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boat forty.

He was educated with would afford an enemy cover, and one great care, is a man of considerable ta- to the north, which projects with a Jents, but he is tyrannical and avarici- work containing travafes, like those of ous in his disposition, and in his de- country forts in general, that defends portment commanding and severe, and that face by a flanking fire. The fort wants both the liberality of character, is fupplied with water from a well withand the open manly appearance and ad. in it, which is brackish, but mostly by dress, which distinguished Hyder. He conduits from one of the tanks on the is, in general, disliked by the Moormen fouth face, which is under ground. of rank in his service, not being suffi. The Pettub, situated north of the fort ciently liberal in his encouragement to within an hundred yards of it, is very them; and appears himself to have extensive, and contains a great number more confidence in Bramins and Raja of inhabitants. It is encompassed by a poots, who hold the places of firft trust mud wall, outside of which is a broad in his court. He has fix children, two thick hedge with a ditch in front, in sons and four daughters : his eldest son which are four gateways. is a promising youth of seventeen years The Pettah would be easily carried, of age, called Hyder Saib, after his if not evacuated on the approach of an grandfather.

English army, and the possession of it The revenue of Tippoo Sultaun's would facilitate approaches to the fort; country is faid to amount to five crores the west half face of it parallel, and next leventy lacks of rupees, about five mil. the north face of the fort, consequentJions seven hundred thousand pounds ly very near, and not being enfiladed by Aterling. His treasure, in money and the gateway, would afford cover for jewels, is estimated at nine crores of some battalions, and enable them to rupees, or nine millions sterling. make a lodgement upon the glacis the

The Rajah of Mysore is about twen- night of breaking ground. ty-two years of age, not yet married. There is a bank of a tank on the east, He is thewo to the people in great splen- and in a line with the north face of the dor during the nine days of the Gentoo fort, near it, and so high, that it would feast in September, on which occasion likewise afford cover from every gun on Tippoo comes with all his court to wait the east face, if not from the guns upon on him, and is the first to make his the towers of the north face, but the Salam, but the Rajah is then at all times guns on the gateway would enfilade it kept a prisoner.

until filenced. The advantages are in

support of approaching the fort from The fort of Bangalore is about two the northward, but the best encamping miles and a half in extent, has two walls ground is to the westward and southfaced with stone, flanked by small towers, ward, being high and healthier. The a ditch that is mostly dry, but deep and tanks upon the south face, likewise a pretty wide, a glacis all round covering tank, and padoga upon the west face, the second wall, a fauffe braye with bal. would also favour approaches from thence, tions in it. On the west, fouth, and but perhaps the ground is rocky. The east, faces two gates, one to the south, large tank, the bank of which is before not far from which are some tanks that described, is in front of the east face.




“ There is no subject in common life, THE following observations on salt deserves greater attention than agricul. as a manure, were communicated to ture; and nothing appear's better cal. the Agricultural Board, by Mr Holl. culated to promote its progress, than ingshead, Cheshire,

the discovery


proper manures ; that


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can be obtained in plenty, and at a mo. matter proper for the food of plants : derate price.

but all its merit is of little worth, so Manures, when divested of their salts, long as it is subject to the high duty are reduced to mere lifeless matter : imposed by the legislature. If governtherefore, to procure salts proper" for ment would be pleased to attend to these vegetation, without

any extraneous remarks, and abolish the duty, and mals, 'would be an important discovery. fubstitute an additional land-tax of It has been proved by experience, that three-pence in the pound, it would raise those lands, which have been covered more money into the Exchequer than by the tides, produce grafs and corn the present duty. Salt would then be fuperior to any other : and when the the cheapest, best, and most universal farmer was allowed foul salt to improve manure in nature; and also be the his fields, they never failed to return means of advancing botany, gardening, abundant crops ; which is a clear de- and every branch of agriculture, with monstration that common falt is replete chymistry, and also the metallic arts, with the same fertilizing qualities as sea to a certain degree of perfection. Be

It is also known, that com- fore the prohibition of foul falts, when mon salt contains an alkali equal to the the farmer proposed to turn his lands nitre, which enriches the lands in In- to tillage in autumn, he lowed a double dia, and the low grounds in Egypt ; quantity of salt, in order to destroy but common salt will be found preferable grass, ruw, weeds, gorse, fern, broom, to pitre, because pure nitre suffers the worms, snails, &c.

