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The Sair stationed in the country Rocketmen have in general thirty rupees ; that with Cavalry the army forty rupees for man and Dismounted troops horse

per month. The Bayed, or marauding horse, Artillerymen

50 called also Looties, have forty rupees per Lafcars month, and account to the Cirkar for

250 half the plunder.

ift battalion of infantry greTippoo's army, and troops of every

nadiers, composed of Moorkind, are paid by the month, and are men, or Hindoos of large always mustered at the time they are


500 paid ; brit the month is allowed to run 2d ditto of common ftature 500 from forty to fifty days, so that in fact 3d ditto of ditto ditto

560 they receive one third less than above 4th ditto of Chatigars or Arxil, Itated, or only eight months pay in the men of low calts, called by year. The accounts of the cavalry of us Topafes

soo the several denominations Tawela, Sair,

2000 and Bayed, are each kept in a separate Cuchery or public office, under which

Total 2850 they are muftered and paid.

There are only five pieces of cannon Tippoo, fearing that he has reduced at present attached to each cushoon ; his cavalry to too low an establishment, viz. one cavalrin, or long twelve-pounhas lately sent Delil Dil Khan, Buckfby, der, and four short fix-pounders. or commandant and paymaster general The rocketmen, who form part of of his Sair cavalry, into the district of the cushoon as above stated, are not in. Sair, where he is to remain for three cluded in the establishment of a cushoon years, for the purpose of engaging 2000 in Tippoo's regulations for his army, Sair or hired horse, which are to con- probably from their belonging to the lift of people belonging to his own Cundachar, or irregular infantry, which country.

are mustered and paid under different

Cucbery. The regular infantry consists of six The cushoons march in the above teen cushoons or brigades, or perhaps order, except the artillerymen and Lafmore properly legions, being a regular, cars, who are of course attached to the body composed of different kinds of guns. The cavalrin, guarded by a comtroops, though chiefly infantry. pany of grenadiers, the cavalry, the fix

The following establishment of a pounders each in front of its respective cufhoon is taken from Tippoo's regula- battalion. The cushoons march from tions for his army, which he published their right by files, and are strictly enabout two years ago, and will not only joined to keep order on the march. shew the manner in which his cushoons, They can march about three miles an brigades, or legions, are formed, but hour, and have frequently made forced will also account in a very satisfactory marches of thirty miles a-day. His manner for the exaggerated reports elephants and strength of cattle are the made of his army, in the strength of great means of facilitating the movewhich they include every man that is ments of his army. muftered and receives pay, although · The infantry, or rank and file who. merely followers, instead of reckoning carry firelocks, according to this calcuonly fuch as carry arms.

lation of 2000 men in each cushoon, Tippoo's culhoons at present are said would amount to only 32,000; but there to consist of nearly 'the following oum- is reason to believe that Tippoo has at

present twenty-four instead of fixteen


bers :






cushoons, and that his regular infantry, Head of the Merchants, and Trea-
rank and file, may amount to near

furer of the Household

400 50,000.

Companions or Lords in waiting Tippoo has appointed fix principal who live and eat with Tippoo 400 ftations for his infantry, called Cucheries, Arzbegy, or attendant in waiting where the cushoons are stationed in time by day

ICO of peace, and has ordered the people of Ditto by night different cafts to be put into cushoons Daroga of the Treasury and Jewel by themselves, attached to Cucheries, Office, under Puruia

400 under the command of a Buckshy, or Physicians, each

400 general officer of their own casts. Vakeel, or Embassador for India 700

Embassadors at Conftantinople 1000

Embassadors who were sent to
Rupees per month.

Sipadars, or Brigadier Generals

300 Risaldars, or Commmandants List of the principal Officers of the Army.

of Battalions
Towkdars, or Captains

Ditto, an allowance of a gold

Mah Mirza Khan, lately dead,
fanam and half, about half a

Buddera Zimma Khan, rupee, for each man in his

Burbam Ud Deen, lately degradcompany, according to its ac

ed to the rank of Bucksby.-tual strength per month, about 40

N. B. Taken into favour again

50 Sirheels, or Lieutenants

at Travencore Lines, said to Femadars, or Serjeants

killed in Floyd's action,

Maeen Ud Deen Khan, formerly,
Deffadars, or Corporals
Private in the ist or Grenadier

Seed Saheb, each

The Generals command 30,000
Ditto 2d Battalion

horse and foot, and have the power of

life and death in their respective comDitto 3d and 4th Battalion




Yaseen Cawn, a Moorman.
Pikemen and Pioneers

Mabomed Afgil, do.--Said to be

7 Cundachar, or irregular infantry

killed in Floyd's, action.

