disorder ; but had not crowded town. Let him inculcate ou courage to withstand the temptation of them in how great a degree cleanliness high wages, which enabled him to con- contributes to health ; and impress them tinue in a state of intoxication for three with the necessity of invariably observdays in the week, instead of, what is ing those inany little regulations, which, the usual practice, two." Of manufac- though singly too minute to be noticed tures which injure the health of the in this place, have collectively much efworkmen, not by any noxious quality feet in preventing disease. Where his in the article operated upon, but by ex- own efforts seem likely to fail, let him ternal circumstances usually attending lay the matter before the ablest phytithe operation, an example may be pro- cians, and steadily put in practice the duced in that of cotton. “ The ready instructions which he receives. And communication of contagion to numbers finally, let him exert his utmost abilities crowded together, the accession of viru- to discover innoxious proceles which lence from putrid efluvia, and the in. may be substituted for such as prove jury done to young persons, through detrimental to the persons who conduct confinement and too long continued la- them; and direct by private solicitation, bour,” are evils which we have lately and on proper occasions, by public preheard ascribed to cotton-mills by per- miums, the attention of experienced fons of the first medical authority assem- artists and manufacturers to the fame bled to investigate the subject. To these object. The success of his endeavours must be added, if report speaks truth may in many cases be found highly ad. concerning the practice of some cotton- vantageous to him, not merely by premills, the custom of obliging a part of serving the lives of his most skiiful workthe children employed there to work all men, but by saving some valuable matenight ; a practice which must greatly rial formerly lost in the operation. But contribute toward rendering them feeble, whether that be the case or not, he will diseased, and unfit for other labour, at least reap a satisfaction from them when they are dismissed at a more ad- which he could not otherwise have envanced period of youth from the manu- joyed, that of reducting on his profits factory.
with a quiet conscience. To have recourse to every reasonable The morals of manufacturers assemprecaution, however expensive, by which bled together in numerous bodies are at the health of the workmen may be fe- lealt as much endangered as their health. cured from injury, and to refrain from The danger sometimes arises from time profecuting unwholesome branches of and opportunities for instruction being trade, until effe&tual precautions are denied; sometimes from the contagion discovered, is the indifpensable duty of of vice being unrestrained, and thame the proprietor of a manufactory. Let itself extinguished by the universality of him not think himself at liberty to bar- guilt. The former of these evils takes ter the lives of men for gold and silver. place in manufactories where chilLet him not seck profit, by acting the dren are employed; the latter, in all part of an executioner. Let him Ita- manufactures where multitudes of work
ing hands, whatever be their age, are tendance of his people on religious wor. collected. In proportion as virtue is ship, and to lead them to use some short more valuable than bodily strength, in and fimple form of family prayer every proportion as eternity is more import- evening in their own houses. Let him ant than the present life, the manufac- acquire their confidence and secure their turer who pays no attention to the reli- attachment, by joining uniform mild. gious principles and morals of the peo- ness and affability of behaviour to the ple under his care, is more criminal firmness requilite for the maintenance than if he had suffered them to put poi. of his authority. Scrupulously abstainfon to their mouths without apprising ing from every mark of pride and superthem of its qualities. Several of the ciliousness, let him convince them that measures already indicated as preferva- he has their interest at heart, by studytives of health, are equally adapted for ing their comforts; by advancing them the preservation of morals.