The whole was, extra heats to exhale moisture; while by that means, converted into a rich the alkali, which is combined with the manure, which supported three succeed, acid of common salt, is so fixed, as to ing crops, and left the soil, after all, attract an additional moisture. This, in good condition. This mode of prethen, is a true magnet to water ; for paration appears superior to any other. heat, equal to boiling water, will not Some farmers have sown about 1000lb. dry a falted soil. As it is generally a- of salt on one acre of land, as soon as greed, that air and water, with what is ploughed, in order to meliorate the soil, dissolved in them, constitute the food of before the seed was sown. They have plants ; to cultivate land in such a man- also laid, on meadow grounds, as soon ner, as to make it retain a proper quan- as cut, and pasture lands in the winter, tity of air and water, would, in all about the same quantity. probability, be the best means of ren- As loon as sale can be procured dudering it fertile. In that view, a foil, ty free, it may be presumed, that all to be perpetually fertile, must be en- parks, lawns, commons, rabbit-warrens, dued with powers to retain air and wa- hills, and mountains, will exhibit as ter sufficient for its plants, and at the rich a verdure as a falt-march ; and efsame time must be of a nature that will fectually prevent the rot in sheep, deer, pot harden by moisture. Salt pro- and rabbits. Salt would also be used mises to answer all these different pur- in composts, hot-houses, hop-grounds, poses; for it will prevent the soil from &c. It may then be used to great ada being hardened by water, and also in. vantage in the West India islands, for vigorate the same by its retentive, als the culture of sugar canes, indigo, cotkaline, and acid qualities. These sug- ton, rice, and all other crops of those gestions almost amount to a proof, countries ; as it will fave great expence, that common falt is that desireable ob- by destroying weeds and reptiles ; beject, which, when properly used, will lide supporting the growth of plants, prove to be the real and true acid fol. by the retention of moisture in those hot vent, fo offentially necessary to prepare climes. Fruit trees and plants should VOL. LVIII.


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have falt Gifted round them, several High duties may be proper where there times in the year. Every load of hay is a probability of the article being exshould have a quantity of salt scattered hausted, which makes it necessary to on it when housed : which will cause limit the consumption : but that is not the bay to retain its juices, and to feed the case with salt ; for on a thorough nearly equal to grass. Cows, horses, investigation of the falt rocks, and &c. fhould have falt given them in al- springs in Cheshire, they appear fufficient moft every feed of ground corn, grains, to fupply the demands of all Europe &c. Spruce fir tea, and milk, with salt, for ever. The rock lies about thirtyshould be given to coirs and horses at six yards below the surface, in thickany time when not well.

ness from ten to forty yards ; covers a The utility of common salt to man- tract of twenty miles in length, with kind, for culinary purposes, is so well fome miles in breadth ; and over the understood, that it is needless to ex. whole district arise springs, which are patiate on that fubject : yet as its medi- generally made into falt. Coal too are cinal virtues are not generally known, there plentiful. I beg leave to recommend the following At Droitwitch in Worcestershire, in bath as a substance, to accommodate Lancahire, and several other counties, those whom business, distance, or ina- are likewise good salt fprings ; besides, bility prevents from having the benefit quantities of salt are procured from sea of fea-bathing. "All families ought to water. bathe every Saturday night, in a warm Great Britain contains about 10 mil. bath,' made with three pounds of salt lions of people, and its produce barely to each gallon 7 of foft water, or with sustains them, and when any season of sea water.