4 Mabomed Tippoo, do. List of the Ministers and Officers of the Sheik Zyn al Abud Deen, do. each 500 Civil Department of the State. These four Ameers are officers of

Pay per month, rupees. great experience, who are always in Puruia, Prime Minister, Grand Tippoo's fuite. In the field they are

Treasurer, and Jewel Keeper 1000 mounted on elephants stationed to obKibin Row, Deputy

1000 ferve the motions of their own and the Both these ministers held the same enemy's forces. They are each attendemployments for many years under Hy- ed by two Orderlys on horseback. der. Puruia generally remains in Seringapatam, and his deputy. attends the Tippoo SULTAUN is a strong, active, army; when both take the field, Puruia robust man, somewhat above the middle has the command of the baggage. size, rather given to be lufty, of a taw. Dewan, Grand Aumil, and Re ny yellow colour, his neck and visage

ceiver General of the Revenues voo long, his features lar, his eyes large Deputy

300 and penetrating, has strong black whisMoonsbies, or Secretaries under kers, but not much beard, his age 2Dewan





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boat forty.

He was educated with would afford an enemy cover, and one great care, is a man of considerable ta- to the north, which projects with a lents, but he is tyrannical and avarici- work containing travases, like those of ous in his disposition, and in his de- country forrs in general, that defends portment commanding and severe, and that face by a flanking fire. The fort wants both the liberality of character, is fupplied with water from a well withand the open manly appearance and ad- in it, which is brackish, but mostly by dress, which distinguished Hyder. He conduits from one of the tanks on the is, in general, disliked by the Moormen fouth face, which is onder ground. of rank in his service, not being suffi. The Pettuh, situated north of the fort ciently liberal in his encouragement to within an hundred yards of it, is very them; and appears himself to have extensive, and contains a great number more confidence in Bramins and Raja of inhabitants. It is encompassed by a poots, who hold the places of firft trust mud wall, outside of which is a broad in his court. He has fix children, two thick hedge with a ditch in front, in sons and four daughters : his eldest fon which are four gateways. is a promising youth of seventeen years The Pettah would be easily carried, of age, called Hyder Saib, after his if not evacuated on the approach of an grandfather.

English army, and the poffeffion of it The revenue of Tippoo Sultaun's would facilitate approaches to the fort; country is said to amount to five crores the west half face of it parallel, and next Leventy lacks of rupees, about five mil- the north face of the fort, consequentlions seven hundred thousand pounds ly very near, and not being enfiladed by sterling. His treasure, in money and the gateway, would afford cover for jewels, is estimated at nine crores of fome battalions, and enable them to rupees, or nine millions sterling. make a lodgement upon the glacis the

The Rajah of Mysore is about twen- night of breaking ground. ty-two years

age, not yet married.

There is a bank of a tank on the east, He is thewo to the people in great fplen- and in a line with the north face of the dor during the nine days of the Gentoo fort, near it, and so high, that it would feast in September, on which occasion likewise afford cover from every gun

on Tippoo comes with all his court to wait the east face, if not from the guns upon on him, and is the first to make his the towers of the north face, but the salam, but the Rajah is then at all times guns on the gateway would enfilade it kept a prisoner.

until silenced. The advantages are in

support of approaching the fort from The fort of Bangalore is about two the northward, but the best encamping miles and a half in extent, has two walls ground is to the westward and southfaced with stone, flanked by small towers, ward, being high and healthier. The a ditch that is mostly dry, but deep and tanks upon the south face, likewise a pretty wide, a glacis all round covering tank, and padoga upon the west face, the second wall, a fauffe braye with bal. would also favour approaches from thence, tions in it. On the west, fouth, and but perhaps the ground is rocky. The east, faces two gates, one to the south, large tank, the bank of which is before not far from which are some tanks that described, is in front of the east face. AGRICULTURAL REMARKS AND OBSERVATIONS.

“There is no subject in common life, THE following observations on salt deserves greater attention than agricul. as a manure, were communicated to ture; and nothing appears better cal. the Agricultural Board, by Mr Holl- culated to promote its progress, than ingfhead, Cheshire,

the discovery


proper manures ; that





can be obtained in plenty, and at a mo. matter proper for the food of plants : derate price.

but all its merit is of little worth, so Manures, when divested of their salts, long as it is subject to the high duty are reduced to mere lifeless matter : imposed by the legislature. If governtherefore, to procure falts proper for ment would be pleased to attend to these vegetation, without any extranevus remarks, and abolish the duty, and mass, would be an important discovery. substitute an additional land-tax of It has been proved by experience, that three-pence in the pound, it would raise those lands, which have been covered more money into the Exchequer than by the tides, produce grass and corn the present duty. Salt would then be superior to any other : and when the the cheapest, best, and most universal farmer was allowed foul salt to improve manure in nature; and also be the his fields, they never failed to return means of advancing botany, gardening, abundant crops; which is a clear de- and every branch of agriculture, with monstration that common falt is replete chymistry, and also the metallic arts, with the same fertilizing qualities as sea to a certain degree of perfection. Ben

It is also known, that com. fore the prohibition of foul falts, when mon salt contains an alkali equal to the the farmer proposed to turn his lands nitre, which enriches the lands in In- to tillage in autumn, he fowed a double dia, and the low grounds in Egypt ; quantity of salt, in order to destroy but common salt will be found preferable grass, ruw, weeds, gorse, fern, broom, to pitre, because pure nitre suffers the worms, snails, &c. The whole was, extra heats to exhale moisture; while by that means, converted into a rich the alkali, which is combined with the manure, which supported three succeed. acid of common salt, is so fixed, as to ing crops, and left the soil, after all, attract an additional moisture. This, in good condition. This mode of

prethen, is a true magnet to water ; for paration appears superior to any other. heat, equal to boiling water, will not Some farmers have sown about 1900lb. dry a falted foil