little fums of money before-hand, when ployment, for example, of as finall a sickness, or an approaching rent day, number of persons as may be in the or the neceffity of laying in fuel againit fame room ; encouragement afforded to. winter, or some other emergency, disworkmen to reside in villages, where tresses them. Let him acquaint him, convenience will allow, rather than in felf, as far as may be practicable, with the midst of the infection of a great each of his orkmen individually, and town ; permission given them to perform observe his temper and dispositions, his their work at their own homes, when habits of life, and the state of his cir. the nature of the fabric will admit that cumstances, that he may be able to adpractice; and strong and repeated in- monith him occasionally in such a manculcation of habits of cleanliness, are ner as may be most likely to be benemeans adapted to the accomplishment ficial. Let him uniformly show favour of both purposes. But these are not to the meritorious, and check the idle the only or the most efficacious means and the profligate. And never let him of prereoting the inroads of vice. Let forget the efficacy which he may give to the proprietor of the manufactory em- his instructions and reproofs, by his own ploy the different sexes apart from each virtuous example. other. Let him provide for the esta- By thus diligently watching over the blishment of schools for the religious in- health, the comforts, and the morals of struction of all who can be induced to his workmen, the manufacturer will obattend them, whether children or of viously promote his own fatisfaction and mature age, on Sundays at least, if not emolument, while he is discharging an in the evenings of week days. Let indispensable duty. He will render a him distribute, from time to time, reli- large proportion of his workmen robust, gious bouks level to the capacities of industrious, and honest. He will in. the readers. Let him establish a little spire them with that personal attachment library, from which proper treatises may to himself which, among other advanbe lent out for a limited period, and tages, will contribute to secure him from under proper regulations, to all who the machinations of any unprincipled desire them. Let him appoint penalties competitor, who may be base enough to for drunkenness, oaths, and improper tempt them by bribes to betray their language; and exact theni regularly and malter's operations, or to desert 'him with imparciality. Let him take every for the purpose of entering into a rival fit measure to secure the constant ate manufactory.
ON DWARFS AND GIANTS. THE ancients supposed that a race a peculiar oation.
a peculiar oation. Homer gives an acof men of diminutive Itature composed count of a pigmy nation contending
with the cranes ; and however the poet In the reign of Charles I. à dwarf might be supposed to exaggerate, Athe- named Richard Gibson, who was a næus has gravely attempted to confirm page of the back stairs, and a favourite this. If we attend to these, we must at court, was married to Miss Ann believe, that in the internal parts of A Shepherd, a lady of equal height; the frica there are whole nations of pigmy King honoured this singular wedding beings, not more than a foot in stature, with his presence, and gave away the who continually wage an unequal war bride. On this occasiun Waller comwith the birds and beasts that inhabit posed the following lines : the plains in which they reside. Some
Design or chance makes others wive, of the ancients, however, and Strabo But Nature did this match contrive : in particular, have supposed all these Eve might as well have Adam fled, accounts to be fabulous ; and have been As she deny'd her little bed more inclined to think this supposed to him, for whom heav'n seem'd to nation of pignies nothing more than a And measure out this only dame.
frame fpecies of apes, well known to be nu
Thrice happy is that humble pair, merous in that part of the world. With this opinion the moderns have all con Beneath the level of all care!
Over whole heads those arrows fly curred; and that diminutive race, which Of fad distrust and jealousy; was described as human, has been long Secured in as high extreme, degraded into a class of animals that re. As if the world held none but them. semble us but very imperfectly.
To him the faireft nymphs do show The existence, therefore, of a pigmy Like moving mountains topp?d with race of mankind, being founded in er
snow; ror, or in fable, we can expect to find And ev'ry man a Polypheme men of diminutive stature only by acci- None may presume her faith to prove;
Does to his Galetea feem : dent, among men of the ordinary size. He proffers death that proffers love. Of these accidental dwarfs, every coun- Ah, Chloris ! that kind nature thus try, and almost every village, can pro- From all the world had sever'd us; duce numerous instances. There was Creating for ourselves us two, a time when these unfavoured children As love has me for only you ! of nature were the peculiar favourites Each of them measured three feet of the great ; and no prince or noble- ten inches. This little pair were paintInan thought himself completely attend. ed at whole length by Sir Peter Lely. ed unless he had a dwarf among the They had nine children, five of which number of his domestics. These poor attained to maturity, and were well little men were kept to be laughed at, proportioned to the usual standard of or to raise the barbarous pleasure of mankind. Mr Gibson's genius led him their masters, by their contrasted infe. to painting, in the rudiments of which riority. Even in England, as late as art he was instructed by De Clein, masa the times of King James I. the court ter of the tapestry works at Mortlake, was at one time furnished with a dwarf, and distinguished by his drawings for fea giant, and a jester : these the King veral of the cuts to Ogilby's Virgil, often took a pleasure in opposing to each and Sandy's Translation of Ovid. other, and often fomented quarrels a- Gibson's paintings in water-colours mong them, in order to be a concealed were will esteemed, but the copies spectator of their animosity. It was a which he made of Lely's portraits gainparticular entertainment of the courtiers ed him the greatest reputation. He at that time to fee little Jeffery, for so had the honour to be employed in teachthe dwarf was called, ride round the ing Queen Anne the art of drawing, lists, expecting his antagonist
, and dif- and was sent for into Holland to incovering in his actions all the marks of struct her filter, the Princess of Orange.