One tea spoonful of con- the year happens to be unfavourable, mon Glauber's sales should be put into the inhabitants are alarmed at the pro'a basın of milk, and spruce fir tea, in spect of famine; but when salt is brought lieu of India tea, for the family's break into general use, the lands of Great

Britain will maintain ten times twelve Chymistry, and the metallic arts, millions of people ; for it is a certain would require great quantities, if salt support to vegetation, when extra heats were reduced to a moderate price, and colds are predominant. The land Some French chymists at Liverpool, owner will then reapsuch plentiful crops, have obtained a patent, for the use of a as to enable him to pay chearfully all pure alkali, extracted from common the wants of government; for the confalt, superior to pot-ash, for the bleach. folidation of the taxes, the legislature ing of calicoes, mullins, &c. It gives should always have in view, 'them immediate colour, and filkiness nufacturers will then live cheap, and fimilar to India gocds. They also ex. also be freed from those shackles which tract from salt several other degrees of now retard their progress. This, and alkalies, for the manufactories of soap, this only, would enable us

to rival glass, &c. but the high duty prevents every other state, and would also be. their general use. If the legislature the means of raising this nation to an inwere to {ubstitute the aforesaid tax, credible height of opulence and power, the revenue would be advanced more A petition from the Royal and Agrithan double, and at the same time, fave cultural Societies should be presented to the nation several hundred thousand to Government, praying the indulgence pounds, expended annually on imported of falt, duty free. Experiments would alkalies. A minister merits reproach then be made throughout the kingdom, who lays a duty, equal to a prohibition, and its excellence and utility, as a maon any article that would so effentially nure, &c. it is humbly apprehended, promote the interests of agriculture would be fully demonstrated and con


The ma

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firmed.--Salt without duty, would be that ingenious and intelligent farmer at from ten shillings to thirteen shillings Northleach, whose attention to the

breed of sheep has made his name so

well koown to the public. It first atAs it is very material and desirable, tracted his notice by continuing among to bring pasturage to perfection on ao fainfoin, which had stood seven years; rable lands, I shall beg leave, before the feed was therefore first selected for I quit the subject of graffs, to men- this fort, and from time to tine multition a new species of rye grass ; and plied, wil the cultivator has been able though to do this, I'must pass a lit- to accommodate many of his friends tle beyond the bounds of this counry, and the public (who have now found I trust the digression will be excused, its value) with consid table quantities on account of the importance of the oc. of the feed, but not so much as has cafion; as I am fully convinced; from been lately required; fifty quarters have repeated observations at various seasons, ing been fent for in one order in 1792, that the grass in question has a manifest when the whole that was raised that superiority over the common sorts. It year did not exceed sixteen quarters. should also be noted, that the spot It therefore seems to be of public utility, where I viewed this grass, at North that this valuable feed should be dispoleach in Gloucestershire, is of that shal- fed of in smaller quantities, in order low stone brush kind, with which a con- that it may be more universally dispersed, siderable tract of Oxfordshire, about and it has been the advice of several Burford, abounds.

gentlemen, well wilhers to improveThe excellencies peculiar to this fpe- ments in agriculture, to raise the price cies of rye grass are the following: 1. to 1os. 6d. per bushel, including new That in the autumn, when the other facks to send it in ; which would have forts are become of a russet hue, withered the good effect of causing those farmers and decayed, and produce little feed, to save feed, who now feed it off, unthis is luxuriant and growing; the der an expectation of procuring more tufts thereof spreading over more than feed from the same place, at the origitwice the space of ground than the con- nal price of gs. per bushel: and the culmon fort does. 2. That it will remain tivator is undoubtedly entitled to such in the ground for seven or eight years, an advance, for his attention to the pubor more, depending on the quality of lic interest, in selecting, cultivating, and the land; whereas the other sort will preserving the seed. One bushel is suf. not continue above one or two years, ficient to fow an acre ; and as the plant which is too short a time to give sufi- comes up weak the first year, it is adcient rest to the poorer sorts of land. visable to fow it among corn, in order 3. A particular advantage arises by its that the weeds may not get the better being hamed up about Michaelmas, or of it; or it may be fown with turnips, before, whereby it will grow at all open by first hoeing and then harrowing it in. times during the winter, and produce a But if the land is intended to be a pervaluable pasturage for the ewes and manent greensward, a mixture of the lambs in the spring of the year, when dadylis glomerata, or rough cock's foot the turnips are gone.

grass, would prove beneficial, the feed of The merit of discovering and culti- which is now selecting also by the same vating this grass, is to be attributed to person. (To be continued.) TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.