. As it is generally a- of salt on one acre of land, as soon as greed, that air and water, with what is ploughed, in order to meliorate the soil, diffolved in them, constitute the food of before the seed was fown. They have plants ; to cultivate land in such a man- also laid, on meadow grounds, as soon ner, as to make it retain a proper quan- as cut, and pasture lands in the winter, tity of air and water, would, in all about the same quantity. probability, be the best means of ren As loon as salt can be procured dudering it fertile. In that view, a soil, ty free, it may be presumed, that all to be perpetually fertile, must be en- parks, lawns, commons, rabbit-warrens, dued with powers to retain air and wa. hills, and mountains, will exhibit as ter sufficient for its plants, and at the rich a verdure as a falt-march ; and efsame time must be of a nature that will fectually prevent the rot in sheep, deer, pot harden by moisture. Salt


and rabbits. Salt would also be used mises to answer all these different pur- in comports, hot-houses, hop-grounds, poses; for it will prevent the soil from &c. It may then be used to great adbeing hardened by water, and also in- vantage in the West India islands, for vigorate the same by its retentive, al. the culture of sugar canes, indigo, cotkaline, and acid qualities. These fug- ton, rice, and all other crops of those gestions almost amount to a proof, countries; as it will have great expence, that common falt is that desireable ob- by destroying weeds and reptiles ; beject, which, when properly used, will lide supporting the growth of plants, prove to be the real and true acid fol. by the retention of moisture in those hot vent, so offentially necessary to prepare climes. Fruit trees and plants hould VOL. LVIII.


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have falt Gifted round them, several High duties may


where there times in the year. Every load of hay is a probability of the article being exIhonld have a quantity of salt scattered hausted, which makes it necessary to on it when housed : which will cause limit the consumption : but that is not the bay to retain its juices, and to feed the case with falt; for on a thorough nearly equal to grass. Cows, horses, investigation of the salt rocks, and &c. fhould have falt given them in al springs in Cheshire, they appear fufficient molt every feed of ground corn, grains, to supply the demands of all Europe &c. Spruce fir tea, and milk, with salt, for ever. The rock lies about thirtyshould be given to coirs and horses at six yards below the surface, in thickany time when not well.

ness from ten to forty yards ; covers a The utility of common salt to man- tract of twenty miles in length, with kind, før culinary purposes, is so well some miles in breadth ; and over the understood, that it is needless to ex. whole district arise springs, which are patiate on that fubject : yet as its medi- generally made into falt. Coal too are cinal virtues are not generally known, there plentiful. I beg leave to recommend the following At Droitwitch in Worcestershire, in bath as a substance, to accommodate Lancashire, and several other counties, those whom business, distance, or ina- are likewise good salt fprings ; besides, bility prevents from having the benefit quantities of salt are procured from sea of fea-bathing. "All families ought to water. bathe every Saturday night, in a warm Great Britain contains about 13 milbath, made with three pounds of salt lions of people, and its produce barely to each gallon of 'soft water, or with sustains them ; and when any season of sea water.

One tea-spoonful of com- the year happens to be unfavourable, *mon Glauber's sales should be put into the inhabitants are alarmed at the proa bafin of milk, and spruce fir tea, in spect of famine; but when falt is brought lieu of India tea, for the family's break. into general use, the lands of Great falt.

Britain will maintain ten times twelve Chymistry, and the metallic arts, millions of people ; for it is a certain would require great quantities, if falt fupport to vegetation, when extra heats were reduced to a moderate price. and colds are predominant. The land Some French chymists at Liverpool, owner will then reapfuch plentiful crops, have obtained a patent, for the use of a as to enable him to pay chearfully all pure alkali, extracted from common the wants of government; for the consalt, superior to pot-ash, for the bleach. folidation of the taxes, the legislature ing of calicoes, muslins, &c. It gives should always have in view. The ma'then immediate colour, and silkiness nufacturers will then live cheap, and fimilar to India gocds. They also ex. also be freed from those shackles which tract from salt several other degrees of now retard their progress. This, and alkalies, for the manufactories of soap, this only, would enable us to rival glass, &c. but the high duty prevents every other state, and would also be. their general use. If the legislature the means of raising this nation to an in. were to substitute the aforesaid tax, credible height of opulence and power, the revenue would be advanced more A petition from the Royal and Agrithan double, and at the same time, save cultural Societies should be presented to the nation several hundred thousand to Government, praying the indulgence pounds, expended annually on imported of falt, duty free. Experiments would alkalies. A minifter merits reproach then be made throughout the kingdom, who lays a duty, equal to a prohibition, and its excellence and utility, as a ma. on any article that would fo essentially nure, &c. it is humbly apprehended, promote the interests of agriculture. would be fully demonstrated and con


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