fifter contemptible resolution.
To recompense the shortness of their most. All this, however, being at last ftature, nature gave them an equivalent settled, dancing followed the dinner, in length of days, for he died in the fe- and the ball was opened with a minuet venty-fifth year of his age, and his wife, by the bridegroom, whose height was having survived him almost twenty years, exactly three feet two inches. In the died in the year 1709, at the great age end, matters were so contrived, that of eighty-nine.
this little company, who met together In the year 1710, Peter, Czar of in glooniy disgult, and with an unwilRussia, celebrated a marriage of dwarfs, lingness to be pleased, being at last fawhich was attended with great parade. miliarized to laughter, entered into the Upon a certain day, which he had or- diversion, and became extremely sprightdered to be proclaimed several months ly and entertaining. before, he invited the whole body of A dwarf of the name of Coan was his courtiers, and all the foreign ambas- exhibited in almost every part of Engfadors, to be present at the marriage land, for some years. He was likeof a pigmy man and woman. The pre- wise brought upon the stage of one of parations for this wedding were not on- the London theatres, where he was ly very grand, but executed in a style of contrasted with a giant, each of whom barbarous ridicule. He ordered, that fung for the entertainment of the auall the dwarf men and women, within dience. He died at Chelsea, March two hundred miles, fhould repair to the 28, 1764. capital ; and also insisted that they Concerning the reality of a race of should be present at the ceremony. giants the learned have been much diFor this purpose, he supplied them with vided. Ferdinand Magellan was the proper vehicles; but fo contrived it, first who discovered such a race of peothat one horfe was seen carrying a do- ple, along the coast, toward the exzen of them into the city at once, while tremity of South America, in 1520. the mob followed shouting, and laugh- Commodore Byron 'touched at Pataing, from behind. Some of them were gonia, the country spoken of by Magelat first unwilling to obey an order, lan, in the year 1764, when he faw a which they knew was calculated to turn number of horsemen riding backward them into ridicule, and did not come ; and forward. The natives foon col. but he foon obliged them to obey; and, lected near the shore, to the number of as a punishment, enjoined, that they five hundred, many of whom were on should wait upon the rest at dinner. foot, and made ligns of invitation for The whole company of dwarfs amount- those on board to land. Byron accorded to about seventy, beside the bride and ingly went alhore in his twelve oared bridegroom, who were richly' adorned, boat, having with him a party of men and in the extremity of the fashion. well armed. These people are descriFor this little company in miniature é. będ as a gigantic race, whose height in very thing was suitably provided ; a low general is not much less than feven feet. table, small plates, litile glasses, and, Their only clothing was the fkins of in short, every thing was so fitted, as beafts thrown over their shoulders, with if all things had been dwindled to their hair inward : they paint themselves fo as own standard. It was his great pleasure toʻmake a hideous appearance: but their to see their gravity and their pride; difpofition is neither fierce nor rapathe contention of the women for places, "cious. Each one had a circle of white and the men for superiority. This round one eye, and of black round the point he attempted to adjust, by order- other; and their faces were ftreaked ing, that the most diminutive should with paint of different colours. Except take the lead; but this bred disputes, the skins, most of them were naked ; a or none would then consent to fit fore• few only having upon their legs a kind