ROXBURGH-SHIRE continued. about 7 miles from Kello ; it contains
MOREBATTLE is a small parish about 800 inhabitants. It is very pleą.
lying at the foot of the Cheviot hills

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fantly situated, having the rivers Bow of an arch, 2 feet 4 inches thick, to mont and Kale, beside smaller streams connect the hills on each side with one running through it. The vestiges of another. The total length is 55 feet, several camps, and the ruins of Whit and the breadth 10. There is both ton castle and Corbet-house, show that coal and limestone here, and many of it must have been the scene of war and the streams issuing from the lime rock Itrife in former times.

have the quality of petrifying the moss CASTLETOWN. This very extensive on their banks. parifh lies at the head of the shire of Roxburgh, and connects it with Dam

SeLKIR K-SHIRE. friesfhire. It is 18 miles long, and 14 This county is of an irregular formt,

in breadth, containing about 1420 in- 'meafaring about 20 miles from north to habitants ; but it must have been for- fouth, but where broadeft, only about merly more populous, for there are the 10 miles from east to west. It is bound. Tuins of no less than 5 churches in this ed of the east by Roxburghshire, on the parish. It is very hilly and mountain south by Dumfriesshire, on the west by ous, but the banks of the rivers are Peebles shire, and on the north by the beautifully skirted with wood, affording fire of Edinburgh. Over the whole it a great variety of picturesque scenes. is billy and mountainous. Besides the The river Liddal runs through great Tweed, which runs through this coun. part of the parish, and has given the ty, it has also to boast of those pastoral name' of Lidderdale to this distri&. rivers Etterick and arrow. The The river Tyne, which runs by New- Tweed enters this county pear Elibank, castle, takes its rise from the same source. and after a course of a few miles southThe river Hermitage, with several westward, during which it paffes the rosmaller stream's, also water this tract. mantic feats of Yair and Fairnilee, it Dr Armstrong, who was a native of receives the united streams of the two this parish, celebrates the beauties of rivers above mentioned, near Sunder Liddal in his poem on Health land-hall, the seat of Mr Plummer. The

-- Such the stream,' Yarrow arises from two contiguous On whose Arcadian banks I first drew air.

lakes, St Mary's and the Loch of the Liddal, till now, except in Doric lays, Tun'dto her murmurs by her love-fick swains, Lows, about 20 miles above the town Unknown in fong ; though not a purer stream of Selkirk. The Yarrow joins the EtThrough meads more dow'ry,-more roman- terick near the family seat of Philiptic groves,

haugh. This district is called Etterick Rolls toward the western main. Hail facred Forest

, from the abundance of wood flood ! May still thy hospitable swains be blest

fornierly on the banks of that river: In rural innocence! thy mountains still now they are mostly bare of timber; Teem with the feecy race; thy tuneful woods These two rivers are famous in fong. For ever flourish, and thy vales look gay, Gala water is also celebrated by the With painted meadows, and the golden grain! poet in rustic lays : it falls into the

Tweed a few miles above Melrose*. The highest of the mountains are This district is without both coal and Millenwoodfell and Windhead, each lime, and, excepting marl, no mineral more than 2000 feet above the level of substance of any consequence has been the sea. There are many ruins of castles discovered, if we except fand-stone. and fortified places here, and at different Ashkirk lies partly in Roxburgh times a variety of coins have

been found. and partly in Selkirk shires ; it extends There is a natural bridge of stone over to about 7 miles in length and 3 in the river Blackburn, well worth visiting. breadth, containing 540 inhabitants. The water has forced a passage through the rock, by an opening of about 3.1 of the sea.

* This junction is 286 feet above the level feet wide, leaving the rock in the form


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